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to the dust, its glorious faculties trodden under foot in the blossom;
and died, we may almost say, without ever having lived." See Carlyle's
"Miscellanies" for by far the justest and wisest estimate of both the man
and the poet that has yet by any one been said or sung. He is at his best
in his "Songs," he says, which he thinks "by far the best that Britain
has yet produced.... In them," he adds, "he has found a tune and words
for every mood of man's heart; in hut and hall, as the heart unfolds
itself in many-coloured joy and woe of existence, the _name_, the _voice_
of that joy and that woe, is the name and voice which Burns has given

BURRA-BURRA, a copper-mine in S. Australia, about 103 m. NE. of

BURRARD INLET, an inlet of river Fraser, in British Columbia,
forming one of the best harbours on the Pacific coast.

BURRITT, ELIHU, a blacksmith, born in Connecticut; devoted to the
study of languages, of which he knew many, both ancient and modern; best
known as the unwearied Advocate of Peace all over America and a great
part of Europe, on behalf of which he ruined his voice (1810-1879).

BURROUGHS, JOHN, popular author, born in New York; a farmer, a
cultured man, with a great liking for country life and natural objects,
on which he has written largely and _con amore_; _b_. 1837.

BURRUS, a Roman general, who with Seneca had the conduct of Nero's
education, and opposed his tyrannical acts, till Nero, weary of his
expostulations, got rid of him by poison.

BURSCHENSCHAFT, an association of students in the interest of German
liberation and unity; formed in 1813, and broken up by the Government in

BURSLEM (31), a pottery-manufacturing town in Staffordshire, and the
"mother of the potteries"; manufactures porcelain and glass.

BURTON, JOHN HILL, historian and miscellaneous writer, born at
Aberdeen; an able man, bred for the bar; wrote articles for the leading
reviews and journals, "Life of Hume," "History of Scotland," "The
Book-Hunter," "The Scot Abroad," &c.; characterised by Lord Rosebery as a
"dispassionate historian"; was Historiographer-Royal for Scotland

BURTON, SIR RICHARD FRANCIS, traveller, born in Hertfordshire;
served first as a soldier in Scind under Sir C. Napier; visited Mecca and
Medina as an Afghan pilgrim; wrote an account of his visit in his
"Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage, &c."; penetrated Central Africa
along with Captain Speke, and discovered Lake Tanganyika; visited Utah,
and wrote "The City of the Saints"; travelled in Brazil, Palestine, and
Western Africa, accompanied through many a hardship by his devoted wife;
translated the "Arabian Nights"; his works on his travels numerous, and
show him to have been of daring adventure (1821-1890).

BURTON, ROBERT, an English clergyman, born in Leicestershire;
Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford; lived chiefly in Oxford, spending his
time in it for some 50 years in study; author of "The Anatomy of
Melancholy," which he wrote to alleviate his own depression of mind, a
book which is a perfect mosaic of quotations on every conceivable topic,
familiar and unfamiliar, from every manner of source (1576-1640). See

BURTON-ON-TRENT (46), a town in Staffordshire; brews and exports
large quantities of ale, the water of the place being peculiarly suitable
for brewing purposes.

BURY (56), a manufacturing town in Lancashire, 10 m. NW. of
Manchester; originally but a small place engaged in woollen manufacture,
but cotton is now the staple manufacture in addition to paper-works,
dye-works, &c.

BURY ST. EDMUNDS, or ST. EDMUNDSBURY (16), a market-town in
Suffolk, 26 m. NW. of Ipswich, named from Edmund, king of East Anglia,
martyred by the Danes in 870, in whose honour it was built; famous for
its abbey, of the interior life of which in the 12th century there is a
matchlessly graphic account in CARLYLE'S "PAST AND PRESENT."

BUSA`CO, a mountain ridge in the prov. of Beira, Portugal, where
Wellington with 40,000 troops beat Masséna with 65,000.

