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colleagues (1715-1778).


TERRE-HAUTE (37), capital of Vigo County, Indiana, stands on a
plateau overlooking the Wabash, 178 m. S. of Chicago; is situated in a
rich coal district, and has numerous foundries and various factories; is
well equipped with schools and other public institutions.


TERRY, ELLEN (Mrs. Charles Kelly), the most celebrated of living
English actresses, born at Coventry; made her _début_ at the early age of
eight, appearing as Mamilius in "The Winter's Tale," at the Princess
Theatre, then under the management of Charles Kean; during 1864 - 74 she
lived in retirement, but returning to the stage in 1875 achieved her
first great success in the character of Portia; played for some time with
the Bancrofts and at the Court Theatre; in December 1878 made her first
appearance at the Lyceum Theatre, then under the management of HENRY
IRVING (q. v.), with whose subsequent successful career her own is
inseparably associated, sharing with him the honours of a long list of
memorable Shakespearian and other performances; _b_. 1848.


TERSANCTUS, the ascription of praise, Holy, Holy, Holy, preliminary
to the consecrating prayer in Holy Communion.


TERTULLIAN, QUINTUS SEPTIMIUS FLORENS, one of the Latin Fathers,
born at Carthage, the son of a Roman centurion; was well educated; bred a
rhetorician; was converted to Christianity, became presbyter of Carthage,
and embraced MONTANIST VIEWS (q. v.); wrote numerous works,
apologetical, polemical, doctrinal, and practical, the last of an ascetic
tendency (150-230).


TEST ACT, act of date 1673, now repealed, requiring all officials
under the crown to take the oath of allegiance and supremacy, &c.;
directed equally against Dissenters, Roman Catholics, &c.


TESTUDO (tortoise-shell), in ancient Roman warfare a covering of the
shields of the soldiers held over their heads as protection against
missiles thrown from the walls when besieging a city.


TETANUS or LOCK-JAW, a nervous affection of a most painful and
fatal character, which usually begins with intensely painful and
persistent cramp of the muscles of the throat and jaws, spreading down to
the larger muscles of the body. As the disease progresses the muscles
become more and more rigid, while the paroxysms of pain increase in
violence and frequency. Death as a rule results from either sheer
exhaustion or failure of breath through the spasmodic closure of the
glottis. The cause of the disease is now ascertained to be due to the
action of a microbe, which may find an entrance through any wound or
abrasion of the skin, not necessarily of the thumb as is the popular
belief.


TETHYS, in the Greek mythology a daughter of Uranus and Gaia, wife
of OCEANUS (q. v.), and mother of the river-gods.


TETRAGRAMMATON, the mystic number "four," symbolical of deity, whose
name in different languages is composed of four letters.


TETUAN (22), a port and walled town of Morocco, on the Martil, 4 m.
above its entrance into the Mediterranean and 22 m. S. of Ceuta; has a
fortified castle and wall-towers; exports provisions to Ceuta, and has a
good trade in fruit, wool, silk, cotton, &c.


TETZEL, JOHN, a Dominican monk, born at Leipzig; was employed in the
sale of indulgences to all who subscribed to the fund for building St.
Peter's at Rome, in opposition to whom and his doings Luther published
his celebrated theses in 1517, and whose extravagances involved him in
the censure of the Church (1455-1519).


TEUFELSDRÖCK, the hero of "Sartor" and prototype of the author as a
thinker and a man in relation to the spirit of the time, which is such
that it rejects him as its servant, and he rejects it as his master; the
word means "outcast of the devil," and the devil is the spirit of the
time, which the author and his prototype here has, God-compelled, risen
up in defiance of and refused to serve under; for a time the one or the
other tried to serve it, till they discovered the slavery the attempt
more and more involved them in, when they with one bold effort tore
asunder the bands that bound them, and with an "Everlasting No" achieved
at one stroke their emancipation; a man this born to look through the
show of things into things themselves.


TEUTONIC KNIGHTS, like the TEMPLARS (q. v.) and
Hospitallers, a religious order of knighthood which arose during the
period of the Crusades, originally for the purpose of tending wounded
crusaders; subsequently became military in character, and besides the
care of the sick and wounded included among its objects aggressive
warfare upon the heathen; was organised much in the same way as the
Templars, and like them acquired extensive territorial possessions;
during the 14th and 15th centuries were constantly at war with the
heathen Wends and Lithuanians, but the conversion of these to
Christianity and several defeats destroyed both the prestige and
usefulness of the knights, and the order thenceforth began to decline. As
a secularised, land-owning order the knighthood lasted till 1809, when it
was entirely suppressed in Germany by Napoleon; but branches still exist
in the Netherlands and in Austria, where care for the wounded in war has
been resumed.


