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spiritual and temporal affairs; and for all the aforesaid matters,
and for our consolation and aid, we are sure of this gratification,
which your majesty will be pleased to grant us fully, as is your
majesty's wonted custom to so faithful servants and vassals. May our
Lord watch over the sacred Catholic royal person of your majesty; and
may he augment you with great kingdoms and seigniories, as is desired
by us, your majesty's faithful servants and subjects. From the island
of Cubu, the first of June, the year MDLXV. Sacred Catholic Majesty,
your sacred Catholic majesty's faithful servants and subjects, who with
all humility kiss your majesty's royal feet: Miguel Lopez de Legazpi,
[87] Mateo Delsaz, Martin de Goiti, Guido de Lauezari, Andres Cabchela,
Andres de Mjrandaola, Andres de Ybarra, Luis de la Hava, Fernando
Riquel, government notary; Amador de Arriaron, Juan Maldonado de
Berrocal, Gabriel de Rribera, Juan de la Ysla, Jerónimo de Moncon,
Hernando Lopez, Don Pedro de Herrera, Francisco de Leon, Marcos de
Herrera, Pedro de Herrera, Juan Pacheco Maldonado, Diego Lopez Pilo,
Christobal de Angulo, Luis Antonio Bañuelos, Garcia de Padilla,
Martin de Larrea, Lloreynte Machado, Lope Rodriguez, Garcia Ramyrez,
Francisco Escudero de la Porlilla, Rodrigo de Ribera, Pablos Ernandes,
Francisco Lopez, corporal, Bartolomé Rodriguez, Diego Fernandez de
Montemayor, Antonio Flores, Julio Garcia, Anton Aluarez Degrado,
Francisco de Herrera, Ernando de Monrrey.

[_Addressed:_ "To the Sacred-Catholic Majesty, King Don Felipe our
lord, from the general and his camp in the Western Islands."]

[_Endorsed:_ "+ To his majesty. Seen. From the island of Cubu from
Miguel Lopez de Legazpi and others. June first, 1565."]

A Letter from the Royal Officials of the Filipinas Accompanied by a
Memorandum of the Necessary Things to Be Sent to the Colony

Most powerful sirs:

As your highness [88] must have already learned through the despatch
carried as from us by the bachelor Myñes [Martinez], we set sail
for these Western Islands on the twentieth of November, MDLXIIII. In
compliance with your highness's command, we shall relate what occurs
in those islands with all faithfulness and diligence.

Since your highness will find an account of the voyage made by us,
in the relation given by the pilots who come with the fleet, we
shall say no more about it, except by way of reference. We shall
only relate the events which concern the service of God, our Lord,
the service of his majesty, and the increase which his royal exchequer
can derive from these regions.

We reached these Felipinas on the thirteenth of February, MD[L]XV. From
the day of our arrival here until now we have found not a friend or a
people who submits to his majesty. The reason for this was disclosed
to us after we had sailed about in this archipelago for two months,
namely, that the Portuguese who are in the Malucos came to an island
called Bohol, where we remained thirty-seven days, and there committed
the following mischief: after they had made peace with the natives and
given them to understand that they came to trade with them, they called
together one day as many natives as they could; and while the latter,
thinking themselves safe, were trading with them, the Portuguese gave a
war-signal and killed five hundred people, capturing six hundred more
whom they took to Maluco as slaves. This has caused us great anxiety,
because the natives, having received such cruel treatment, were so
frightened that whenever they saw a sail they ran to the mountains;
and, if any of them remained, it was to tell us that they desired none
of our friendship. Thus from the day we arrived until now, we have
suffered much hardship. We stopped at an island where Magallanes's
men were killed, and there the people received us somewhat peacefully;
but the following day, after they had placed in safety their wives and
children, they said that they did not wish to give us in exchange for
our goods anything of what we had asked, namely, their provisions. As
we have just said, they declared that not only they would not give us
anything, but that they were willing to fight us. Thus we were forced
to accept the challenge. We landed our men and disposed the artillery
of the ships, which were close to the houses of the town, so that
the firing of the artillery from the said ships and the arquebuses on
land drove the enemy away; but we were unable to capture any of them,
because they had their fleet ready for the sea.

They abandoned their houses, and we found in them nothing except an
image of the child Jesus, and two culverins, one of iron and one
of bronze, which can be of no service to us; it is believed that
they were brought here at the time of Magallanes. We rejoiced, as
all Christians ought in like case; for we saw that the Lord had been
pleased to place us under his protection and grant us prosperity and
favor. We beseech him to guide us in his service and to preserve us
in that of his majesty.