BUSBY, RICHARD, distinguished English schoolmaster, born at Lutton,
Lincolnshire; was head-master of Winchester School; had a number of
eminent men for his pupils, among others Dryden, Locke, and South

BÜSCHING, ANTON FRIEDRICH, a celebrated German geographer; his
"Erdbeschreibung," the first geographical work of any scientific merit;
gives only the geography of Europe (1724-1793).

BUSHIRE (27), the chief port of Persia on the Persian Gulf, and a
great trading centre.

BUSHMEN, or BOSJESMANS, aborigines of South-west Africa; a
rude, nomadic race, at one time numerous, but now fast becoming extinct.

BUSHRANGERS, in Australia a gang made up of convicts who escaped to
the "bush," and there associated with other desperadoes; at one time
caused a great deal of trouble in the colony by their maraudings.

BUSIRIS, a king of Egypt who used to offer human beings in
sacrifice; seized Hercules and bound him to the altar, but Hercules
snapped the bonds he was bound with, and sacrificed him.

BUSK, HANS, one of the originators of the Volunteer movement, born
in Wales; author of "The Rifle, and How to Use it" (1815-1882).

BUSKIN, a kind of half-boot worn after the custom of hunters as part
of the costume of actors in tragedy on the ancient Roman stage, and a
synonym for tragedy.

BUTE, an island in the Firth of Clyde, about 16 m. long and from 3
to 5 broad, N. of Arran, nearly all the Marquis of Bute's property, with
his seat at Mount Stuart, and separated from the mainland on the N. by a
winding romantic arm of the sea called the "Kyles of Bute."

BUTE, JOHN STUART, THIRD EARL OF, statesman, born of an old Scotch
family; Secretary of State, and from May 1762 to April 1763 Prime
Minister under George III., over whom he had a great influence; was very
unpopular as a statesman, his leading idea being the supremacy of the
king; spent the last 24 years of his life in retirement, devoting himself
to literature and science (1712-1792).

BUTE, MARQUIS OF, son of the second marquis, born in Bute; admitted
to the Roman Catholic Church in 1868; devoted to archæological studies,
and interested in university education; _b_. 1849.

BUTLER, ALBAN, hagiographer, born in Northampton; head of the
college at St. Omer; wrote "Lives of the Saints" (1710-1773).

BUTLER, CHARLES, an English barrister, born in London; wrote
"Historical Account of the Laws against the Catholics" (1750-1832).

BUTLER, JOSEPH, an eminent English divine, born at Wantage, in
Berks; born a Dissenter; conformed to the Church of England; became
preacher at the Rolls, where he delivered his celebrated "Sermons," the
first three of which contributed so much to the stability of moral
science; was raised, in virtue of his merits alone, to the see of
Bristol; made dean of St. Paul's, and finally bishop of Durham; his great
work, "The Analogy of Religion, Natural and Revealed, to the Constitution
and Course of Nature," the aim of which is twofold - first, to show that
the objections to revealed religion are equally valid against the
constitution of nature; and second, to establish a conformity between the
divine order in revelation and the order of nature; his style is far from
interesting, and is often obscure (1692-1752).

BUTLER, SAMUEL, a master of burlesque, born at Strensham, in
Worcestershire, the son of a small farmer; the author of "Hudibras," a
poem of about 10,000 octosyllabic lines, in which he subjects to ridicule
the ideas and manners of the English Puritans of the Civil War and the
Commonwealth; it appeared in three parts, the first in 1663, the second
soon after, and the third in 1678; it is sparkling with wit, yet is hard
reading, and few who take it up read it through; was an especial
favourite with Charles II., who was never weary of quoting from it. "It
represents," says Stopford Brooke, "the fierce reaction that (at the
Restoration) had set in against Puritanism. It is justly famed," he adds,
"for wit, learning, good sense, and ingenious drollery, and, in
accordance with the new criticism, is absolutely without obscurity. It is
often as terse as Pope's best work; but it is too long; its wit wearies
us at last, and it undoes the force of its attacks on the Puritans by its
exaggeration" (1612-1680).

