The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803 — Volume 02 of 55 1521-1569 Explorations by Early Navigators, Descriptions of the Islands and Their Peoples, Their History and Records of the Catholic Missions, as Re online

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order that, in their presence, the government notary, with Hieronimo
Pacheco, interpreter of the Malay tongue (which is spoken by many of
the natives of this land), might request the natives, as vassals of
the king of Castilla, to receive us peaceably. They were to assure the
people that I did not come to do them any harm, but on the contrary
to show them every favor, and to cultivate their friendship. Three
times this announcement was made to them, with all the signs and kind
words possible to win their friendship. But at length - seeing that
all our good intentions were of no avail, and that all the natives
had put on their wooden corselets and rope armor [101] and had armed
themselves with their lances, shields, small cutlasses, and arrows;
and that many plumes and varicolored headdresses were waving; and
that help of men had come in _praus_ from the outside, so that their
number must be almost two thousand warriors; and considering that
now was the time for us to make a settlement and effect a colony, and
that the present port and location were exactly suited to our needs,
and that it was useless for us to wait any longer; and seeing that
there was no hope for peace, and that they did not wish it, although
we had offered it - the master-of-camp said to the natives through an
interpreter: "Since you do not desire our friendship, and will not
receive us peacefully, but are anxious for war, wait until we have
landed; and look to it that you act as men, and defend yourselves
from us, and guard your houses." The Indians answered boldly: "Be it
so! Come on! We await you here." And thereupon they broke out into
loud cries, covering themselves with their shields and brandishing
their lances. Then they returned to the place whence they had set out,
hurling their lances by divisions of threes at the boat, and returning
again to their station, going and coming as in a game of _cañas_. [102]
Our men got ready and left the ships in boats; and as the boats left
the ships for the shore, in accordance with the order given them,
some shots were fired from the ships upon the multitude of _praus_
anchored near a promontory, as well as at the landsmen upon shore,
and upon the town. But, although they had showed so great a desire
for war, when they heard the artillery and saw its effects, they
abandoned their village without waiting for battle, and fled through
the large, beautiful, and fertile open fields that are to be seen
in this region. Accordingly we remained in the village, which had
been left totally without provisions by the natives. We pursued the
enemy, but they are the lightest and swiftest runners whom I have
ever seen. When we entered the village, all the food had been already
taken away. However, I believe that there will be no lack of food. In
exchange for our hardships this is a good prospect, although there
is no hope of food except through our swords. The land is thickly
populated, and so fertile that four days after we took the village
the Castilian seeds had already sprouted. We have seen some little
gold here, on the garments worn by the natives. We are at the gate
and in the vicinity of the most fortunate countries of the world, and
the most remote; it is three hundred leagues or thereabouts farther
than great China, Burnei, Java, Lauzon, Samatra, Maluco, Malaca,
Patan, Sian, Lequios, Japan, and other rich and large provinces. I
hope that, through God's protection, there will be in these lands no
slight result for his service and the increase of the royal crown,
if this land is settled by Spaniards, as I believe it will be. From
this village of Cubu, I have despatched the ship with the father prior
[Urdaneta] and my grandson, Phelipe de Zauzedo, with a long relation
of the things which I boldly write here to your excellency. They will
inform his majesty at length, as persons who have been eyewitnesses
of all especially of what has taken place here, the state of the new
settlement, and the arrangements made for everything. It remains to
be said that, since this fleet was despatched by the most illustrious
viceroy, my master, of blessed memory, and further, chiefly because of
being an enterprise that every gentleman should all the more favor,
inasmuch as it pertains naturally to your excellency, as the heir
of the glory resulting from this expedition - your excellency should
favor it in such a manner that we may feel here the touch of your
most illustrious hand, and so that aid should be sent as promptly as
the necessity of our condition demands. For we shall have war not
only with the natives of this and other neighboring islands of the
Philipinas (which is of the lesser import), but - a thing of greater
consequence - we shall have to wage war with many different nations
and islands, who will aid these people, and will side against us. On
seeing us settled in this island the Portuguese will not be pleased,
nor will the Moros and other powerful and well-armed people. It might
happen that, if aid is delayed and is not sent by you to us with all
promptitude, the delay will prove a sufficient obstacle, so that no
result will follow from the work that we have accomplished. I beg his
majesty to send us some aid with the promptness, which rightly should
not be less man in that city of España, where his majesty resides. And
because it is worth knowing, and so that your excellency may understand
that God, our Lord, has waited in this same place, and that he will be
served, and that pending the beginning of the extension of his holy
faith and most glorious name, he has accomplished most miraculous
things in this western region, your excellency should know that on
the day when we entered this village one of the soldiers went into
a large and well-built house of an Indian, where he found an image
of the child Jesus (whose most holy name I pray may be universally
worshiped). This was kept in its cradle, all gilded, just as it was
brought from España; and only the little cross which is generally
placed upon the globe in his hand was lacking. This image was well
kept in that house, and many flowers were found before it, no one
knows for what object or purpose. The soldier bowed before it with
all reverence and wonder, and brought the image to the place where
the other soldiers were. I pray the holy name of this image which we
have found here, to help us and to grant us victory, in order that
these lost people who are ignorant of the precious and rich treasure
which was in their possession, may come to a knowledge of him.

