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DOMDANIEL, a hall under the ocean where the evil spirits and
magicians hold council under their chief and pay him homage.

DOMENICHI`NO, a celebrated Italian painter, born at Bologna; studied
under Calvaert and Caracci; was of the Bolognese school, and reckoned one
of the first of them; his principal works are his "Communion of St.
Jerome," now in the Vatican, and the "Martyrdom of St. Agnes," at
Bologna, the former being regarded as his masterpiece; he was the victim
of persecution at the hands of rivals; died at Naples, not without
suspicion of having been poisoned (1581-1641).

DOMESDAY BOOK, the record, in 2 vols., of the survey of all the
lands of England made in 1081-1086 at the instance of William the
Conqueror for purposes of taxation; the survey included the whole of
England, except the four northern counties and part of Lancashire, and
was made by commissioners appointed by the king, and sent to the
different districts of the country, where they held courts, and
registered everything on evidence; it is a valuable document.

DOMINIC DE GUZMAN, ST., saint of the Catholic Church, born in Old
Castile; distinguished for his zeal in the conversion of the heretic;
essayed the task by simple preaching of the Word; sanctioned persecution
when persuasion was of no avail; countenanced the crusade of Simon de
Montfort against the Albigenses for their obstinate unbelief, and thus
established a precedent which was all too relentlessly followed by the
agents of the Spanish Inquisition, the chiefs of which were of the
Dominican order, so that he is ignominiously remembered as the "burner
and slayer of heretics" (1170-1221). Festival, Aug. 4.

DOMINICA, or DOMINIQUE (26), the largest and most southerly of
the Leeward Islands, and belongs to Britain; one-half of the island is
forest, and parts of it have never been explored; was discovered by
Columbus on Sunday, November 3, 1493, whence its name.

DOMINICAL LETTER, one of seven letters, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, used to
mark the Sundays throughout the year, so that if A denote the first
Sunday, it will denote all the rest, and so on with B, C, &c., till at
the end of seven years A becomes the dominical letter again.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, or ST. DOMINGO (610), a republic forming
the E. part of the island of Haiti, and consisting of two-thirds of it;
it belonged alternately to France and Spain till 1865, when, on revolt,
the Spaniards were expelled, and a republic established; the capital is
St. Domingo (15), and the chief port Puerto Plata.

DOMINICANS, a religious order of preaching friars, founded at
Toulouse in 1215 by St. Dominic, to aid in the conversion of the heretic
Albigenses to the faith, and finally established as the order whose
special charge it was to guard the orthodoxy of the Church. The order was
known by the name Black Friars in England, from their dress; and Jacobins
in France, from the street of Paris in which they had their

DOMINIE, SAMPSON, a schoolmaster in "Guy Mannering," "a poor,
modest, humble scholar, who had won his way through the classics, but
fallen to the leeward in the voyage of life."

DOMINIS, MARCO ANTONIO DE, a vacillating ecclesiastic, born in
Dalmatia; was educated by the Jesuits; taught mathematics in Padua; wrote
a treatise in which an explanation was for the first time given of the
phenomenon of the rainbow; became archbishop of Spalatro; falling under
suspicion he passed over to England, professed Protestantism, and was
made dean of Windsor; reconciled to the Papacy, returned to the Church of
Rome, and left the country; his sincerity being distrusted, was cast into
prison, where he died, his body being afterwards disinterred and burned

DOMITIAN, Roman emperor, son of Vespasian, brother of Titus, whom he
succeeded in 81, the last of the twelve Cæsars; exceeded the expectations
of every one in the beginning of his reign, as he had given proof of a
licentious and sanguinary character beforehand, but soon his conduct
changed, and fulfilled the worst fears of his subjects; his vanity was
wounded by the non-success of his arms, and his vengeful spirit showed
itself in a wholesale murder of the citizens; many conspiracies were
formed against his life, and he was at length murdered by an assassin,
who had been hired by his courtiers and abetted by his wife Domitia, in

DOMRÉMY, a small village on the Meuse, in the dep. of Vosges; the
birthplace of Joan of Arc.