BUTLER, WILLIAM ARCHER, a philosophical writer, born near Clonmel,
Ireland; professor of Moral Philosophy at Dublin; author of "Lectures on
the History of Ancient Philosophy" (1814-1848).

BUTT, CLARA, operatic singer, born in Sussex; made her _début_ in
London at the Albert Hall in the "Golden Legend," and in "Orfeo" at the
Lyceum, ever since which appearances she has been much in demand as a
singer; _b_. 1872.

BUTT, ISAAC, Irish patriot, distinguished for his scholarship at
Dublin University; became editor of the _Dublin University Magazine_;
entered Parliament, and at length took the lead of the "Home Rule" party,
but could not control it, and retired (1813-1879).

BUTTMANN, PHILIPP, a German philologist, born at
Frankfort-on-the-Main; professor of Philology in Berlin; best known by
his "Greek Grammar" (1764-1829).

BUXTON, a high-lying town in Derbyshire, noted for its calcareous
and chalybeate springs, and a resort for invalids; is also famous for its
rock crystals, stalactite cavern, and fine scenery.

BUXTON, SIR THOMAS FOWELL, a philanthropist, born in Essex, a tall
man of energetic character; entered life as a brewer, and made his
fortune; was conspicuous for his interest in benevolent movements, such
as the amelioration of criminal law and the abolition of slavery;
represented Weymouth in Parliament from 1818 to 1837; was made a baronet
in 1840; he was Wilberforce's successor (1786-1845).

BUXTON, SIR THOMAS FOWELL, once governor of S. Australia, grandson
of the preceding; educated at Harrow and Cambridge; a Liberal in
politics, and member for King's Lynn from 1865 to 1868; a philanthropist
and Evangelical Churchman; _b_. 1837.

BUXTORF, a celebrated Hebraist, born in Westphalia, member of a
family of Orientalists; professor of Hebrew for 39 years at Basle; was
known by the title, "Master of the Rabbis" (1564-1629).

BYBLIS, in the Greek mythology a daughter of Miletus, in love with
her brother Caunus, whom she pursued into far lands, till, worn out with
sorrow, she was changed into a fountain.

BYNG, GEORGE, VISCOUNT TORRINGTON, admiral, favoured the Prince of
Orange, and won the navy over to his interest; commanded the squadron
that took Gibraltar in 1704: conquered the Spaniards off Cape Passaro;
was made First Lord of the Admiralty in 1727, an office he held till his
death (1663-1733).

BYNG, JOHN, admiral, fourth son of the preceding; having failed to
compel the French to raise the blockade of Minorca, was recalled, in
deference to popular clamour, and being tried and condemned as guilty of
treason, was shot at Portsmouth, a fate it is now believed he did not
deserve, and which he bore like a man and a Christian (1704-1757).

BYROM, JOHN, poet and stenographer, born near Manchester; invented a
system of shorthand, now superseded, and which he had the sole right of
teaching for 21 years; contributed as "John Shadow" to the _Spectator_;
author of the pastoral, "My Time, O ye Muses, was Happily Spent"; his
poetry satirical and genial (1692-1763).

