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SZECHUAN (71,000), the largest province of China, lies in the W.
between Thibet (NW.) and Yunnan (SW.); more than twice the size of Great
Britain; a hilly country, rich in coal, iron, &c., and traversed by the
Yangtse-kiang and large tributaries; Chingtu is the capital; two towns
have been opened to foreign trade, opium, silk, tobacco, musk, white wax,
&c., being chief exports.

SZEGEDIN (89), a royal free city of Hungary, situated at the
confluence of the Maros and Theiss, 118 m. SE. of Budapest, to which it
ranks next in importance as a commercial and manufacturing centre; has
been largely rebuilt since the terribly destructive flood of 1879, and
presents a handsome modern appearance.


TABARD, a tunic without sleeves worn by military nobles over their
arms, generally emblazoned with heraldic devices. "Toom Tabard," empty
king's cloak, nickname given by the Scotch to John Balliol as nothing

TABERNACLE, a movable structure of the nature of a temple, erected
by the Israelites during their wanderings in the wilderness; it was a
parallelogram in shape, constructed of boards lined with curtains, the
roof flat and of skins, while the floor was the naked earth, included a
sanctum and a sanctum sanctorum, and contained altars for sacrifice and
symbols of sacred import, especially of the Divine presence, and was
accessible only to the priests. See FEASTS, JEWISH.

TABLE MOUNTAIN, a flat-topped eminence in the SW. of Cape Colony,
rising to a height of 3600 ft. behind Cape Town and overlooking it, often
surmounted by a drapery of mist.

TABLES, THE TWELVE, the tables of the Roman laws engraven on brass
brought from Athens to Rome by the decemvirs.

TABLETS, name given to thin boards coated with wax and included in a
frame for writing on with a stylus.

TABLE-TURNING, movement of a table ascribed to the agency of spirits
or some recondite spiritual force acting through the media of a circle of
people standing round the edge touching it with their finger-tips in
contact with those of the rest.

TABOO or TABU, a solemn prohibition or interdict among the
Polynesians under which a particular person or thing is pronounced
inviolable, and so sacred, the violation of which entails malediction at
the hands of the supernatural powers.

TABOR, MOUNT, an isolated cone-shaped hill, 1000 ft. in height and
clothed with olive-trees, on the NE. borders of ESDRAËLON (q. v.),
7 m. E. of Nazareth. A tradition of the 2nd century identifies it
as the scene of the Tranfiguration, and ruins of a church, built by the
Crusaders to commemorate the event, crown the summit.

TABRIZ (170), an ancient and still important commercial city of
Persia, 320 m. SE. of Tiflis, 4500 ft. above sea-level; occupies an
elevated site on the Aji, 40 m. E. of its entrance into Lake Urumiah;
carries on a flourishing transit trade and has notable manufactures of
leather, silk, and gold and silver ware; has been on several occasions
visited by severe earthquakes.

TACITUS, CORNELIUS, Roman historian, born presumably at Rome, of
equestrian rank, early famous as an orator; married a daughter of
Agricola, held office under the Emperors Vespasian, Domitian, and Nerva,
and conducted along with the younger Pliny the prosecution of Marius
Priscus; he is best known and most celebrated as a historian, and of
writings extant the chief are his "Life of Agricola," his "Germania," his
"Histories" and his "Annals"; his "Agricola" is admired as a model
biography, while his "Histories" and "Annales" are distinguished for
"their conciseness, their vigour, and the pregnancy of meaning; a single
word sometimes gives effect to a whole sentence, and if the meaning of
the word is missed, the sense of the writer is not reached"; his great
power lies in his insight into character and the construing of motives,
but the picture he draws of imperial Rome is revolting; _b_. about A.D.

TACNA (14), capital of a province (32) in North Chile, 38 m. N. of
Arica, with which it is connected by rail; trades in wool and minerals;
taken from Peru in 1883.

TACOMA (38), a flourishing manufacturing town and port of Washington
State, on Puget Sound; has practically sprung into existence within the
last 15 years, and is the outlet for the produce of a rich agricultural
and mining district.


TAEL, a Chinese money of account of varying local value, and rising
and falling with the price of silver, but may be approximately valued at
between 6s. and 5s. 6d. The customs tael, equivalent in value to about 4s
9d., has been superseded by the new dollar of 1890, which is equal to
that of the United States.

TAGANROG (50), a Russian seaport on the N. shore of the Sea of Azov;
is the outlet for the produce of a rich agricultural district, wheat,
linseed, and hempseed being the chief exports. Founded by Peter the Great
in 1698.