DON, a Russian river, the ancient Tanaïs; flows southward from its
source in the province of Tula, and after a course of 1153 m. falls into
the Sea of Azov; also the name of a river in Aberdeenshire, and another
in Yorkshire.

DON JUAN, the member of a distinguished family of Seville, who
seduces the daughter of a noble, and when confronted by her father stabs
him to death in a duel; he afterwards prepares a feast and invites the
stone statue of his victim to partake of it; the stone statue turns up at
the least, compels Don Juan to follow him, and delivers him over to the
abyss of hell, the depths of which he had qualified himself for by his
utter and absolute depravity.

DON QUIXOTE, the title of a world-famous book written by Miguel
Cervantes, in satire of the romances of chivalry with which his
countrymen were so fascinated; the chief character of which gives title
to it, a worthy gentleman of La Mancha, whose head is so turned by
reading tales of knight-errantry, that he fancies he is a knight-errant
himself, sallies forth in quest of adventures, and encounters them in the
most commonplace incidents, one of his most ridiculous extravagancies
being his tilting with the windmills, and the overweening regard he has
for his Dulcinea del Tobosa.

DONALDSON, JOHN WILLIAM, a philologist, born in London; Fellow of
Cambridge and tutor of Trinity College; author of "New Cratylus; or
Contributions towards a more Accurate Knowledge of the Greek Language," a
work of great erudition and of value to scholars; contributed also to the
philological study of Latin, and wrote a grammar of both languages; he
failed when he intruded into the field of biblical criticism (1811-1861).

DONATELLO, a great Italian sculptor, born at Florence, where he was
apprenticed to a goldsmith; tried his hand at carving in leisure hours;
went to Rome and studied the monuments of ancient art; returned to
Florence and executed an "Annunciation," still preserved in a chapel in
Santa Croce, which was followed by marble statues of St. Peter, St. Mark,
and St. George, before one of which, that of St. Mark, Michael Angelo
exclaimed, "Why do you not speak to me?"; he executed tombs and figures,
or groups in bronze as well as marble; his schoolmasters were the
sculptors of Greece, and the real was his ultimate model (1383-1460).

DONATI, an Italian astronomer, born at Pisa; discoverer of the comet
of 1858, called Donati's comet (1826-1873).

DONATISTS, a sect in N. Africa, founded by Donatus, bishop of
Carthage, in the 4th century, that separated from the rest of the Church
and formed itself into an exclusive community, with bishops and
congregations of its own, on the ground that no one was entitled to be a
member of Christ's body, or an overseer of Christ's flock, who was not of
divine election, and that in the face of an attempt, backed by the
Emperor Constantine, to thrust a bishop on the Church at Carthage,
consecrated by an authority that had betrayed and sold the Church to the
world; the members of it were subject to cruel persecutions in which they
gloried, and were annihilated by the Saracens in the 7th century.

DONATUS, a Latin grammarian and rhetorician of the 4th century, the
teacher of St. Jerome; the author of treatises in grammar known as
Donats, and, along with the sacred Scriptures, the earliest examples of
printing by means of letters cut on wooden blocks, and so appreciated as
elementary treatises that they gave name to treatises of the kind on any
subject; he wrote also _scholia_ to the plays of Terence.

DONAU, the German name for the Danube.

DONCASTER (26), a market and manufacturing town in the West Riding
of Yorkshire, well built, in a pleasant country, on the right bank of the
Don, 33 m. S. of York; famous for its races, the St. Leger in particular,
called after Colonel St. Leger, who instituted them in 1776.

DONDRA HEAD, the southern extremity of Ceylon, once the site of the

DONEGAL (185), a county in the NW. of Ireland, in the province of
Ulster, the most mountainous in the country; is mossy and boggy, and is
indented along the coast with bays, and fringed with islands.

