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BAN`NOCKBURN (2), a manufacturing village 3 m. SE. of Stirling, the
scene of the victory, on June 24, 1314, of Robert the Bruce over Edward
II., which reasserted and secured Scottish independence; it manufactures
carpets and tartans.


BAN`SHEE, among the Irish, and in some parts of the Highlands and
Brittany, a fairy, believed to be attached to a family, who gave warnings
by wailings of an approaching death in it, and kept guard over it.


BANTAM, a chief town in Java, abandoned as unhealthy by the Dutch;
whence the Bantam fowl is thought to have come.


BANTING SYSTEM, a dietary for keeping down fat, recommended by a Mr.
Banting, a London merchant, in a "Letter on Corpulence" in 1863; he
recommended lean meat, and the avoidance of sugar and starchy foods.


BANTRY BAY, a deep inlet on the SW. coast of Ireland; a place of
shelter for ships.


BANTU, the name of most of the races, with their languages, that
occupy Africa from 6° N. lat. to 20° S.; are negroid rather than negro,
being in several respects superior; the name, however, suggests rather a
linguistic than an ethnological distinction, the language differing
radically from all other known forms of speech - the inflection, for one
thing, chiefly initial, not final.


BANVILLE, THEODORE DE, a French poet, born at Moulins; well
characterised as "_Roi des Rimes_," for with him form was everything, and
the matter comparatively insignificant, though, there are touches here
and there of both fine feeling and sharp wit (1823-1891).


BANYAN, the Indian fig; a tree whose branches, bending to the
ground, take root and form new stocks, till they cover a large area and
become a forest.


BA`OBAB, a large African tropical tree, remarkable for the girth of
its trunk, the thickness of its branches, and their expansion; its leaves
and seeds are used in medicine.


BAPHOMET, a mysterious image, presumed represent Mahomet, which the
Templars were accused of worshipping, but which they may rather be
surmised to have invoked to curse them if they failed in their vow;
Carlyle refers to this cult in "Sartor," end of Bk. II. chapter vii.,
where he speaks of the "Baphometic fire-baptism" of his hero, under which
all the spectres that haunted him withered up.


BAPTISM, the Christian rite of initiation into the membership of the
Church, identified by St. Paul (Rom. vi. 4) with that No to the world
which precedes or rather accompanies Yea to God, but a misunderstanding
of the nature of which has led to endless diversity, debate, and
alienation all over the Churches of Christendom.


BAPTISTE, JEAN, a name given to the French Canadians.


BAPTISTRY, a circular building, sometimes detached from a church, in
which the rite of baptism is administered; the most remarkable, that of
Pisa.


BAPTISTS, a denomination of Christians, sometimes called Anabaptists
to distinguish them from Pædobaptists, who, however they may and do
differ on other matters, insist that the rite of initiation is duly
administered only by immersion, and to those who are of age to make an
intelligent profession of faith; they are a numerous body, particularly
in America, and more so in England than in Scotland, and have included in
their membership a number of eminent men.


BAPTISMAL REGENERATION, the High Church doctrine that the power of
spiritual life, forfeited by the Fall, is bestowed on the soul in the
sacrament of baptism duly administered.


BARAGUAY D'HILLIERS`, ACHILLE, a French marshal who fought under
Napoleon at Quatre-Bras; distinguished himself under Louis Philippe in
Algeria, as well as under Louis Napoleon; presided at the trial of
Marshal Bazaine (1795-1878).


BARATARIA, the imaginary island of which Sancho Panza was formally
installed governor, and where in most comical situations he learned how
imaginary is the authority of a king, how, instead of governing his
subjects, his subjects govern him.


BARBACAN, or BARBICAN, a fortification to a castle outside the
walls, generally at the end of the drawbridge in front of the gate.


BARBA`DOES (182), one of the Windward Islands, rather larger than
the Isle of Wight; almost encircled by coral reefs; is the most densely
peopled of the Windward Islands; subject to hurricanes; healthy and well
cultivated; it yields sugar, arrowroot, ginger, and aloes.