TEUTONS, the most energetic and progressive section of the Aryan
group of nations, embracing the following races speaking languages
traceable to a common stock: (1) Germanic, including Germans, Dutch,
Flemings, and English; (2) Scandinavian, embracing Danes, Swedes,
Norwegians, Icelanders. But naturally Celts and other race-elements have
in the course of centuries entered into the composition of these peoples.


TEWFIK PASHA, MOHAMMED, khedive of Egypt from the time of his
father's abdication in 1879; a man of simple tastes and religious
disposition, friendly and loyal to the English; Arabi Pasha's
insurrection, closed at TEL-EL-KEBIR (q. v.), the Mahdi's rising
and capture of Khartoum, occurred during his reign, which, however, also
witnessed Egypt's steadily increasing prosperity under English rule
(1852-1892).


TEWKESBURY (5), a market-town of Gloucestershire, at the confluence
of the Avon and Severn (here spanned by one of Telford's bridges), 10 m.
NE. of Gloucester; possesses one of the finest of old English churches in
the Norman style; trades chiefly in agricultural produce; half a mile
distant is the field of the battle of Tewkesbury (May 4, 1471), where the
Yorkists under Edward IV. crushed the Lancastrians.


TEXAS (2,236, including 493 coloured), the largest of the United
States of America, in the extreme SW., fronts the Gulf of Mexico for 400
m. between Mexico (W.) and Louisiana (E.); has an area more than twice
that of the British Isles, exhibiting a great variety of soil from rich
alluvial valleys and pastoral prairies to arid deserts of sand in the S.
Climate in the S. is semi-tropical, in the N. colder and drier. The
useful metals are found in abundance, but agriculture and stock-raising
are the chief occupations, Texas being the leading cattle-raising and
cotton State in the Union; seceded from the republic of Mexico in 1835,
and was an independent State till 1845, when it was annexed to the
American Union. Austin is the capital and Galveston the principal port.


TEXEL (7), an island of North Holland, situated at the entrance to
the Zuider Zee and separated from the mainland by a narrow strait called
the Marsdiep, the scene of several memorable naval engagements between
the Dutch and English; staple industries are sheep and dairy farming.


TEZCUCO (15), a city of Mexico which, under the name Acolhuacan, was
once a centre of Aztec culture, of which there are interesting remains
still extant; is situated on a salt lake bearing the same name, 25 m. NE.
of Mexico City.


THACKERAY, WILLIAM MAKEPEACE, novelist, born in Calcutta, educated
at the Charterhouse and at Trinity College, Cambridge; after leaving
college, which he did without taking a degree, travelled on the
Continent, making long stays at Rome and Paris, and "the dear little
Saxon town (Weimar) where Goethe lived"; his ambition was to be an
artist, but failing in that and pecuniary resources, he turned to
literature; in straitened circumstances at first wrote for the journals
of the day and contributed to _Punch_, in which the well-known "Snob
Papers" and "Jeames's Diary" originally appeared; in 1840 he produced the
"Paris Sketch-Book," his first published work, but it was not till 1847
the first of his novels, "Vanity Fair," was issued in parts, which was
followed in 1848 by "Pendennis," in 1852 by "Esmond," in 1853 by "The
Newcomes," in 1857 by "The Virginians," in 1862 by "Philip," and in 1863
by "Denis Duval"; in 1852 he lectured in the United States on "The
English Humorists of the Eighteenth Century," and in 1855 on "The Four
Georges," while in 1860 he was appointed first editor of _Cornhill_. When
"Vanity Fair" was issuing, Mrs. Carlyle wrote her husband: "Very good
indeed; beats Dickens out of the world"; but his greatest effort was
"Esmond," which accordingly is accounted "the most perfect, artistically,
of his fictions." Of Thackeray, in comparison with Dickens, M. Taine
says, he was "more self-contained, better instructed and stronger, a
lover of moral dissertations, a counsellor of the public, a sort of lay
preacher, less bent on defending the poor, more bent on censuring man;
brought to the aid of satire a sustained common-sense, great knowledge of
the heart, consummate cleverness, powerful reasoning, a store of
meditated hatred, and persecuted vice with all the weapons of
reflection... His novels are a war against the upper classes of his
country" (1811-1863).


THAÏS, an Athenian courtezan who accompanied Alexander the Great on
his expedition into Asia; had children after his death to Ptolemy Lagi.