DONETZ, a tributary of the Russian Don, the basin of which forms one
large coal-field, reckoned to be as large as all Yorkshire, and is
reckoned one of the largest of any in the world.

DONGOLA, NEW, a town in Nubia, on the left bank of the Nile, above
the third cataract, 20° N. and over 700 m. from Cairo; was founded by the

DONIZETTI, a celebrated Italian composer, born at Bergamo, Lombardy,
and studied at Bologna; devoted himself to dramatic music; produced over
60 operas, among the number "Lucia di Lammermoor," the "Daughter of the
Regiment," "Lucrezia Borgia," and "La Favorita," all well known, and all
possessing a melodious quality of the first order (1797-1848).

DONNE, JOHN, English poet and divine, born in London; a man of good
degree; brought up in the Catholic faith; after weighing the claims of
the Romish and Anglican communions, joined the latter; married a young
lady of sixteen without consent of her father, which involved him in
trouble for a time; was induced to take holy orders by King James; was
made his chaplain, and finally became Dean of St. Paul's; wrote sermons,
some 200 letters and essays, as well as poems, the latter, amid many
defects, revealing a soul instinct with true poetic fire (1573-1631). See
"Professor Saintsbury on Donne."

DONNYBROOK, a village now included in Dublin, long celebrated for
its fairs and the fights it was the scene of on such occasions.

DONON, the highest peak of the Vosges Mountains.

DOO, GEORGE THOMAS, a celebrated English line-engraver, and one of
the best in his day (1800-1886).

DOON, a river rendered classic by the muse of Burns, which after a
course of 30 m. joins the Clyde 2 m. S. of Ayr.

DORA, the child-wife of "David Copperfield," Dickens's novel.

DORA D'ISTRIA, the pseudonym of Helena Ghika, born in Wallachia, of
noble birth; distinguished for her beauty and accomplishments; was
eminent as a linguist; translated the "Iliad" into German; wrote works,
the fruits of travels (1829-1888).

DORAN, JOHN, an English man of letters, born In London, of Irish
descent; wrote on miscellaneous subjects; became editor of the _Athenæum_
and _Notes and Queries_ (1807-1878).

DORAT, JEAN, a French poet, born at Limoges; a Greek scholar;
contributed much to the revival of classical literature in France, and
was one of the FRENCH PLÉIADE (q. v.); _d_. 1588.

DORCAS SOCIETY, a society for making clothing for the poor. See Acts
ix. 39.

DORCHESTER (7), the county town of Dorset, on the Frome; was a Roman
town, and contains the ruins of a Roman amphitheatre.

DORDOGNE, a river in the S. of France, which, after a course of 300
m., falls into the estuary of Garonne; also a dep. (478) through which it

DORÉ, GUSTAVE, a French painter and designer, born in Strasburg;
evinced great power and fertility of invention, having, it is alleged,
produced more than 50,000 designs; had a wonderful faculty for seizing
likenesses, and would draw from memory groups of faces he had seen only
once; among the books he illustrated are the "Contes Drolatiques" of
Balzac, the works of Rabelais and Montaigne, Dante's "Inferno," also his
"Purgatorio" and "Paradiso," "Don Quixote," Tennyson's "Idylls," Milton's
works, and Coleridge's "Ancient Mariner"; among his paintings were
"Christ Leaving the Prætorium," and "Christ's Entry into Jerusalem"; he
has left behind him works of sculpture as well as drawings and pictures;
his art has been severely handled by the critics, and most of all by
Ruskin, who treats it with unmitigated scorn (1832-1883).