TAGLIONI, MARIA, a famous ballet-dancer, born at Stockholm, the
daughter of an Italian ballet-master; made her _début_ in Paris in 1827
and soon became the foremost _danseuse_ of Europe; married Count de
Voisins in 1832; retired from the stage in 1847 with a fortune, which she
subsequently lost, a misfortune which compelled her to set up as a
teacher of deportment in London (1804-1884).

TAGUS, the largest river of the Spanish peninsula, issues from the
watershed between the provinces of Guadalajara and Teruel; follows a more
or less westerly course across the centre of the peninsula, and, after
dividing into two portions below Salvaterra, its united waters enter the
Atlantic by a noble estuary 20 m. long; total length 566 m., of which 190
are in Portugal; navigable as far as Abrantes.

TAHITI (11), the principal island of a group in the South Pacific;
sometimes called the Society Islands, situated 2000 m. NE. of New
Zealand; are mountainous, of volcanic origin, beautifully wooded, and
girt by coral reefs; a fertile soil grows abundant fruit, cotton, sugar,
&c., which, with mother-of-pearl, are the principal exports; capital and
chief harbour is Papeete (3); the whole group since 1880 has become a
French possession.

TAILLANDIER, SAINT-RENÉ, French littérateur and professor, born at
Paris; filled the chair of Literature at the Sorbonne from 1863; wrote
various works of literary, historical, and philosophical interest, and
did much by his writings to extend the knowledge of German art and
literature in France; was a frequent contributor to the _Revue des Deux
Mondes_, and in 1873 was elected a member of the Academy (1817-1879).

TAILORS, Carlyle's humorsome name in "Sartor" for the architects of
the customs and costumes woven for human wear by society, the inventors
of our spiritual toggery, the truly _poetic_ class.

TAILORS, THE THREE, OF TOOLEY STREET, three characters said by
Canning to have held a meeting there for redress of grievances, and to
have addressed a petition to the House of Commons beginning "We, the
people of England."

TAIN (2), a royal burgh of Ross-shire, on the S. shore of the
Dornoch Firth, 44 m. NE. of Inverness; has interesting ruins of a
13th-century chapel, a 15th-century collegiate church, an academy, &c.

TAINE, HIPPOLYTE ADOLPHE, an eminent French critic and historian,
born at Vouziers, in Ardennes; after some years of scholastic drudgery in
the provinces returned to Paris, and there, by the originality of his
critical method and brilliancy of style soon took rank among the foremost
French writers; in 1854 the Academy crowned his essay on Livy; ten years
later became professor of Æsthetics at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris,
and in 1878 was admitted to the French Academy; his voluminous writings
embrace works on the philosophy of art, essays critical and historical,
volumes of travel-impressions in various parts of Europe; but his finest
work is contained in his vivid and masterly studies on "Les Origines de
la France Contemporaine" and in his "History of English Literature"
(1833-4; Eng. trans, by Van Laun), the most penetrative and sympathetic
survey of English literature yet done by a foreigner; he was a disciple
of Sainte-Beuve, but went beyond his master in ascribing character too
much to external environment (1828-1893).

TAI-PINGS, a name bestowed upon the followers of Hung Hsiû-ch`wan, a
village schoolmaster of China, who, coming under the influence of
Christian teaching, sought to subvert the religion and ruling dynasty of
China; he himself was styled "Heavenly King," his reign "Kingdom of
Heaven," and his dynasty "Tai-Ping" (Grand Peace); between 1851 and 1855
the rising assumed formidable dimensions, but from 1855 began to decline;
the religious enthusiasm died away; foreign auxiliaries were called in,
and under the leadership of GORDON (q. v.) the rebellion was
stamped out by 1865.

TAIT, ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL, archbishop of Canterbury, of Scotch
descent, born in Edinburgh; educated at Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Oxford;
when at Oxford led the opposition to the Tractarian Movement; in 1842
succeeded Arnold as head-master at Rugby; in 1850 became Dean of
Carlisle; in 1856 Bishop of London; and in 1868 Primate. This last office
he held at a critical period, and his episcopate was distinguished by
great discretion and moderation (1811-1882).

TAIT, PETER GUTHRIE, physicist and mathematician, born at Dalkeith;
educated in Edinburgh; became senior wrangler at Cambridge, and Smith's
prizeman in 1852; was in 1854 elected professor of Mathematics at
Belfast, and in 1860 professor of Natural Philosophy at Edinburgh; has
done a great deal of experimental work, especially in thermo-electricity,
and has contributed important papers on pure mathematics; wrote, along
with Lord Kelvin, "Treatise on Natural Philosophy," and along with
Balfour Stewart "The Unseen Universe," followed by "Paradoxical
Philosophy"; _b_. 1831.