BYRON, GEORGE GORDON, SIXTH LORD, an English poet, born in London,
son of Captain Byron of the Guards, and Catherine Gordon of Gight,
Aberdeenshire; spent his boyhood at Aberdeen under his mother, now a
widow, and was educated at Harrow and Cambridge, spending, when at the
latter, his vacations in London, where his mother had taken a house;
wrote "Hours of Idleness," a poor first attempt, which called forth a
severe criticism in the _Edinburgh Review_, and which he satirised in
"English Bards and Scotch Reviewers," and soon afterwards left England
and spent two years in foreign travel; wrote first part of "Childe
Harold," "awoke one morning and found himself famous"; produced the
"Giaour," "Bride of Abydos," "Hebrew Melodies," and other work. In his
school days he had fallen in love with Mary Chaworth, but she had not
returned his affection, and in 1815 he married Miss Millbank, an heiress,
who in a year left him never to return, when a storm raised against him
on account of his private life drove him from England, and he never came
back; on the Continent, moved from place to place, finished "Childe
Harold," completed several short poems, and wrote "Don Juan"; threw
himself into revolutionary movements in Italy and Greece, risked his all
in the emancipation of the latter, and embarking in it, died at
Missolonghi in a fit, at the age of 36. His poems, from the character of
the passion that breathed in them, made a great impression on his age,
but the like interest in them is happily now passing away, if not already
past; the earth is looking green again once more, under the breath, it is
believed, of a new spring-time, or anyhow, the promise of such. See
"Organic Filaments" in "Sartor Resartus" (1788-1824).

BYRON, HENRY JAMES, dramatist, born in Manchester, wrote "Our Boys"

BYRON, JOHN, naval officer, grandfather of the poet, nicknamed from
his misfortunes "Foul-weather Jack"; accompanied Anson in his voyage
round the world, but was wrecked in his ship the _Wager_; suffered almost
unexampled hardships, of which he wrote a classical account on his safe
return home; he rose to the rank of admiral, and commanded the squadron
in the West Indies during the American war; died in England (1723-1786).

BYRSA, a celebrated citadel of Carthage.

BYZANTINE ART, a decorative style of art patronised by the Romans
after the seat of empire was removed to the East; it has been described
by Mr. Fairholt as "an engraftment of Oriental elaboration of detail upon
classic forms, ending in their debasement."

BYZANTINE EMPIRE, called also the Eastern, the Lower, or the Greek
Empire; dates from 395 A.D., when, by the death of Theodosius, the Roman
empire was divided between his two sons, Arcadius and Honorius, the
Eastern section falling to the share of the former, who established the
seat of his government at Byzantium; the empire included Syria, Asia
Minor, Pontus, Egypt in Africa, and Ancient Greece, and it lasted with
varied fortune for ten centuries after the accession of Arcadius, till
Constantinople was taken by the Turks in 1453.

BYZANTIUM, the ancient name of Constantinople; founded by Greek
colonists in 667 B.C.


CAABA, an ancient Arab temple, a small square structure in the grand
mosque of Mecca, with a mysterious black stone, probably an aerolite,
built in it, on which all pilgrims who visit the shrine imprint a kiss;
"the Keblah of all Moslem, the eyes of innumerable praying men being
turned towards it from all the quarters of the compass five times a day."

CABAL`, a secret intriguing faction in a State, a name applied to a
junto of five ministers of Charles II. in power from 1668 to 1673, the
initials of whose names go to make up the word; their names were
Clifford, Ashley, Buckingham, Arlington, and Lauderdale; derived from
CABALA (q. v.).

CAB`ALA, a secret science alleged to have been divinely imparted to
Moses and preserved by tradition, by means of which the Rabbis affected
to interpret the pretended mystic sense of the words, letters, and very
accents of the Hebrew Scriptures, a science which really owes its
existence to a dissatisfaction in the rabbinical mind with the
traditional literal interpretation, and a sense that there is more in
Scripture than meets the ear. The name comes from a Hebrew word
suggesting "to receive," and denotes "that which is received" or

CABALLERO, FERNAN, the _nom de plume_ of Cecilia Boehl, a popular
Spanish authoress, born in Switzerland, of German descent; a collector of
folk tales; wrote charmingly; told stories of Spanish, particularly
Andalusian, peasant life (1797-1877).

CABANEL, ALEXANDRE, a French painter, born at Montpellier

CABANIS, PIERRE JEAN GEORGE, a celebrated French medical man, born
in Cosnac, in the dep. of Charente Inférieure, a pronounced materialist
in philosophy, and friend of Mirabeau; attended him in his last illness,
and published an account of it; his materialism was of the grossest;
treated the soul as a nonentity; and held that the brain secretes thought
just as the liver secretes bile (1757-1808).