BARBARA, ST., a Christian martyr of the 3rd century; beheaded by her
own father, a fanatical heathen, who was immediately after the act struck
dead by lightning; she is the patron saint of those who might otherwise
die impenitent, and of Mantua; her attributes are a tower, a sword, and a
crown. Festival, Dec. 4.


BARBARIANS, originally those who could not speak Greek, and
ultimately synonymous with the uncivilised and people without culture,
particularly literary; this is the sense in which Matthew Arnold uses it.


BARBAROSSA, the surname of Frederick I., emperor of Germany, of whom
there is this tradition, that "he is not yet dead; but only sleeping,
till the bad world reach its worst, when he will reappear. He sits within
a cavern near Saltzburg, at a marble table, leaning on his elbow;
winking, only half-asleep, as a peasant once tumbling into the interior
saw him; beard had grown through the table, and streamed out on the
floor. He looked at the peasant one moment, asked something about the
time it was; then drooped his eyelids again: 'Not yet time, but will be
soon.'"


BARBAROSSA (i. e. Red-beard), HORUK, a native of Mitylene;
turned corsair; became sovereign of Algiers by the murder of Selim the
emir, who had adopted him as an ally against Spain; was defeated twice by
the Spanish general Gomarez and slain (1473-1518).


BARBAROSSA, KHAIR-EDDIN, brother and successor of the preceding;
became viceroy of the Porte, made admiral under the sultan, opposed
Andrea Doria, ravaged the coast of Italy, and joined the French against
Spain; died at Constantinople in 1546.


BARBAROUX, CHARLES, advocate, born at Marseilles, of which he became
town-clerk; came to Paris "a young Spartan," and became chief of the
Girondins in the French Revolution; represented Marseilles in the
Constituent Assembly and the Convention; joined the Rolands; sent
"fire-eyed" message to Marseilles for six hundred men "who knew how to
die"; held out against Marat and Robespierre; declared an enemy of the
people, had to flee; mistook a company approaching for Jacobins, drew his
pistol and shot himself, but the shot miscarried; was captured and
guillotined (1767-1794).


BARBARY APE, a tailless monkey of gregarious habits, native of the
mountainous parts of Barbary, and of which there is a colony on the Rock
of Gibraltar, the only one in Europe.


BARBARY STATES, the four states of Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, and
Tripoli, so called from the Berbers who inhabit the region.


BARBAULD, ANNA LÆTITIA, _née_ Aiken, an English popular and
accomplished authoress, wrote "Hymns in Prose for Children," "Evenings at
Home," in which she was assisted by a brother, &c. (1743-1825).


BARBAZAN, a French general under Charles VI. and VII., who
deservedly earned for himself the name of the Irreproachable Knight; _d_.
1432.


BAR`BECUE, a feast in the open air on a large scale, at which the
animals are roasted and dressed whole, formerly common in the SW. States
of N. America.


BARBERI`NI, an illustrious and influential Florentine family,
several of the members of which were cardinals, and one made pope in 1623
under the name Urban VIII.


BARBERTON, a mining town and important centre in the Transvaal, 180
m. E. of Pretoria.


BARBÈS, ARMAND, a French politician, surnamed the Bayard of
Democracy; imprisoned in 1848, liberated in 1854; expatriated himself
voluntarily; died at the Hague (1809-1870).


BARBIER, ANTOINE ALEX., a French bibliographer, author of a
"Dictionary of Anonymous and Pseudonymous Works" (1765-1825).


BARBIER, ED. FR., jurisconsult of the parliament, born in Paris;
author of a journal, historical and anecdotical, of the time of Louis XV.
(1689-1771).


BARBIER, HENRY, a French satirical poet, born in Paris; wrote
vigorous political verses; author of "Iambics" (1805-1882).


BARBOUR, JOHN, a Scotch poet and chronicler, archdeacon of Aberdeen,
a man of learning and sagacity; his only extant work a poem entitled "The
Bruce," being a long history in rhyme of the life and achievements of
Robert the Bruce, a work consisting of 13,000 octosyllabic lines, and
possessing both historical and literary merit; "represents," says
Stopford Brooke, "the whole of the eager struggle for Scottish freedom
against the English, which closed at Bannockburn, and the national spirit
in it full grown into life;" _d_. 1195.