Copia de Vna Carta Venida de Se|-
Uilla a Miguel Saluador de
Valencia. La Qual Narra El Ventu|Roso Des-
Cubrimiento Que los Mexicanos Han
Hecho, Naue-|Gando con la Armada
Quesu Magestad Mando Hazer en|
Mexico. Con Otros Cosas Mar-
Auillosas, y de Gran| Prone-
Cho Para Toda la Chris-
Tiandad: Con|Dignas
De Ser Vistas y

¶_En Barcelona, Per Pau Cortey, 1566._

Desto de la China ay dos relaciones, y es, que a los dezisiete de
Nouiembre del año de mil y quinietos y sessenta y quatro, por mandado
de su Mage. se hizo vna armada en el puerto de la Natiuidad e la
mar del Sur, cient leguas de Mexico, de dos naues, y dos pataysos,
para descubrir las yslas dela especieria, que las llaman Philippinas,
por nuestro Rey, costaron mas de seyscientos mil pesos de Atipusque
hechas a la vela.

¶Partieron el dicho dia del puerto, y nauegaron seys dias juntas:
y a los siete les dio vna barrusca, que se aparto dellas el Patays,
que era de cincuenta toneladas, y lleuana venyte [_sc._ veynte]
hombres: el qual nauego cincuenta dias, y al fin dellos, vio tierra,
que eran muchas islas entre las quales vio vna mas grande, y alli
surgio. ¶Acudieron ala costa gente dela isla la qual es mas blanca que
los Indios nuestros: y las mugeres muy mas blancas que los hombres,
como las mugeres de cosas de palma texidas, y labradas encima con
sedas de colores. Porgala. trahen los dientes colorados, y horadados,
y enlos agujeros vnos clauicos de oro. Y los hombres con calcas de
lieço de algodõ con senogiles de seda, con muchas pieças de oro. ¶Entre
ellos vino vno q parescia de mas calidad, vestido todo de seda, con vn
alfange, la empuñadura, y guarniciones de oro, y piedras. ¶Los nuestros
les pidieron mantenimientos, y dierõ se losa trueque de bugerias:
pero ellos pidierõ hierro y dio seles: y quando vieron los clauos,
no querian otro sina clauos, y estos pagauan con oro en poluo. Trayan
algunos vnas dagas de azero muy galanas, y muestran ser gente politica
y de mucha razõ. Vsan depeso y medida: dierõ alos nuestros gamos,
puercos, gallinas, codornizes, arroz, mijo, y pan de palmas: de todo
esto ay grande abudancia. Estuno alli el Patays casi treynta dias,
esperando las otras naues, y como no vinieron, determino de boluer
a Mexico: y al tiepo que salio dela isla, encontro vn junco, que es
navio de casi cient toneladas, enla qual venian sessenta Indios,
y como vieron el Patays, todos se echarona nado, y se fueron a la
tierra, que estana cerca. Entraron dentro algunos soldados, por
mandado del capitan, y hallaron que yua cargado de porcellanas,
y mantas, y lienços pintados, y otras cosas dela tierra, y algunos
cañutillos de oro molido, delos quales no tomaron mas que vno, y
algunas porcellanas, y algunas mantas: y delo demas, de todo poco,
para traher lo por muestra. Estuuo este Patays en yr y en boluer,
dozientos, y treynta dias. Huuieron de menester subir mas de quarenta
grados hazia el norte. Huuo desde el puerto do partieron, hasta esta
isla, mil y sete cientas leguas. ¶Las otras tres naues dentro de
cincuenta dias hallaron muchas islas, y aportarõ en algunas dellas,
y passaron en cada vna dellas muchas cosas, que estan grande la
relacion, que ocupa veynte pliegos de papel. En fin aportaron a vna
isla grande que se llama Iubu, y alli hizieron amistad conel rey
della, que se hizo desta manera. Saco se el rey sangre del pecho,
y el capitan assi mesmo, y echada la sangre de entrabos en vna copa
de vino la partierõ por medio, y el vno benio la vna mitad, y el
otro la otra mitad: y aquello dizen q haze la amistad inuiolable. Cõ