CABEL, a celebrated painter of the Dutch school, born at Ryswick

CABET, ÉTIENNE, a French communist, born in Dijon; a leader of the
Carbonari; provoked prosecution, and fled to England; wrote a history of
the First Revolution, in which he defended the Jacobins; author of the
"Voyage en Icarie," in description of a communistic Utopia, which became
the text-book of a communistic sect called "Icarians," a body of whom he
headed to carry out his schemes in America, first in Texas and then at
Nauvoo, but failed; died at St. Louis broken-hearted (1788-1856).

CABI`RI, certain mysterious demonic beings to whom mystic honours
were paid in Lemnos and elsewhere in Greece, in connection with
nature-worship, and especially with that of DEMETER and
DIONYSUS (q. v.).

CABLE, GEORGE WASHINGTON, a journalist, born at New Orleans, has
written interestingly on, and created an interest in, Creole life in
America; _b_. 1844.

CABOT, GIOVANNI, a Venetian pilot, born at Genoa, settled in
Bristol, entered the service of Henry VII., and discovered part of the
mainland of N. America, at Labrador, about 1497: _d_. 1498.

CABOT, SEBASTIAN, son of the preceding, born either in Venice or
Bristol; accompanied his father to N. America; sought service as a
navigator, first in Spain then in England, but failed; returned to Spain;
attempted under Charles V. to plant colonies in Brazil with no success,
for which he was imprisoned and banished; was the first to notice the
variation of the magnetic needle, and to open up to England trade with
Russia (1474-1557).

CABRAL, PEDRO ALVAREZ, a Portuguese navigator, sailing for the
Indies, drifted on the coast of Brazil, on which he planted the
Portuguese flag, 1500, and of which he is accounted by some the
discoverer, continued his course, and established a factory at Calicut in
1501 (1460-1526).

CABRE`RA, one of the Balearic Isles, used as a penal settlement by
Spain, produces wild olives.

CABRERA, a Spanish general, born at Tortosa, Catalonia, a zealous
supporter of the claims of Don Carlos, took up arms in his behalf; died
in England; he was an unscrupulous adversary (1810-1877).

CABUL`, or KABUL (50), cap. of a province of the name in
Afghanistan, in a mild climate, on an elevated plateau of great
fertility, 6000 ft. in height, on the high route between Central Asia and
the Punjab, a great highway of trade, and a depôt for European goods.

CACCIA, Italian fresco-painter, did altar-pieces; his best work,
"Deposition from the Cross," at Novara; _d_. 1625.

CACERAS (350), a Spanish province in the N. of Estremadura; the name
also of its capital (14), famous for its bacon and sausages, as the
province is for cattle-rearing.

CACHAR (313), a great tea-growing district in Assam.

CACHE, name given in Canada to a hole in the ground for hiding
provisions when they prove cumbersome to carry.

CACHET, LETTRE DE, a warrant issued in France before the Revolution,
under the royal seal, for the arrest and imprisonment of a person, often
obtained to gratify private ends; abolished in 1790.

CA`CUS, a mythological brigand of gigantic stature who occupied a
cave in Mount Aventine, represented by Virgil as breathing smoke and
flames of fire; stole the oxen of Hercules as he was asleep, dragging
them to his cave tail foremost to deceive the owner; strangled by
Hercules in his rage at the deception quite as much as the theft.

CADASTRE, a register of the landed proprietors of a district, and
the extent of their estates, with maps illustrative called Cadastral

CADE, JACK, an Irish adventurer, headed an insurrection in Kent, in
1450, in the reign of Henry VI.; encamped with his following on
Blackheath; demanded of the king redress of grievances; was answered by
an armed force, which he defeated; entered the city, could not prevent
his followers from plundering; the citizens retaliating, he had to flee,
but was overtaken and slain.

CADEMOSTO, a Venetian in the service of Portugal, discovered the
Cape de Verde Islands in 1457; wrote the first book giving an account of
modern voyages, published posthumously (1432-1480).