BARCA (500), a Turkish province in the N. of Africa, between Tripoli
and Egypt; produces maize, figs, dates, and olives.


BARCA, name of a Carthaginian family to which Hamilcar, Hasdrubal,
and Hannibal belonged, and determinedly opposed to the ascendency of
Rome; known as the Barcine faction.


BARCELO`NA (280), the largest town in Spain next to Madrid, on the
Mediterranean, and its chief port, with a naval arsenal, and its largest
manufacturing town, called the "Spanish Manchester," the staple
manufacture being cotton; is the seat of a bishopric and a university;
has numerous churches, convents, and theatres.


BARCLAY, ALEX., a poet and prose-writer, of Scotch birth; bred a
monk in England, which he ceased to be on the dissolution of the
monasteries; wrote "The Ship of Fools," partly a translation and partly
an imitation of the German "Narrerschiff" of Brandt. "It has no value,"
says Stopford Brooke; "but it was popular because it attacked the follies
and questions of the time; and its sole interest to us is in its pictures
of familiar manners and popular customs" (1475-1552).


BARCLAY, JOHN, born in France, educated by the Jesuits, a stanch
Catholic; wrote the "Argenis," a Latin romance, much thought of by
Cowper, translated more than once into English (1582-1621).


BARCLAY, JOHN, leader of the sect of the Bereans (1734-1798).


BARCLAY, ROBERT, the celebrated apologist of Quakerism, born in
Morayshire; tempted hard to become a Catholic; joined the Society of
Friends, as his father had done before him; his greatest work, written in
Latin as well as in English, and dedicated to Charles II., "An Apology
for the True Christian Divinity, as the same is held forth and preached
by the People called in scorn Quakers," a great work, the leading thesis
of which is that Divine Truth is not matter of reasoning, but intuition,
and patent to the understanding of every truth-loving soul (1645-1690).


BARCLAY, WILLIAM, father of John (1), an eminent citizen and
professor of Law at Angers; _d_. 1605. All these Barclays were of
Scottish descent.


BARCLAY DE TOLLY, a Russian general and field-marshal, of Scottish
descent, and of the same family as Robert Barclay the Quaker;
distinguished in successive Russian wars; his promotion rapid, in spite
of his unpopularity as German born; on Napoleon's invasion of Russia his
tactic was to retreat till forced to fight at Smolensk; he was defeated,
and superseded in command by Kutusow; on the latter's death was made
commander-in-chief; commanded the Russians at Dresden and Leipzig, and
led them into France in 1815; he was afterwards Minister of War at St.
Petersburg, and elevated to the rank of prince (1761-1818).


BARD OF AVON, Shakespeare; OF AYRSHIRE, Burns; OF HOPE,
Campbell; OF IMAGINATION, Akenside; OF MEMORY, Rogers; OF
OLNEY, Cowper; OF RYDAL MOUNT, Wordsworth; OF TWICKENHAM,
Pope.


BARDELL`, MRS., a widow in the "Pickwick Papers," who sues Pickwick
for breach of promise.


BARDOLPH, a drunken, swaggering, worthless follower of Falstaff's.


BARDON HILL, a hill in Leicestershire, from which one can see right
across England.


BAR-DURANI, the collective name of a number of Afghan tribes between
the Hindu-Kush and the Soliman Mountains.


BAREBONE'S PARLIAMENT, Cromwell's Little Parliament, met 4th July
1653; derisively called Barebone's Parliament, from one Praise-God
Barebone, a member of it. "If not the remarkablest Assembly, yet the
Assembly for the remarkablest purpose," says Carlyle, "that ever met in
the modern world; the business being no less than introducing of the
Christian religion into real practice in the social affairs of this
nation.... In this it failed, could not but fail, with what we call the
Devil and all his angels against it, and the Little Parliament had to go
its ways again," 12th December in the same year.