As far as we have seen, in all the places to which we have thus far
come, we think that his majesty could turn them into great kingdoms
and seigniories, if your highness send us the supply of men, arms,
ammunition, and artillery; for in our present condition we need
everything, and find ourselves in the midst of many and warlike
peoples - who, on account of the Portuguese, have declared war against
us throughout the whole of the archipelago.

The memorial of things which this camp needs accompanies this
letter. [89] Your highness will order that they be supplied with great
speed and diligence, for without them we shall incur great peril,
and the camp will have no means of support; but with them we shall
attain what his majesty desires.

As your highness probably knows, we brought no brands for the royal
fifths of his majesty, so that some articles of gold which were found
in the graves of these heathens have not been marked. In respect to
this and all other articles which were found and delivered to us,
we have done our duty. The general ordered that the persons who found
anything should deposit all such articles until your highness shall
command otherwise. We beg your highness to order that the right
measures be taken in this case; also in regard to the fifths, and
the procedure which must be adopted in these regions in all matters
pertaining to the service of his majesty and other duties. A general
edict was published that any person obtaining gold, pearls, jewels,
and precious stones, should lose all, unless they are registered in
the register of his majesty, for lack of the said brands with which
to mark the fifths. We notify the officials residing in that city
[Mexico], so that in case anything should appear that is not noted
in the register, they shall take the necessary steps in regard to it.

The specimens of gold, cinnamon, and wax were found in a port called
Butuan, where we, the treasurer, and the factor, went by order of the
general to investigate a certain report which we had heard concerning
things to be found in the island of Beguendanao [Mindanao]. We found
the aforesaid port, and in it two Moro junks which were trading
there. According to orders received, we made peace with the lord of
the said port, and gave him the message and the present which the
general sent him. We gave him to understand that with his pleasure we
were going to trade in his land, and that we would favor and protect
him in everything in the name of his majesty. He answered us through
the Moros, who served as interpreters, that he was pleased with our
offers. We learned that the Moros felt very uneasy about the embassy,
and we think that they influenced the said ruler and the natives
by their vile designs. We were obliged to trade with them because
they gave no opportunity to the natives to trade with us. The said
Moros demanded in exchange for their goods nothing but _testones_,
and it was agreed that for each weight of gold six of silver should
be given. At this rate we bartered for the specimens of gold, wax,
and cinnamon, which we send to his majesty and to your highness. The
money belonged to some deceased persons, a memorandum of which we
send to the officials of the royal exchequer.

We beseech his majesty, and your highness in his royal name,
that, inasmuch as the said Moros and others take all the gold,
pearls, jewels, precious stones and other things of which we have
no information, - thus injuring the natives, both by giving us no
opportunity to plant our holy faith among them, and by taking the said
gold, they should, if they continue the said trade, lose their property
and be made slaves, for they preach the doctrine of Mahomet. This
matter, as well as the necessary supplies to be sent for our aid,
your highness will order to be looked after with great diligence;
because all that we ask for in the memorandum is of great necessity
in our present critical condition. May your highness add and send
whatever may seem best to you, so that we may be able to accomplish
in these regions what his majesty desires. There is great need of
the Christian religion among these natives, as well as of the men
and other things asked in the memorandum. May our Lord keep the most
powerful persons of your highnesses, and cause you to prosper with
large kingdoms and seigniories.

From Cubu, May xxviii, in the year MDLXV.

Most powerful sirs, we are the faithful servants of your highnesses,
who very humbly kiss your most powerful feet.

_Guido de Labecares_
_Andres Cauchela_
_Andres de Mirandaola_

Memorandum of the Supplies and Munitions Asked to Be Sent from Nueva
Espana to His Majesty's Camp at the Port of Cubu

Memorandum of things - not only articles of barter, but arms and
military supplies - which are necessary, to be provided immediately
from Nueva España in the first vessels sailing from the said Nueva
España to these Felipinas Islands; of which the following articles
must be speedily furnished:


First: twelve pieces of heavy artillery, and among
them culverins and reënforced cannon and swivel-guns
for the fortress which is to be built, xii

Fifty more bronze _bersos_ [small culverins], of the
sort brought from España with double chambers, 1

Twenty falcons with double chambers, xx

A dozen new scaling ladders, xii

Balls for the artillery and the molds for making them,

Two hundred _quintals_ [90] of powder cc

Fifty _quintals_ of fuses, l

Two hundred _quintals_ of lead, cc

Fifty _quintals_ of saltpetre, l

Thirty _quintals_ of rock sulphur, xxx

Three hundred arquebuses (not of the worthless
supply there in Mexico); and with them some with
flints, all with horn powder-flasks (large or small)
together with their molds and gear, which are to be
in good condition, ccc