DORIA, ANDREA, a naval commander, born in Genoa, of noble descent,
though his parents were poor; a man of patriotic instincts; adopted the
profession of arms at the age of 19; became commander of the fleet in
1513; attacked with signal success the Turkish corsairs that infested the
Mediterranean; served under Francis I. to free his country from a faction
that threatened its independence, and, by his help, succeeded in
expelling it; next, in fear of the French supremacy, served, under
Charles V., and entering Genoa, was hailed as its liberator, and received
the title of "Father and Defender of his country"; the rest of his life,
and it was a long one, was one incessant wrestle with his great rival
Barbarossa, the chief of the corsairs, and which ended in his defeat

DORIANS, one of the four divisions of the Hellenic race, the other
three being the Achæans, the Æolians, and the Ionians; at an early period
overran the whole Peloponnesus; they were a hardy people, of staid habits
and earnest character.

DORIC, the oldest, strongest, and simplest of the four Grecian
orders of architecture.

DORINE, a petulant domestic in Molière's "Tartuffe."

DORIS, a small mountainous country of ancient Greece, S. of
Thessaly, and embracing the valley of the Pindus.

DORIS, the wife of Nereus, and mother of the Nereids.

DORISLAUS, ISAAC, a lawyer, born at Alkmaar, in Holland; came to
England, and was appointed Judge-Advocate; acted as such at King
Charles's trial, and was for that latter offence assassinated at the
Hague one evening by certain high-flying Royalist cut-throats, Scotch
several of them; "his portrait represents him as a man of heavy,
deep-wrinkled, elephantine countenance, pressed down by the labours of
life and law" (1595-1649).

DORKING (7), a market-town picturesquely situated in the heart of
Surrey, 24 m. SW. of London; gives name to a breed of fowls; contains a
number of fashionable villas.

DORN, a distinguished German orientalist; wrote a History of the
Afghans, and on their language (1805-1881).

DORNER, ISAAK AUGUST, a German theologian, born at Würtemberg;
studied at Tübingen; became professor of Theology in Berlin, after having
held a similar post in several other German universities; his principal
works were the "History of the Development of the Doctrine of the Person
of Christ," and the "History of Protestant Theology" (1809-1884).

DORNOCH, the county town of Sutherland, a small place, but a royal
burgh; has a good golf course.

DOROS, a son of Helen and grandson of Deucalion, the father of the
Dorians, as his brother Æolis was of the Æolians.

DOROTHEA, ST., a virgin of Alexandria, suffered martyrdom by being
beheaded in 311. Festival, Feb. 6.

DORPAT (38), a town on the Embach, in Livonia, Russia, 150 m. NE. of
Riga, with a celebrated university founded by Gustavus Adolphus in 1632;
it has a well-equipped staff, and is well attended; the majority of the
population is German.

D'ORSAY, COUNT, a man of fashion, born in Paris; entered the French
army; forsook it for the society of Lord and Lady Blessington; married
Lady B.'s daughter by a former marriage; came to England with her
ladyship on her husband's death; started a joint establishment in London,
which became a rendezvous for all the literary people and artists about
town; was "Phoebus Apollo of Dandyism"; paid homage to Carlyle at Chelsea
one day in 1839; "came whirling hither in a chariot that struck all
Chelsea into mute amazement with splendour," says Carlyle, who thus
describes him, "a tall fellow of six feet three, built like a tower, with
floods of dark auburn hair, with a beauty, with an adornment
unsurpassable on this planet: withal a rather substantial fellow at
bottom, by no means without insight, without fun, and a sort of rough
sarcasm, rather striking out of such a porcelain figure"; having shown
kindness to Louis Napoleon when in London, the Prince did not forget him,
and after the _coup d'état_ appointed him to a well-salaried post, but he
did not live to enjoy it (1798-1852).

DORSET (194), maritime county in the S. of England, with a deeply
indented coast; it consists of a plain between two eastward and westward
reaching belts of downs; is mainly a pastoral county; rears sheep and
cattle, and produces butter and cheese.