BARÈGES, a village on the Hautes-Pyrénées, at 4000 ft. above the
sea-level, resorted to for its mineral waters.


BAREILLY (121), a city in NW. India, the chief town in Rohilkhand,
153 m. E. of Delhi, notable as the place where the Mutiny of 1858 first
broke out.


BARENTZ, an Arctic explorer, born in Friesland; discovered
Spitzbergen, and doubled the NE. extremity of Nova Zembla, in 1596, and
died the same year.


BARÈRE, French revolutionary, a member of the States-General, the
National Assembly of France, and the Convention; voted in the Convention
for the execution of the king, uttering the oft-quoted words, "The tree
of Liberty thrives only when watered by the blood of tyrants;" escaped
the fate of his associates; became a spy under Napoleon; was called by
Burke, from his flowery oratory, the Anacreon of the Guillotine, and by
Mercier, "the greatest liar in France;" he was inventor of the famous
fable "his masterpiece," of the "Sinking of the _Vengeur_," "the largest,
most inspiring piece of _blaque_ manufactured, for some centuries, by any
man or nation;" died in beggary (1755-1841). See VENGEUR.


BARETTI, GIUSEPPE, an Italian lexicographer, born in Turin; taught
Italian in London, patronised by Johnson, became secretary of the Royal
Academy (1719-1789).


BARFLEUR, a seaport 15 m. E. of Cherbourg, where William the
Conqueror set out with his fleet to invade England.


BÂRFRÜSH (603), a town S. of the Caspian, famous for its bazaar.


BAR`GUEST, a goblin long an object of terror in the N. of England.


BARI, THE, a small negro nation on the banks of the White Nile.


BARING, SIR FRANCIS, founder of the great banking firm of Baring
Brothers & Co.; amassed property, value of it said to have been nearly
seven millions (1740-1810).


BARING-GOULD, SABINE, rector of Lew-Trenchard, Devonshire,
celebrated in various departments of literature, history, theology, and
romance, especially the latter; a voluminous writer on all manner of
subjects, and a man of wide reading; _b_. 1834.


BARHAM, RICHARD HARRIS, his literary name Thomas Ingoldsby, born at
Canterbury, minor canon of St. Paul's; friend of Sidney Smith; author of
"Ingoldsby Legends," published originally as a series of papers in
_Bentley's Miscellany_ (1788-1879).


BARKIS, a carrier-lad in "David Copperfield," in love with Peggotty.
"Barkis is willin'."


BARKER, E. HENRY, a classical scholar, born in Yorkshire; edited
Stephens' "Thesaurus Linguæ Græcæ," an arduous work; died in poverty
(1788-1839).


BARKING, a market-town in Essex, 7 m. NE. of London, with the
remains of an ancient Benedictine convent.


BARLAAM AND JOSAPHAT, a mediæval legend, being a Christianised
version of an earlier legend relating to Buddha, in which Josaphat, a
prince like Buddha, is converted by Barlaam to a like ascetic life.


BARLEYCORN, JOHN, the exhilarating spirit distilled from barley
personified.


BARLOW, JOEL, an American poet and diplomatist; for his Republican
zeal, was in 1792 accorded the rights of citizenship in France; wrote a
poem "The Vision of Columbus" (1755-1812).


BARLOWE, a French watchmaker, inventor of the repeating watch; _d_.
1690.


BARMACIDE FEAST, an imaginary feast, so called from a story in the
"Arabian Nights" of a hungry beggar invited by a Barmacide prince to a
banquet, which proved a long succession of merely empty dishes, and which
he enjoyed with such seeming gusto and such good-humour as to earn for
himself a sumptuous real one.


BAR`MACIDES, a Persian family celebrated for their magnificence, and
that in the end met with the cruellest fate. Yâhyá, one of them, eminent
for ability and virtue, was chosen by the world-famous Haroun-Al-Raschid
on his accession to the caliphate to be his vizier; and his four sons
rose along with him to such influence in the government, as to excite the
jealousy of the caliph so much, that he had the whole family invited to a
banquet, and every man, woman, and child of them massacred at midnight in
cold blood. The caliph, it is gratifying to learn, never forgave himself
for this cruelty, and was visited with a gnawing remorse to the end of
his days; and it had fatal issues to his kingdom as well as himself.