THALBERG, SIGISMUND, a celebrated pianist, born at Geneva; early
displayed a talent for music and languages; was intended and trained for
a diplomatic career, but, overcoming his father's scruples, followed his
bent for music, and soon took rank as one of the most brilliant pianists
of the age; "Thalberg," said Liszt, "is the only pianist who can play the
violin on the key-board"; composed a large number of pianoforte pieces,
chiefly fantasias and variations (1812-1871).


THALES, philosopher of Greece, and one of her seven sages; was a
philosopher of the physical school, and the father of philosophy in
general, as the first to seek and find within Nature an explanation of
Nature; "the principle of all things is water," he says; "all comes from
water, and to water all returns"; flourished about the close of the 7th
century B.C.


THALIA, one of the THREE GRACES (q. v.), as also of the
NINE MUSES (q. v.).


THALLIUM, a rare metallic element similar to lead, but heavier,
discovered in 1861 by the green in the spectrum in the flame as it was
being volatilised.


THAMES, the most important river of Great Britain, formed by the
junction at Lechdale of four head-streams - the Isis, Churn, Coln, and
Leach - which spring from the SE. slope of the Cotswold Hills; winds
across the southern midlands eastwards till in a wide estuary it enters
the North Sea; forms the boundary-line between several counties, and
passes Oxford, Windsor, Eton, Richmond, London, Woolwich, and Gravesend;
navigable for barges to Lechdale, and for ocean steamers to Tilbury
Docks; tide is felt as far as Teddington, 80 m.; length estimated at 250
m.


THANE or THEGN, a title of social distinction among the
Anglo-Saxons, bestowed, in the first instance, upon men bound in military
service to the king, and who came to form a nobility of service as
distinguished from a nobility of blood; these obtained grants of land,
and had thegns under them; in this way the class of thegns widened;
subsequently the name was allowed to the ceorl who had acquired four
hides of land and fulfilled certain requirements; after the Norman
Conquest the thegnhood practically embraced the knighthood; the name
dropped out of use after Henry II.'s reign, but lasted longer in
Scotland.


THANET, ISLE OF (58), forms the NE. corner of Kent, from the
mainland of which it is separated by the Stour and the rivulet
Nethergong; on its shores, washed by the North Sea, stand the popular
watering-places, Ramsgate, Margate, and Broadstairs; the north-eastern
extremity, the North Foreland, is crowned by a lighthouse.


THASOS (5), an island of Turkey, in the Ægean Sea, near the
Macedonian coast; is mountainous and richly wooded; inhabited almost
entirely by Greeks.


THAUMUZ. See TAUMUZ.


THÉÂTRE FRANÇAIS, theatre in the Palais Royal, Paris, where the
French classic plays are produced and rendered by first-class artistes.


THEBAÏDE, a desert in Upper Egypt; the retreat in early times of a
number of Christian hermits.


THEBANS, name given to the inhabitants of Boeotia, from Thebes, the
capital; were reckoned dull and stupid by the Athenians.


THEBES, an ancient city of Egypt of great renown, once capital of
Upper Egypt; covered 10 sq. m. of the valley of the Nile on both sides of
the river, 300 m. SE. of Cairo; now represented by imposing ruins of
temples, palaces, tombs, and statues of colossal size, amid which the
humble dwellings of four villages - Luxor, Karnack, Medinet Habu, and
Kurna - have been raised. The period of its greatest flourishing extended
from about 1600 to 1100 B.C., but some of its ruins have been dated as
far back as 2500 B.C.


THEBES, capital of the ANCIENT GRECIAN STATE BOEOTIA (q. v.),
whose site on the slopes of Mount Teumessus, 44 m. NW. of Athens,
is now occupied by the village of Thiva; its legendary history, embracing
the names of Cadmus, Dionysus, Hercules, Oedipus, &c., and authentic
struggles with Athens and Sparta during the Peloponnesian War, its rise
to supremacy under Epaminondas over all Greece, and its destruction by
Alexander, have all combined to place it amongst the most famous cities
of ancient Greece.


THEISM, belief in the existence of God associated in general with a
belief in Providence and Revelation.


THEISS, the longest river of Hungary and largest of the affluents of
the Danube; is formed in East Hungary by the confluence of the White
Theiss and the Black Theiss, both springing from south-western slopes of
the Carpathians; after a great sweep to the NW. bends round to the S.,
and flows steadily southward through the centre of Hungary until it joins
the Danube 20 m. above Belgrade, after a course of 750 m.; with its
greater tributaries, the Maros and the Bodrog, it forms a splendid means
of internal commerce.


THEMIS, in the Greek mythology the goddess of the established order
of things; was a daughter of Uranos and Gaia, and the spouse of Zeus,
through whom she became the mother of the divinities concerned in
maintaining order among, at once, gods and men.