One hundred corselets with their fittings, c

Two hundred _morions_ and helmets, cc

Fifty coats-of-mail, of rather heavy mail, 1

One hundred tapir hides, c

One hundred white blankets for light and serviceable
body armor, c

Three hundred pikes with their iron points, ccc

Fifty cavalry lances, 1

Fifty good broadswords, of which there is great need, 1

Twelve foreign cannoniers, for those whom we brought
with us are of little account, xii

Three hundred well-disposed soldiers who are to remain
here, (a third or half of them to be sailors), ccc

A dozen carpenters to build the vessels which must
be built here, xii

Two smiths, with their forges and tools, ii

Four pairs of bellows with their tubes, iiii

Twelve negroes for these forges, and among them
four sawyers, xii

An artificer or two to make arquebuses and locks
for them, ii

Two other locksmiths, ii

Fifty _quintals_ of tow, 1

A surgeon and a physician, with their drugs; and two
other barbers, [91] because only one remains here, iiii

Three hundred good shields, ccc

Two hundred _quintals_ of wrought iron plates, not
as it comes from the mine, cc

Thirty _quintals_ of the finest steel, xxx

One hundred tanned cow-hides, c

Three hundred pickaxes, ccc

Two hundred iron shovels, cc

A royal ropemaker, who is in Mexico,

One hundred Venetian sail-cloths, c

Ten _quintals_ of sailmakers' twine, x

Two bales of paper, ii

Four balances divided into three parts, iiii

Six weights for large balances, vi

Fifty horn lanterns, 1

Two hundred _fanégas_ of salt, cc

Two hundred casks of wine, cc

One hundred casks of vinegar, c

Two hundred casks of oil, cc

Five hundred _arrobas_ [92] of sugar, d

One dozen barrels of raisins and almonds, since
by not having brought them the men have suffered
great-privations, xii

Ten large hogsheads of flour, x

Blankets for the men,

Shirts in quantity,

Doublets in quantity,

Breeches of woolen cloth and linen in quantity,

Hempen sandals in quantity,

Cowhide shoes in quantity,


All in quantity for military supplies.

For barter, the following:

Two bolts of Valencian scarlet cloth, with odds
and ends, ii

_Item_ seven bolts of Toledo scarlet cloth, vii

Six cases of headdresses, vi

A great quantity of beads, blue, green, and yellow;
ten breadths of each sort, xxx

Two pieces of crimson velvet, ii

Three dozen colored hats, xxxvi

One case of large gilded coins for the coast of China, i

Two bales and two boxes of linens, iiii

Two _quintals_ of _Muzavetas_, ii

Four pounds of fine coral of all sorts, iiii

Three _quintals_ of glass, (one blue), iii

One thousand bundles of glass beads - green and yellow, m

Five hundred dozen hawks' bells, d

Coins and small bars of fine silver for trade in China,

Six large caldrons of pitch, vi

Two large caldrons, such as are used for bucking linen;
but they must be large and very strong, because they
are to be used in making saltpetre, ii

One thousand sailneedles, m

Two hundred hogsheads hooped with hoops of iron, cc

Two saddles with long stirrups, with colored velvet
trimmings, and all rivets, bits, and stirrup-irons
to be gilded, ii

Two cavalry saddles with colored trimmings, all to
be of good quality, ii

Six gilt swords with daggers of good quality which
are for the S.S. on the coast of China and for those
in the islands of Japan, vi

All of the aforesaid goods should be sent as soon as possible, on
the first ships that sail, for all these things are very necessary,
that we may maintain ourselves in these parts.

List of articles needed by the said fleet for the oared vessels which
are to be built here for his majesty. The list follows:

First: four hawsers, of one hundred and twenty _brazas_
[93] each; each five _quintals_, xx _quintals_

Two large cables, of eighty _brazas_ each; each one
to weigh six _quintals_, xii _quintals_

Six hawsers, of one hundred and thirty _brazas_ each;
each to weigh three _quintals_, xviii _quintals_

Two large cables additional, of one hundred and twenty
_brazas_ each; each to weigh ten _quintals_, xx _quintals_

_Item_ common sails for rigging, thirty _quintals_,
xxx _quintals_

We need one hundred _quintals_ of cordage of all sorts,
c _quintals_

Two grapnels, each to weight four _quintals_,
viii _quintals_

Four anchors, to weigh five _quintals_ apiece,
xx _quintals_

Six grapnels, to weigh three _quintals_ apiece; five
or six more, each to weigh from five to six _arrobas_,
xxxiii _arrobas_ [sic]

Four grapnels, three _arrobas each_,
xii _arrobas_

Twelve French saws, xii

Four frame-saws, iiii

Six hand-saws, vi

Two grindstones, ii

Five hundred pieces of cloths from Teguintepeq
for sails, d

One hundred _quintals_ of tar, c

Fifty _quintals_ of pitch, l

For _sallotes_ ropes which are necessary, four pieces
of one hundred and fifty _brazas_ each, to weigh
three _quintals_ apiece, xii _quintals_

Four hawsers of one hundred _brazas_ each, to weigh
four _quintals_ apiece, xvi

Two workmen, oar makers, to make oars from the wood
hereabout, ii

Two hundred pulleys; with both eyes and sheaves, cc

One hundred _quintals_ of grease, c

Two hundred sheep-skins with the wool on, cc

All this cordage to be _agave_ and hemp.