BAR`MEN (116), a long town, consisting of a series of hamlets, 6 m.
in extent, in Rhenish Prussia; the population consists chiefly of
Protestants; the staple industry, the manufacture of ribbons, and it is
the centre of that industry on the Continent.


BARNABAS, ST., a member of the first Christian brotherhood, a
companion of St. Paul's, and characterised in the Acts as "a good man";
stoned to death at Cyprus, where he was born; an epistle extant bears his
name, but is not believed to be his work; the Epistle to the Hebrews has
by some been ascribed to him; he is usually represented in art as a
venerable man of majestic mien, with the Gospel of St. Matthew in his
hand. Festival, June 11.


BARNABITES, a proselytising order of monks founded at Milan, where
Barnabas was reported to have been bishop, in 1530; bound, as the rest
are, by the three monastic vows, and by a vow in addition, not to sue for
preferment in the Church.


BARNABY RUDGE, one of Dickens' novels, published in 1841.


BARNARD, HENRY, American educationist, born in Connecticut, 1811.


BARNARD, LADY ANNE, daughter of Lindsay, the 5th Earl of Balcarres,
born in Fife; authoress of "Auld Robin Gray," named after a Balcarres
herd; lived several years at the Cape, where her husband held an
appointment, and after his death, in London (1750-1825).


BARNARD CASTLE, an old tower W. of Darlington, in Durham; birthplace
of John Baliol, and the scene of Scott's "Rokeby."


BAR`NARDINE, a reckless character in "Measure for Measure."


BARNAVE, JOSEPH MARIE, French lawyer, born at Grenoble; president of
the French Constitutional Assembly in 1780; one of the trio in the
Assembly of whom it was said, "Whatsoever those three have on hand,
Dupont thinks it, Barnave speaks it, Lameth does it;" a defender of the
monarchy from the day he gained the favour of the queen by his gallant
conduct to her on her way back to Paris from her flight with the king to
Varennes; convicted by documentary evidence of conspiring with the court
against the nation; was guillotined (1761-1793).


BARN-BURNERS, name formerly given to an extreme radical party in the
United States, as imitating the Dutchman who, to get rid of the rats,
burned his barns.


BARNES, THOMAS, editor of the _Times_, under whom the paper first
rose to the pre-eminent place it came to occupy among the journals of the
day (1786-1841).


BARNES, WILLIAM, a local philologist, native of Dorsetshire; author
of "Poems of Rural Life in Dorset," in three vols.; wrote on subjects of
philological interest (1830-1886).


BARNET (5), a town in Hertfordshire, almost a suburb of London; a
favourite resort of Londoners; has a large annual horse and cattle fair;
scene of a battle in 1471, at which Warwick, the king-maker, was slain.


BARNETT, JOHN, composer, born at Bedford; author of operas and a
number of fugitive pieces (1802-1891).


BARNEVELDT, JOHANN VAN OLDEN, Grand Pensionary of Holland, of a
distinguished family; studied law at the Hague, and practised as an
advocate there; fought for the independence of his country against Spain;
concluded a truce with Spain, in spite of the Stadtholder Maurice, whose
ambition for supreme power he courageously opposed; being an Arminian,
took sides against the Gomarist or Calvinist party, to which Maurice
belonged; was arrested, tried, and condemned to death as a traitor and
heretic, and died on the scaffold at 71 years of age, with sanction, too,
of the Synod of Dort, in 1619.


BARNSLEY (35), a manufacturing town in W. Yorkshire, 18 m. N. of
Sheffield; manufactures textile fabrics and glass.


BARNUM, an American showman; began with the exhibition of George
Washington's reputed nurse in 1834; picked up Tom Thumb in 1844; engaged
Jenny Lind for 100 concerts in 1849, and realised a fortune, which he
lost; started in 1871 with his huge travelling show, and realised another
fortune, dying worth five million dollars (1810-1891).