DORT, or DORDRECHT (34), a town on an island in the Maas, in
the province of South Holland, 12 m. SE. of Rotterdam; admirably situated
for trade, connected as it is with the Rhine as well, on which rafts of
wood are sent floating down to it; is famous for a Synod held here in
1618-19, at which the tenets of Arminius were condemned, and the
doctrines of Calvin approved of and endorsed as the doctrines of the
Reformed Church.

DORTMUND (89), a town in Westphalia; a great mineral and railway
centre, with large iron and steel forges, and a number of breweries.

DORY, JOHN, the hero of an old ballad.

DO-THE-BOYS'-HALL, a scholastic establishment in "Nicholas

DOUAY (31), a town on the Scarpe, in the dep. of Nord, France, 20 m.
S. of Lille, and one of the chief military towns of the country; has a
college founded in 1568 for the education of Catholic priests intended
for England, and is where a version of the Bible in English for the use
of Catholics was issued.

DOUBS, a tributary of the Saône, which it falls into below Dôle;
gives name to the dep. (303), which it traverses.

DOUBTING CASTLE, a castle belonging to Giant Despair in the
"Pilgrim's Progress," which only one key could open, the key Promise.

DOUCE, FRANCIS, a learned antiquary, born in London; for a time
keeper of MSS. in the British Museum; author of "Illustrations of
Shakespeare," and an illustrated volume, "The Dance of Death"; left in
the Museum a chest of books and MSS. not to be opened till 1900; was a
man of independent means, and a devoted archæologist (1757-1834).

DOUGLAS (19), the largest town and capital as well as chief port of
the Isle of Man, 74 m. from Liverpool; much frequented as a
bathing-place; contains an old residence of the Dukes of Atholl, entitled
Castle Mona, now a hotel. See MAN, ISLE OF.

DOUGLAS, the name of an old Scotch family, believed to be of Celtic
origin, and that played a conspicuous part at one time in the internal
and external struggles of the country; they figure in Scottish history in
two branches, the elder called the Black and the later the Red Douglases
or the Angus branch, now represented by the houses of Hamilton and Home.
The eldest of the Douglases, William, was a kinsman of the house of
Murray, and appears to have lived about the end of the 12th century. One
of the most illustrious of the family was the Good Sir James,
distinguished specially as the "Black" Douglas, the pink of knighthood
and the associate of Bruce, who carried the Bruce's heart in a casket to
bury it in Palestine, but died fighting in Spain, 1330.

DOUGLAS, GAWIN or GAVIN, a Scottish poet and bishop of Dunkeld,
third son of Archibald, Earl of Angus, surnamed "Bell-the-Cat"; political
troubles obliged him to leave the country and take refuge at the Court of
Henry VII., where he was held in high regard; died here of the plague,
and was buried by his own wish in the Savoy; besides Ovid's "Art of
Love," now lost, he translated (1512-1513) the "Æneid" of Virgil into
English verse, to each book of which he prefixed a prologue, in certain
of which there are descriptions that evince a poet's love of nature
combined with his love as a Scotchman for the scenery of his native land;
besides this translation, which is his chief work, he indited two
allegorical poems, entitled the "Palace of Honour," addressed to James
IV., and "King Hart" (1474-1522).

DOUGLAS, SIR HOWARD, an English general and writer on military
subjects, born at Gosport; saw service in the Peninsula; was Governor of
New Brunswick and Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands

DOUGLAS, JOHN, bishop of Salisbury, born at Pittenweem, Fife; wrote
"The Criterion of, or a Discourse on, Miracles" against Hume; was a
friend of Samuel Johnson's (1721-1807).

DOUGLAS, STEPHEN ARNOLD, an American statesman, born in Brandon,
Vermont; a lawyer by profession, and a judge; a member of Congress and
the Senate; was a Democrat; stood for the Presidency when Lincoln was
elected; was a leader in the Western States; a splendid monument is
erected to his memory in Chicago (1813-1861).