THEMISTOCLES, celebrated Athenian general and statesman; rose to
political power on the ostracism of Aristides, his rival; persuaded the
citizens to form a fleet to secure the command of the sea against Persian
invasion; commanded at Salamis, and routed the fleet of Xerxes, and
afterwards accomplished the fortification of the city in spite of the
opposition of Sparta, but falling in popular favour was ostracised, and
took refuge at the court of Artaxerxes of Persia, where he died in high
favour with the king (520-453 B.C.).


THEOBALD, LEWIS, Shakespearian critic, born at Sittingbourne, Kent;
bred to the law by his father, an attorney, but took to literature; wrote
a tragedy; contributed to _Mist's Journal_, and in 1716 began his
tri-weekly paper, the _Censor_; roused Pope's ire by his celebrated
pamphlet, "Shakespeare Restored," an exposure of errors in Pope's
edition, and although ruthlessly impaled in his "Dunciad," of which he
was the original hero, made good his claim to genuine Shakespearian
scholarship by his edition, in 1733, of the dramatist's works, an edition
which completely superseded Pope's (1688-1744).


THEOCRACY, government of a State professedly in the name and under
the direction as well as the sanction of Heaven.


THEOCRATES, great pastoral poet of Greece, born at Syracuse; was the
creator of bucolic poetry; wrote "Idyls," as they were called,
descriptive of the common life of the common people of Sicily, in a
thoroughly objective, though a truly poetical, spirit, in a style which
never fails to charm, being as fresh as ever; wrote also on epic subjects
(300-220 B.C.).


THEODICY, name given to an attempt to vindicate the order of the
universe in consistency with the presence of evil, and specially to that
of Leibnitz, in which he demonstrates that this is the best of all
possible worlds.


THEODORA, the famous consort of the ROMAN EMPEROR JUSTINIAN
I. (q. v.), who, captivated by her extraordinary charms of wit and
person, raised her from a life of shame to share his throne (527), a high
office she did not discredit; scandal, busy enough with her early years,
has no word to say against her subsequent career as empress; the poor and
unfortunate of her own sex were her special care; remained to the last
the faithful helpmate of her husband (508-548).


THEODORE, "King of Corsica," otherwise Baron Theodore de Neuhoff,
born in Metz; a soldier of fortune under the French, Swedish, and Spanish
flags successively, whose title to fame is his expedition to Corsica,
aided by the Turks and the Bey of Tunis, in 1736, to aid the islanders to
throw off the Genoese yoke; was crowned King Theodore I., but in a few
months was driven out, and after unsuccessful efforts to regain his
position came as an impoverished adventurer to London, where creditors
imprisoned him, and where sympathisers, including Walpole, subscribed for
his release (1686-1756).


THEODORE, bishop of Mopsuestra, in Cilicia, born at Antioch; was a
biblical exegete, having written commentaries on most of the books of the
Bible, eschewing the allegorical method of interpretation, and accepting
the literal sense; he held Nestorian views, and his writings were
anathematised; he was a friend of St. Chrysostom; _b_. 429.


THEODORET, Church historian, born at Antioch; as bishop of the
Syrian city, Cyrus, gave himself to the conversion of the Marcionites; a
leader of the Antioch school of theology, he took an active part in the
Nestorian and Eutychian controversies, and was deposed by the so-called
robber-council of Ephesus, but was reinstated by the Council of Chalcedon
in 451 (about 390-457).


THEODORIC, surnamed the Great, founder of the monarchy of the Ostro- or
East Goths, son of Theodemir, the Ostrogothic king of Pannonia; was
for ten years during his youth a hostage at the Byzantine Court at
Constantinople; succeeded his father in 475, and immediately began to
push the fortunes of the Ostrogoths; various territories fell into his
hands, and alarm arose at the Imperial Court; in 493 advanced upon Italy,
overthrew Odoacer, and after his murder became sole ruler; was now the
most powerful of the Gothic kings, with an empire embracing Italy,
Sicily, and Dalmatia, besides German possessions; as a ruler proved
himself as wise as he was strong; became in after years one of the great
heroes of German legend, and figures in the "Nibelungenlied" (455-526).