TAI-WAN (70), capital of FORMOSA (q. v.), an important
commercial emporium, situated about 3 m. from the SW. coast, on which,
however, it has a port, ranking as a treaty-port.


TALARIA, wings attached to the ankles or sandals of Mercury as the
messenger of the gods.

TALAVERA DE LA REINA (10), a picturesque old Spanish town on the
Tagus, situated amid vineyards, 75 m. SE. of Madrid; scene of a great
victory under Sir Arthur Wellesley over a French army commanded by Joseph
Bonaparte, Marshals Jourdan and Victor, 27th July 1809.

TALBOT, WILLIAM HENRY FOX, one of the earliest experimenters and a
discoverer in photography, born in Chippenham, which he represented in
Parliament; was also one of the first to decipher the Assyrian cuneiform
inscriptions (1800-1877).

TALE OF A TUB, a great work of Swift's, characterised by Professor
Saintsbury as "one of the very greatest books of the world, in which a
great drift of universal thought receives consummate literary form ...
the first great book," he announces, "in prose or verse, of the 18th
century, and in more ways than one the herald and champion at once of its
special achievements in literature."

TALENT, a weight, coin, or sum of money among the ancients, of
variable value among different nations and at different periods; the
Attic weight being equal to about 57 lbs. troy, and the money to £243,
15s.; among the Romans the great talent was worth £99, and the little
worth £75.

TALFOURD, SIR THOMAS NOON, lawyer and dramatist, born at Doxey, near
Stafford; was called to the bar in 1821, and practised with notable
success, becoming in 1849 a justice of Common Pleas and a knight; was for
some years a member of Parliament; author of four tragedies, of which
"Ion" is the best known; was the intimate friend and literary executor of
Charles Lamb (1795-1854).

TALISMAN, a magical figure of an astrological nature carved on a
stone or piece of metal under certain superstitious observances, to which
certain wonderful effects are ascribed; is of the nature of a charm to
avert evil.

TALLARD, COMTE DE, marshal of France; served in the War of the
Spanish Succession; was taken prisoner by Marlborough at Hochstädt, on
which occasion he said to the duke, "Your Grace has beaten the finest
troops in Europe," when the duke replied, "You will except, I hope, those
who defeated them" (1652-1728).

TALLEMANT DES RÉAUX, GÉDÉON, French writer, native of La Rochelle;
author of a voluminous collection of gossipy biographies, or anecdotes
rather, "Historiettes," filling five volumes, which throw a flood of
light on the manners and customs of 17th-century life in France, though
allowance must be made for exaggerations (1619-1692).

statesman and diplomatist, born in Paris, of an illustrious family;
rendered lame by an accident, was cut off from a military career; was
educated for the Church, and made bishop of Autun; chosen deputy of the
clergy of his diocese to the States-General in 1789, threw himself with
zeal into the popular side, officiated in his pontifical robes at the
feast of the Federation in the Champs de Mars, and was the first to take
the oath on that side, but on being excommunicated by the Pope resigned
his bishopric, and embarked on a statesman's career; sent on a mission to
England in 1792, remained two years as an _émigré_, and had to deport
himself to the United States, where he employed himself in commercial
transactions; recalled in 1796, was appointed Minister of Foreign
Affairs; supported Bonaparte in his ambitious schemes, and on the latter
becoming Emperor, was made Grand Chamberlain and Duke of Benevento, while
he retained the portfolio of Foreign Affairs; in a fit of irritation
Napoleon one day discharged him, and he refused to accept office again
when twice over recalled; he attached himself to the Bourbons on their
return, and becoming Foreign Minister to Louis XVIII., was made a peer,
and sent ambassador to the Congress of Vienna; went into opposition till
the fall of Charles X., and attached himself to Louis Philippe in 1830;
Carlyle in his "Revolution" pronounced him "a man living in falsehood and
on falsehood, yet, as the specialty of him, not what you can call a false
man ... an enigma possible only in an age of paper and the burning of
paper," in an age in which the false was the only real (1754-1838).

TALLIEN, JEAN LAMBERT, a notable French Revolutionist, born in
Paris; a lawyer's clerk; threw in his lot with the Revolution, and became
prominent as the editor of a Jacobin journal, _L'Ami des Citoyens_; took
an active part in the sanguinary proceedings during the ascendency of
Robespierre, notably terrorising the disaffected of Bordeaux by a
merciless use of the guillotine; recalled to Paris, and became President
of the Convention, but fearing Robespierre, headed the attack which
brought the Dictator to the block; enjoyed, with his celebrated wife,
Madame de Fontenay, considerable influence; accompanied Napoleon to
Egypt; was captured by the English, and for a season lionised by the
Whigs; his political influence at an end, he was glad to accept the post
of consul at Alicante, and subsequently died in poverty (1769-1820).