DOUGLASS, FREDERICK, American orator, born a slave in Maryland;
wrought as a slave in a Baltimore shipbuilder's yard; escaped at the age
of 21 to New York; attended an anti-slavery meeting, where he spoke so
eloquently that he was appointed by the Anti-Slavery Society to lecture
in its behalf, which he did with success and much appreciation in England
as well as America; published an Autobiography, which gives a thrilling
account of his life (1817-1895).

DOULTON, SIR HENRY, the reviver of art pottery, born in Lambeth;
knighted in the Jubilee year for his eminence in that department; _b_.

DOURO, a river, and the largest, of the Spanish Peninsula, which
rises in the Cantabrian Mountains; forms for 40 m. the northern boundary
of Portugal, and after a course of 500 m. falls into the Atlantic at
Oporto; is navigable only where it traverses Portugal.

DOUSTER-SWIVEL, a German swindling schemer in the "Antiquary."

DOVE, in Christian art the symbol of the Holy Ghost, or of a pure,
or a purified soul, and with an olive branch, the symbol of peace and the
gospel of peace.

DOVE, HEINRICH WILHELM, a German physicist, born at Liegnitz,
Silesia; professor of Natural Philosophy in Berlin; was eminent chiefly
in the departments of meteorology and optics; he discovered how by the
stereoscope to detect forged bank-notes (1803-1879).

DOVER (33), a seaport on the E. coast of Kent, and the nearest in
England to the coast of France, 60 m. SE. of London, and with a mail
service to Calais and Ostend; is strongly fortified, and the chief
station in the SE. military district of England; was the chief of the
Cinque Ports.

DOVER, STRAIT OF, divides France from England and connects the
English Channel with the North Sea, and at the narrowest 20 m. across;
forms a busy sea highway; is called by the French _Pas de Calais_.

DOVREFELD, a range of mountains in Norway, stretching NE. and
extending between 62° and 63° N. lat., average height 3000 ft.

DOW or DOUW, GERARD, a distinguished Dutch genre-painter, born
at Leyden; a pupil of Rembrandt; his works, which are very numerous, are
the fruit of a devoted study of nature, and are remarkable for their
delicacy and perfection of finish; examples of his works are found in all
the great galleries of Europe (1613-1675).

DOWDEN, EDWARD, literary critic, professor of English Literature in
Dublin University, born in Cork; is distinguished specially as a
Shakesperian; is author of "Shakespeare: a Study of his Mind and Art,"
"Introduction to Shakespeare," and "Shakesperian Sonnets, with Notes";
has written "Studies in Literature," and a "Life of Shelley"; is well
read in German as well as English literature; has written with no less
ability on Goethe than on Shakespeare; _b_. 1843.

DOWN (266), a maritime county in the SE. of the province of Ulster,
Ireland, with a mostly level and fairly fertile soil, and manufactures of

DOWNS, THE, a safe place of anchorage, 8 m. long by 6 m. broad, for
ships between Goodwin Sands and the coast of Kent.

DOWNS, THE NORTH AND SOUTH, two parallel ranges of low broad hills
covered with a light soil and with a valley between, called the Weald,
that extend eastward from Hampshire to the sea-coast, the North
terminating in Dover cliffs, Kent, and the South in Beachy Head, Sussex;
the South famous for the breed of sheep that pastures on them.

DOYLE, DR. CONAN, novelist, nephew of Richard and grandson of John,
born in Edinburgh; studied and practised medicine, but gave it up after a
time for literature, in which he had already achieved no small success;
several of his productions have attracted universal attention, especially
his "Adventures" and his "Memoir of Sherlock Holmes"; wrote a short play
"A Story of Waterloo," produced with success by Sir Henry Irving; _b_.

DOYLE, SIR FRANCIS HASTINGS, an English poet, born near Tadcaster;

Online LibraryUnknownThe Nuttall Encyclopaedia Being a Concise and Comprehensive Dictionary of General Knowledge → online text (page 56 of 197)