CADIZ (62), one of the chief commercial ports in Spain, in
Andalusia; founded by the Phoenicians about 1100 B.C.; called Gades by
the Romans; at the NW. extremity of the Isle of Leon, and separated from
the rest of the island by a channel crossed by bridges; it is 7 m. from
Xeres and 50 m. from Gibraltar, and carries on a large export trade.

CAD`MUS, a semi-mythological personage, founder of Thebes, in
Boeotia, to whom is ascribed the introduction of the Greek alphabet from
Phoenicia and the invention of writing; in the quest of his sister
Europa, was told by the oracle at Delphi to follow a cow and build a city
where she lay down; arrived at the spot where the cow lay down, he sent,
with a view to its sacrifice, his companions to a well guarded by a
dragon, which devoured them; slew the dragon; sowed its teeth, which
sprang up into a body of armed men, who speared each other to death, all
but five, who, the story goes, became the forefathers of Thebes.

CADOUDAL, GEORGES, a brave man, chief of the CHOUANS (q. v.),
born in Brittany, the son of a farmer; tried hard and took up arms
to restore the Bourbons in the teeth of the Republic, but was defeated;
refused to serve under Bonaparte, who would fain have enlisted him,
having seen in him "a mind cast in the true mould"; came over from
London, whither he had retired, on a secret mission from Charles X.; was
suspected of evil designs against the person of Bonaparte; arrested, and,
after a short trial, condemned and executed, having confessed his
intention to overthrow the Republic and establish Louis XVIII. on the
throne (1769-1804).

CADUCEUS, the winged rod of Hermes, entwined with two serpents;
originally a simple olive branch; was in the hands of the god possessed
of magical virtues; it was the symbol of peace.

CÆDMON, an English poet of the 7th century, the fragment of a hymn
by whom, preserved by Bede, is the oldest specimen extant of English
poetry; wrote a poem on the beginning of things at the call of a voice
from heaven, saying as he slept, "Cædmon, come sing me some song"; and
thereupon he began to sing, as Stopford Brooke reports, the story of
Genesis and Exodus, many other tales in the sacred Scriptures, and the
story of Christ and the Apostles, and of heaven and hell to come.

CAEN (45), a fine old Norman town, capital of Calvados, about 80 m.
SE. of Cherbourg; lace the chief manufacture; the burial-place of William
the Conqueror, and the native place of Charlotte Corday; it is a
well-built town, and has fine old public buildings, a large library, and
a noble collection of pictures.

CAER`LEON, a small old town in Monmouthshire, on the Usk, 2½ m. NE.
of Newport; celebrated by Tennyson in connection with Arthurian legend;
it is a very ancient place, and contains relics of Roman times.

CÆSALPINUS, Italian natural philosopher, born at Arezzo; was
professor of botany at Pisa; was forerunner of Harvey and Linnæus;
discovered sex in plants, and gave hints on their classification

CÆSAR, name of an old Roman family claiming descent from the Trojan
Æneas, which the emperors of Rome from Augustus to Nero of right
inherited, though the title was applied to succeeding emperors and to the
heirs-apparent of the Western and the Eastern Empires; it survives in the
titles of the Kaiser of Germany and the Czar of Russia.

CÆSAR, CAIUS JULIUS, pronounced the greatest man of antiquity, by
birth and marriage connected with the democratic party; early provoked
the jealousy of Sulla, then dictator, and was by an edict of proscription
against him obliged to quit the city; on the death of Sulla returned to
Rome; was elected to one civic office after another, and finally to the
consulship. United with Pompey and Crassus in the First Triumvirate (60
B.C.); was appointed to the government of Gaul, which he subdued after
nine years to the dominion of Rome; his successes awoke the jealousy of

Online LibraryUnknownThe Nuttall Encyclopaedia Being a Concise and Comprehensive Dictionary of General Knowledge → online text (page 30 of 197)