todo esto tuuierõ ciertas passiones, y robarõ vn lugarejo: y en vna
casa pobre hallaron vn niño Iesus, destos que traen de Flandes, con
su velo, y pomo enla mano, tan fresco como si se acabara de hazer
entonces. En aquella isla qui sieron poblar, porq es muy abundãte de
todos los mantenimientos, y començaron a hazer vn fuerte, y hizierõ
fuera del vna yglesia, dopusieron el niño Iesus, y la llamarõ del
nombre de Iesus: y la isla la llaman sant Miguel, porque se entro
enella el dia de su Aparicion. Y de alli alos Malucas dõde esta
la especieria, ay cient y cincueta leguas, y ala China dozientas,
y a Malach quinientas leguas. Y hallaron alli canela finissima que
la hauian los dela isla trahydo de los Malucas y gengibre, y cosas
de seda galanas. Y de alli embiaron delas tres naues la capitana
de Mexico, do llego despues que hauia llegado el Patays, y estauan
adereçando otras dos naues para socorro. Hay muchas otras islas por
alli muy grandes, y son del mismo modo desta. Entre las otras hay vna
tierra tan rica de oro, que no lo estiman en nada: y hay tãta cãtidad
de canela que la quemã en lugar de leñares de tan luzida gente, q la
ygualan con España. Hay alli vn rey q tiene ala continua mil hõbres
de guarda: y estima se tanto que ninguno de sus vassallos le vee la
cara sino vna vez enel año: y si le han de hablar para tratar conel
algo, le hablã por vna zebratana: y quãdo de año a año se dexa ver,
le dã muy grandes riquezas. Son gente muy prima, hazen brocados,
y sedas texidas de muchas maneras. Tienen en tan poco el oro, q dio
este rey por vn pretal de cascaueles, tres barchillas de oro en poluo:
porq alli todo quanto oro ay es en poluo. Cargaron estas tres naues
quando tornaron tanta cantidad de oro en aquella isla, que mõto el
quinto q dan al rey vn millon y dozientos mil ducados. ¶Andan por alla
Moros contratando con naues, y trocãdo cosas de su tierra por oro, y
mantas, y especieria, y por clauos y otras cosas. Encontro la armada
con vna naue dellos, y tomola, aunque se defendio de tal manera,
q mato vno dellos, y hirieron mas de veynte. Y trahian muchas cosas
de oro y mantas, y otras especierias que hauian rescatado. Hay tantas
islas que dize que son seteta cinco mil y ochocientas. En esta isla
de Iubu do hazen poblacion, es do mataron a Magallanes. Y dizen, que
los Portugueses con ciertas Carauelas aportaron por alli, haura dos
años, llamãdose Españoles, y vassallos del rey de Castilla, y robaron
muchas islas, y las saquearon, y lleuaron mucha gente captiua, porque
como veyan q nuestra armada se haiza enla nueua España, tomassen los
nuestros cõ los dela tierra mal credito. Y assi quando los nuestros
llegaron, pensando que eran ellos, huyan alos mõtes con sus joyas,
y haziendas. Y se ha visto el general en harto trabajo por
apaziguarlos, y darles a entender que son ellos, y cierto deue ser
hombre cuerdo, porque por la relaciõ se vee hauer tenido mucho
sufrimiento, por no topar con ellos, y los ha lleuado con mucho
amor, sin hazer agrauio a nadie. Ello escosa grãde, y de mucha
importãcia: y los de Mexico estã muy vfanos con su descubrimiento,
q tienen entedido q seran ellos el coraçon del mundo. Trahe eneste
nauio de auiso q es venido agora aca, gegibre, canela, oro en poluo,
vna arroua de conchas riquissimas de oro, y blancas, joyas de oro,
cera, y otras cosas para dar muestra delo que en aquella tierra ay,
y muchas bugerias, y otras cosas muy galanas. Y aunque no las traxeran,
harto trahian en hauer descubierto y hallado la nauegacion por aquestas
partes, que es cosa de mucha calidad. Con la flota sabremos mas delo
que supiere auisare a V.M. &c.