TALLIS, THOMAS, "the father of English cathedral music," born in the
reign of Henry VIII., lived well into the reign of Elizabeth; was an
organist, and probably "a gentleman of the Chapel Royal"; composed
various anthems, hymns, Te Deums, etc., including "The Song of the Forty
Parts" (c. 1515-1585).

TALLY, a notched stick used in commercial and Exchequer transactions
when writing was yet a rare accomplishment; the marks, of varying
breadth, indicated sums paid by a purchaser; the stick was split
longitudinally, and one-half retained by the seller and one by the buyer
as a receipt. As a means of receipt for sums paid into the Exchequer, the
tally was in common use until 1782, and was not entirely abolished till
1812. Tally System, a mode of credit-dealing by which a merchant provides
a customer with goods, and receives in return weekly or monthly payments
to account.

TALMA, FRANÇOIS JOSEPH, a famous French tragedian, born in Paris,
where in 1787 he made his _début_; from the first his great gifts were
apparent, and during the Revolution he was the foremost actor at the
Théâtre de la République, and subsequently enjoyed the favour of
Napoleon; his noble carriage and matchless elocution enabled him to play
with great dignity such characters as Othello, Nero, Orestes, Leicester,
etc.; introduced, like Kemble in England, a greater regard for historical
accuracy in scenery and dress (1763-1826).

TALMUD, a huge limbo, in chaotic arrangement, consisting of the
Mishna, or text, and Gemara, or commentary, of Rabbinical speculations,
subtleties, fancies, and traditions connected with the Hebrew Bible, and
claiming to possess co-ordinate rank with it as expository of its meaning
and application, the whole collection dating from a period subsequent to
the Captivity and the close of the canon of Scripture. There are two
Talmuds, one named the Talmud of Jerusalem, and the other the Talmud of
Babylon, the former, the earlier of the two, belonging in its present
form to the close of the 4th century, and the latter to at least a
century later. See HAGGADAH and HALACHA.

TALUS, a man of brass, the work of Hephæstos, given to Minos to
guard the island of Crete; he walked round the island thrice a day, and
if he saw any stranger approaching he made himself red-hot and embraced

TAMATAVE, the chief town of Madagascar, on a bay on the E. coast.

TAMERLANE or TIMUR, a great Asiatic conqueror, born at Hesh,
near Samarcand; the son of a Mongol chief, raised himself by military
conquest to the throne of Samarcand (1369), and having firmly established
his rule over Turkestan, inspired by lust of conquest began the wonderful
series of military invasions which enabled him to build up an empire that
at the time of his death extended from the Ganges to the Grecian
Archipelago; died whilst leading an expedition against China; was a
typical Asiatic despot, merciless in the conduct of war, but in
peace-time a patron of science and art, and solicitous for his subjects'
welfare (1336-1405).

TAMESIS, the Latin name for the Thames, and so named by Cesar in his
"Gallic War."

TAMIL, a branch of the Dravidian language, spoken in the S. of India
and among the coolies of Ceylon.

TAMMANY SOCIETY, a powerful political organisation of New York
City, whose ostensible objects, on its formation in 1805, were charity
and reform of the franchise; its growth was rapid, and from the first it
exercised, under a central committee and chairman, known as the "Boss,"
remarkable political influence on the Democratic side. Since the gigantic
frauds practised in 1870-1871 on the municipal revenues by the then
"Boss," William M. Tweed, and his "ring," the society has remained under
public suspicion as "a party machine" not too scrupulous about its ways
and means. The name is derived from a celebrated Indian chief who lived
in Penn's day, and who has become the centre of a cycle of legendary

TAMMERFORS (20), an important manufacturing city of Finland,
situated on a rapid stream, which drives its cotton, linen, and woollen
factories, 50 m. NW. of Tavastehuus.

TAMMUZ, a god mentioned in Ezekiel, generally identified with the
GREEK ADONIS (q. v.), the memory of whose fall was annually
celebrated with expressions first of mourning and then of joy all over
Asia Minor. Adonis appears to have been a symbol of the sun, departing in
winter and returning as youthful as ever in spring, and the worship of
him a combined expression of gloom, connected with the presence of
winter, and of joy, associated with the approach of summer.

TAMPICO (5), a port of Mexico, on the Panuco, 9 m. from its entrance
into the Gulf of Mexico; the harbour accommodation has been improved, and
trade is growing.