THEODOSIUS I., THE GREAT, Roman emperor; was the son of Theodosius
the Elder, a noted general, whose campaigns in Britain and elsewhere he
participated in; marked out for distinction by his military prowess he,
in 379, was invited by the Emperor Gratian to become emperor in the East,
that he might stem the advancing Goths; in this Theodosius was
successful; the Goths were defeated, conciliated, had territory conceded
to them, and became in large numbers Roman citizens; rebellions in the
Western Empire and usurpations of the throne compelled Theodosius to
active interference, which led to his becoming sole head of the empire
(394), after successfully combating the revolutionaries, Franks and
others; was a zealous Churchman, and stern suppressor of the "Arian
Heresy"; the close of his reign marks the beginning of the end of the
Roman Empire, for his death opened the floodgates of barbarian invasion,
and from this date begins the formation of the new kingdoms of Europe
(346-395).


THEOGNIS, an elegiac poet of Megara; flourished in the second half
of the 6th century B.C.; lost his possessions during a revolution at
Megara, in which the democrats overpowered the aristocrats, to which
party he belonged; compelled to live in exile, he found solace in the
writing of poetry full of a practical and prudential wisdom, bitterly
biased against democracy, and tinged with pessimism.


THEOLOGY, the science which treats of God, particularly as He
manifests Himself in His relation to man in nature, reason, or
revelation.


THEOPHRASTUS, a peripatetic philosopher, born in Lesbos; pupil,
heir, and successor of Aristotle, and the great interpreter and expounder
of his philosophy; was widely famous in his day; his writings were
numerous, but only a few are extant, on plants, stars, and fire; _d_. 286
B.C.


THEOSOPHY (lit. divine wisdom), a mystic philosophy of very
difficult definition which hails from the East, and was introduced among
us by Madame Blavatsky, a Russian lady, who was initiated into its
mysteries in Thibet by a fraternity there who professed to be the sole
custodiers of its secrets as the spiritual successors of those to whom it
was at first revealed. The radical idea of the system appears to be
reincarnation, and the return of the spirit to itself by a succession of
incarnations, each one of which raises it to a higher level until, by
seven stages it would seem, the process is complete, matter has become
spirit, and spirit matter, God has become man, and man God, agreeably
somewhat to the doctrine of Amiel, that "the complete spiritualisation of
the animal element in us is the task of our race," though with them it
seems rather to mean its extinction. The adherents of this system, with
their head-quarters at Madras, are numerous and wide-scattered, and form
an organisation of 300 branches, having three definite aims: (1) To
establish a brotherhood over the world irrespective of race, creed,
caste, or sex; (2) to encourage the study of comparative philosophy,
religion, and science; and (3) to investigate the occult secrets of
nature and the latent possibilities of man. The principal books in
exposition of it are, "The Secret Doctrine," "Isis Unveiled," "The Key to
Theosophy," by Mme. Blavatsky; "Esoteric Buddhism," "The Occult World,"
&c., by Sinnett; "The Ancient Wisdom," "The Birth and Evolution of the
Soul," &c., by Annie Besant.


THERAPEUTÆ, a Jewish ascetic sect in Egypt, who lived a life of
celibacy and meditation in separate hermitages, and assembled for worship
on Sabbath.


THERMO-DYNAMICS, name given to the modern science of the relation
between heat and work, which has established two fundamental principles,
that when heat is employed to do work, the work done is the exact
equivalent of the heat expended, and when the work is employed to produce
heat, the heat produced is exactly equivalent to the work done.


THERMOPYLÆ (i. e. "the hot gates"), a famous pass in N. Greece,
the only traversable one leading southward into Thessaly, lies 25 m. N.
of Delphi, and is flanked on one side by Mount Oeta, and on the other by
the Maliac Gulf (now the Gulf of Zeitouni); for ever memorable as the
scene of Leonidas' heroic attempt with his 300 Spartans to stem the
advancing Persian hordes under Xerxes (480 B.C.); also of Greece's
futile struggles against Brennus and the Gauls (279 B.C.), and Philip
the Macedonian (207 B.C.)


THERSITES, a deformed Greek present at the siege of Troy,
distinguished for his insolent raillery at his betters, and who was slain
by Achilles for deriding his lamentation over the death of
PENTHESILEA (q. v.).


THESEUS, legendary hero of Attica, and son of Ægeus, king of Athens;
ranks second to Hercules, captured the Marathonian bull, and slew the
MINOTAUR (q. v.) by the help of ARIADNE (q. v.); waged war against the
Amazons, and carried off the queen; assisted at the Argonautic
expedition, and is famed for his friendship for Perithous, whom he aided
against the Centaurs.


THESPIS, the father of Greek tragedy, hence Thespian art for the
drama.


THESSALONIANS, EPISTLE TO THE, epistles of St. Paul to the Church at
Thessalonica; of which there are two; the first written from Corinth
about A.D. 53 to exhort them to beware of lapsing, and comforting them
with the hope of the return of the Lord to judgment; the second, within a



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