Also two anvils of two _arrobas_ each, ii

Also two small ones from six to seven pounds, ii

One anvil, i

Two screws for filing, ii

A half-dozen boys for ironworking, vi

Three or four bellows-pipes for forges, iiii

One hundred heavy coats of mail, c

The powder and fuse which have been asked for,

Likewise three or four pairs more of bellows are
asked for, iiii

Twelve more negroes, xii

Two hundred more iron axes shod in Mexico, cc

Two hundred mattocks, cc

One hundred more pieces of Tequantepeque [Tehuantepec]
and Venetian canvas, c

One pair of large fishing-nets which may come in the
hogsheads mentioned above, ii

Ear-rings, glassware, and fine coral,

The coins and bars of silver, just as they have been
asked for,

The caldrons of pitch, because those that were made
in Mexico were worthless,

One dozen caldrons with three compartments, xii

Four syringes, and the cupping glasses and the lancets
which are likewise ordered,

Sail-needles with large eyes,

Workmen who understand how to build vessels,

Six cables for the flagship, of fourteen or sixteen
_quintals_ each

The steel that is asked for. [Certain shapes and
sizes of steel spikes are specified, with drawings
to illustrate; five, thirty, forty, and fifty
respectively, of the various kinds are asked for.]

[_Endorsed:_ "List of articles which are required for his majesty's
camp situated in the port of Cubu of the West."]

Relation of the Voyage to the Philippine Islands, By Miguel Lopez
de Legazpi - 1565

Illustrious Sire:

I wrote to your excellency from Puerto de la Navidad giving as full
an account as possible up to that port. Now I shall do the same, for
I consider it a debt justly due, and I shall always consider it so
whenever the opportunity presents itself. I am enjoying good health,
thanks be to our Lord; and the same can be said of the whole camp,
a thing which ought not to be looked upon as of little importance. May
our Lord grant to your excellency the good health that I wish.

On Tuesday, November 21, three hours before dawn, I set sail with the
fleet that was at Puerto de la Navidad. For five days the fleet sailed
southwest, but on the sixth we directed our course westward until we
reached the ninth degree. We sailed on in this latitude in search of
the island of Los Reyes, in order that we might go from that point
to the Felippinas. A week after we had taken this course, we awoke
one morning and missed the _patache_ "San Lucas," with Captain Don
Alonso de Arellano in command. There had been no stormy weather to
make it lose sight of us; nor could it have been Don Alonso's fault,
for he was a gallant man, as he showed. It is believed that it was
due to the malice or intent of the pilot. And as he had already been
informed about the expedition that we were making, and the course we
were to sail, and as he was fully instructed as to what he must do in
case he should lose sight of us (as actually happened), and whither
he must proceed to await us, we expected all the time that we would
find the vessel in some of these islands. But up to this time we have
heard nothing of it, which gives me not a little uneasiness. After the
fleet had sailed for fifty days in the same course between nine and
ten degrees, a degree more or less, we reached land, which proved to
be an island inhabited by poor and naked fishermen. This island was
about four leagues in circumference, and had a population of about
two hundred men. That same day we sailed between two other small
islands, which were uninhabited and surrounded by many reefs, which
proved very troublesome to us for five or six days. At the end of
that time we decided that the fleet should continue its course along
the thirteenth degree of latitude, so that we might strike a better
land of the Filipinas, which the pilots were finding already, and
should not strike Vindanao. We followed our course in this latitude,
and on Monday, January 21, we came in sight of land, which afterward
proved to be one of the Ladrones Islands, called Gua. We directed our
bows to that island, but we were no more than two leagues from it when
fifty or sixty _praus_ under sail surrounded the fleet. These _praus_
were furnished with lateen sails of palm mats and were as light as
the wind; this is a kind of boat that sails with remarkable speed,
either with the wind or at random. In each canoe were from six to eight

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Online LibraryUnknownThe Philippine Islands, 1493-1803 — Volume 02 of 55 1521-1569 Explorations by Early Navigators, Descriptions of the Islands and Their Peoples, Their History and Records of the Catholic Missions, as Re → online text (page 11 of 22)