Copy of a Letter Sent from Seuilla
To Miguel Saluador of
Valencia. Which Narrates the Fortunate
Discovery Made By the Mexicans Who
Sailed in the Fleet Which His Majesty
Ordered to Be Built in
Mexico. With Other Wonderful
Things of Great Advantage
For All Christendom:
Worthy of
Being Seen and

¶_Printed in Barcelona, By Pau Cortey, 1566._

Of this discovery, two relations have come from China: namely, that
on the seventeenth of November, [103] in the year one thousand five
hundred and sixty-four, a fleet was made ready by order of his majesty
in Puerto de le Natividad, (which is situated on the Southern Sea,
one hundred leagues from Mexico), consisting of two ships and two
_pataches_, in order to discover the spice islands, which are named
Philippinas, after our king. This fleet, when ready for sailing,
cost more than six hundred thousand _pesos_ of Atipusque. [104]

¶These vessels set sail from port on the above-mentioned day,
voyaging in company for six days. On the seventh a squall struck them,
separating from the others the _patache_, a vessel of fifty tons'
burden, and carrying a crew of twenty men. [105] This vessel sailed
for fifty days, at the end of which time land was sighted. This proved
to be a number of islands, among which they saw one larger than the
others, where they cast anchor. ¶On the shore of the island were
gathered the natives, who are lighter complexioned than our Indians,
the women being of even lighter hue than the men. Men and women were
clad alike in garments woven from the palm, and worked along the edges
with different colored silks. By way of adornment, they color their
teeth, and bore them through from side to side, placing pegs of gold
in the holes. The men wear drawers of cotton cloth, silken garters,
and many pieces of gold. ¶Among them was one man who seemed of higher
rank than the others, clad wholly in silk, and wearing a cutlass,
of which the hilt and sword guard were gold and precious stones. ¶Our
men asked them for food, giving them various trinkets in exchange. But
they asked for iron, which was given to them; and when they caught
sight of the nails, they desired nothing else, and paid for them
with gold-dust. Some of them wear very neatly-made steel daggers, and
they appear to be a polite and intelligent people. They use weights
and measures. They gave our men deer, swine, poultry, quail, rice,
millet, and bread made of dates - all in great abundance. The _patache_
remained here for about thirty days, waiting for the other ships;
but, as these did not come, they determined to return to Mexico. As
they left the island, they met a junk, which is a vessel of about one
hundred tons' burden, in which were sixty Indians. When these caught
sight of the _patache_, all threw themselves into the water, and
swam to the shore, which was not far away. Some soldiers, by command
of the captain, boarded the junk, and found it laden with porcelain,
cloths, figured linens, and other products of their country, together
with some beads of hammered gold. Of these latter they took but one,
with some of the porcelain and cloth - a little of each thing - to
carry as specimens. In going and returning this _patache_ consumed
two hundred and thirty days. They were compelled to run to the north,
beyond the fortieth degree. From the port of departure to that island,
they sailed one thousand seven hundred leagues. ¶Within fifty days,
the other three vessels discovered many islands. They anchored at
some of these, and in each one they suffered many hardships. So long
is the relation of this, that it fills twenty sheets of paper. [106]
Finally they landed at a large island named Iubu, where they made
friendship with its king. This was done in the following manner. The
king drew some blood from his breast, and the captain did the same. The
blood of both was placed in one cup of wine, which was then divided
into two equal parts, whereupon each one drank one half; and this,
they assert, constitutes inviolable friendship. Notwithstanding
this, they had certain conflicts, and sacked a little village. In
a poorly-built house was found an image of the child Jesus, such
as comes from Flanders, with his veil and the globe in his hand,
and in as good condition as if just made. They wished to settle in
that island, because of the abundance of all kinds of food. They
began the construction of a fort, outside of which they erected a
church, wherein the child Jesus was placed, and they called the church
_Nombre de Jesús_ ["Name of Jesus"]. They named the island Sant Miguel,
because of landing there on the day of his apparition. From here to the
Malucos, where the spice is found, there is a distance of one hundred
and twenty leagues; to China, two hundred; and to Malach [Malacca],
five hundred. They found in this island the finest cinnamon, which
its people acquire through trade with the Malucos; besides ginger
and articles of fine silk. Of the three vessels, the flagship was
despatched from that island to Mexico, where it arrived later than
the _patache_, and where two other vessels were being prepared as
a relief. There are many other very large islands in that region,
in appearance quite like the above-named island. Among others is a
region so rich in gold, that the amount is beyond estimation. And
there is so great abundance of cinnamon that it is burned instead of
wood by those people, who are as luxurious as those of Spain. They
have a king there who has a constant body-guard of one thousand men,
and who is esteemed so highly that none of his subjects see his face
oftener than once a year. If they find it necessary to converse with
him on any matter, they speak to him through a long wooden tube. And
when he annually permits himself to be gazed upon, his subjects
give him many valuable things. These people are quite advanced. They
possess brocaded and silken fabrics of many different kinds. They hold
gold in so little estimation that this king gave three _barchillas_
[107] of gold dust (for there all their gold is in the form of dust)
for one string of hawk's bells. Those three vessels loaded so much
gold in that island that the king's fifth amounted to one million two
hundred thousand ducats. ¶Moros frequent that district in ships for
purposes of trade, bartering the products of their country for gold,
cloths, spices, cloves, and other articles. The fleet encountered one
of their vessels and captured it, although its occupants defended
themselves so valiantly that one of the Spaniards was killed, and
more than twenty wounded. They had much gold, cloth, besides spices,
which they had acquired in trade. So many are the islands that they
are said to number seventy-five thousand eight hundred. That island
of Iubu, where the colony was planted, is the place where Magallanes
was killed. [108] It is said that the Portuguese with some caravels
landed there about two years ago, claiming to be Spaniards and subjects
of the king of Castilla, and plundered many islands, sacking them and
seizing many of the natives. Consequently, when those people heard that
our fleet had been made ready in Nueva España, our men were held in
bad repute among the natives of that region. Therefore when our men
arrived, the inhabitants, thinking them to be the Portuguese, fled
to the mountains with their jewels and possessions. The general has
experienced much trouble in appeasing them, and in making the natives
understand who the Spaniards are. Surely he must be a discreet man,
for the relation shows that he has exercised much forbearance in not
coming to blows with them; and he has shown them much friendliness,
without causing offense to anyone. This is a great and very
important achievement; and the people of Mexico are very proud of
their discovery, which they think will make them the center of the
world. The vessel that has just come here [109] with the news of
this discovery has brought ginger, cinnamon, gold-dust, an _arroba_
of the richest gold _conchas_ and _blancas_, [110] gold ornaments,
wax, and other articles, in order to furnish proof of what this land
contains, besides many trinkets and pretty articles. And even had they
not brought these things, they bring enough in having discovered and
found the route for navigation to these districts, which is a most
notable event. When the fleet comes, we shall know more - of which,
when it is known, I shall advise you, etc.