TAMWORTH (7), an old English town on the Stafford and Warwickshire
border, 7 m. SE. of Lichfield; its history goes back to the time of the
Danes, by whom it was destroyed in 911; an old castle, and the church of
St. Edith, are interesting buildings; has prosperous manufactures of
elastic, paper, &c.; has a bronze statue of Sir Robert Peel, who
represented the borough in Parliament.

TANAÏS, the Latin name for the Don.

TANCRED, a famous crusader, hero of Tasso's great poem; was the son
of Palgrave Otho the Good, and of Emma, Robert Guiscard's sister; for
great deeds done in the first crusade he was rewarded with the
principality of Tiberias; in the "Jerusalem Delivered" Tasso, following
the chroniclers, represents him as the very "flower and pattern of
chivalry"; stands as the type of "a very gentle perfect knight"; died at
Antioch of a wound received in battle (1078-1112).

TANDY, JAMES NAPPER, Irish patriot, born in Dublin, where he became
a well-to-do merchant, and first secretary to the United Irishmen
association; got into trouble through the treasonable schemes of the
United Irishmen, and fled to America; subsequently served in the French
army, took part in the abortive invasion of Ireland (1798); ultimately
fell into the hands of the English Government, and was sentenced to death
(1801), but was permitted to live an exile in France (1740-1803).

TANGANYIKA, a lake of East Central Africa, stretching between the
Congo Free State (W.) and German East Africa (E.); discovered by Speke
and Burton in 1858; more carefully explored by Livingstone and Stanley in
1871; the overflow is carried off by the Lukuga into the Upper Congo; is
girt round by lofty mountains; length 420 m., breadth from 15 to 80 m.

TANGIER or TANGIERS (20), a seaport of Morocco, on a small bay
of the Strait of Gibraltar; occupies a picturesque site on two hills, but
within its old walls presents a dirty and crowded appearance; has a
considerable shipping trade; was a British possession from 1662 to 1683,
but was abandoned by them, and subsequently became infested by pirates.

TANIS, an ancient city of Egypt, whose ruins mark its site on the
NE. of the Nile delta; once the commercial metropolis of Egypt, and a
royal residence; fell into decay owing to the silting up of the Tanitic
mouth of the Nile, and was destroyed in A.D. 174 for rebellion.

TANIST STONE, monolith erected by the Celts on a coronation,
agreeably to an ancient custom (Judges ix. 6).

TANISTRY, a method of tenure which prevailed among the Gaelic Celts;
according to this custom succession, whether in office or land, was
determined by the family as a whole, who on the death of one holder
elected another from its number; the practice was designed probably to
prevent family estates falling into the hands of an incompetent or
worthless heir.

TANJORE (54), capital of a district (2,130) of the same name, in
Madras Province, India, situated in a fertile plain 180 m. SW. of Madras,
and about 45 m. from the sea; surrounded by walls; contains a rajah's
palace, a British residency, and manufactures silk, muslin, and cotton.

TANNAHILL, ROBERT, Scottish poet, born at Paisley; the son of a
weaver, was bred to the hand-loom, and with the exception of a two years'
residence in Lancashire, passed his life in his native town; an
enthusiastic admirer of Burns, Fergusson, and Ramsay, he soon began to
emulate them, and in 1807 published a volume of "Poems and Songs," which,
containing such songs as "Gloomy Winter's noo Awa," "Jessie the Flower o'
Dunblane," "The Wood o' Craigielea," &c., proved an immediate success;
disappointment at the rejection by Constable of his proffered MSS. of a
new and enlarged edition of his works and a sense of failing health led
to his committing suicide in a canal near Paisley; his songs are marked
by tenderness and grace, but lack the force and passion of Burns

TANNER, THOMAS, bishop and antiquary, born at Market Lavington,
Wiltshire; became a graduate and Fellow of Oxford; took orders, and rose
to be bishop of St. Asaph; his reputation as a learned and accurate
antiquary rests on his two great works "Notitia Monastica, or a Short
Account of the Religious Houses in England and Wales," and "Bibliotheca
Britannico-Hibernica," a veritable mine of biographical and
bibliographical erudition; bequeathed valuable collections of charters,
deeds, &c., to the Bodleian Library (1674-1735).

TANNHÄUSER, a knight of medieval legend, who wins the affection of a
lady, but leaves her to worship in the cave-palace of Venus, on learning
which the lady plunges a dagger into her heart and dies; smitten with

Online LibraryUnknownThe Nuttall Encyclopaedia Being a Concise and Comprehensive Dictionary of General Knowledge → online text (page 178 of 197)