BAROCCI, a celebrated Italian painter, imitator of the style of
Correggio (1528-1612).


BAROCHE, PIERRE-JULES, a French statesman, minister of Napoleon III.
(1802-1870).


BARO`DA (2,415), a native state of Gujerat, in the prov. of Bombay,
with a capital (101) of the same name, the sovereign of which is called
the Guicowar; the third city in the presidency, with Hindu temples and a
considerable trade.


BARO`NIUS, CÆSAR, a great Catholic ecclesiastic, born near Naples,
priest of the Congregation of the Oratory under its founder, and
ultimately Superior; cardinal and librarian of the Vatican; his great
work, "Annales Ecclesiastici," being a history of the first 12 centuries
of the Church, written to prove that the Church of Rome was identical
with the Church of the 1st century, a work of immense research that
occupied him 30 years; failed of the popehood from the intrigues of the
Spaniards, whose political schemes he had frustrated (1538-1607).


BARONS' WAR, a war in England of the barons against Henry III.,
headed by Simon de Montfort, and which lasted from 1258 to 1265.


BAROQUE, ornamentation of a florid and incongruous character, more
lavish and showy rather than true and tasteful; much in vogue from the
16th to the 18th centuries.


BARRA, a small island, one of the Hebrides, 5 m. SW. of S. Uist, the
inhabitants of which are engaged in fisheries.


BAR`RACKPUR (18), a town on the Hooghly, 15 m. above Calcutta, where
the lieutenant-governor of Bengal has a residence; a healthy resort of
the Europeans.


BARRACK-ROOM BALLADS, ballads by Rudyard Kipling, with a fine
martial strain.


BARRAS, PAUL FRANÇOIS, a member of the Jacobin Club, born in
Provence; "a man of heat and haste,... tall, and handsome to the eye;"
voted in the National Convention for the execution of the king; took part
in the siege of Toulon; put an end to the career of Robespierre and the
Reign of Terror; named general-in-chief to oppose the reactionaries;
employed Bonaparte to command the artillery, "he the commandant's cloak,
this artillery officer the commandant;" was a member of the Directory
till Bonaparte swept it away (1755-1829).


BAR`RATRY, the offence of inciting and stirring up riots and
quarrels among the Queen's subjects, also a fraud by a ship captain on
the owners of a ship.


BARRÉ, ISAAC, soldier and statesman, born in Dublin, served under
Wolfe in Canada, entered Parliament, supported Pitt, charged with
authorship of "Junius' Letters"; _d_. 1802.


BARREL MIRABEAU, Viscount de Mirabeau, brother of the great tribune
of the name, so called from his bulk and the liquor he held.


BARRÈRE. See BARÈRE.


BARRETT, WILSON, English actor, born in Essex; made his _début_ at
Halifax; lessee of the Grand Theatre, Leeds, and of the Court and the
Princess's Theatres, London; produced his Hamlet in 1884; _b_. 1846.


BARRIE, JAMES MATTHEW, a writer with a rich vein of humour and
pathos, born at Kirriemuir ("Thrums"), in Forfarshire; began his literary
career as a contributor to journals; produced, among other works, "Auld
Licht Idylls" in 1888, and "A Window in Thrums," in 1889, and recently
"Margaret Ogilvie," deemed by some likely to prove the most enduring
thing he has yet written; _b_. 1860.


BARRIER REEF, THE GREAT, a slightly interrupted succession of coral
reefs off the coast of Queensland, of 1200 m. extent, and 100 m. wide at
the S., and growing narrower as they go N.; are from 70 to 20 m. off the
coast, and protect the intermediate channel from the storms of the
Pacific.


BARRIÈRE, JEAN FRANÇOIS, French historian of the Revolution
(1786-1868).


BARRIÈRE, PIERRE, would-be assassin of Henry IV. of France; broken
on the wheel in 1593.


BARRIERS, BATTLE OF THE, a battle fought within the walls of Paris



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