Letters to Felipe II of Spain, By Miguel Lopez de Legazpi - 1567-68

Sacred Royal Catholic Majesty:

Captain Martin de Goyti came with me on this expedition to serve
your majesty as captain of a company of soldiers, at the order of Don
Luis de Velasco (who is in glory), who was viceroy of Nueva España;
since then, on account of the death here of the master-of-camp, Mateo
del Saez, I have committed his duties to the above-named captain. In
both capacities he has served and is serving your majesty faithfully
and loyally in every way; and he takes great care and pains, for he
is a very prudent and rigorously just man, and possessed of many
good qualities for this office. Furthermore, he has shown himself
in the wars to be skilful and courageous and of great valor, as an
old soldier who has served your majesty many years in Italy and has
always been the first in all labors and perils which have occurred. By
great diligence and care he has induced many of the natives to become
vassals of your majesty; and by his great industry and diligence has
been one of the chief means of our being able to maintain ourselves
in this land. It is well and fitting, if in this discovery any
service has been rendered to your majesty, that you recompense him,
for he also has served and toiled in it. May God, our Lord, watch
over your majesty's royal person and increase your kingdom for many
years. Done at Cebu, July 12, 1567. Sacred royal Catholic majesty,
whose royal feet your humble and faithful vassal kisses,

_Miguel Lopez De Legazpi_

Very exalted and powerful Lord:

At the end of the year one thousand five hundred and sixty-four,
I left Nueva España by way of the South Sea, for the discovery of
these islands of the West, by order and commission of his majesty;
and having arrived at these Filipinas islands, I sent a vessel
back to Nueva España to discover the return route, and to give his
majesty an account of the voyage, and inform him that a colony had
been settled in this island of Cubu. What has happened since then is,
that in these fortunate times of his majesty and your highness there
have been discovered and are being discovered many islands and lands,
in which God, our Lord, and his majesty and your highness may be very
well pleased with the great growth of our holy Catholic faith. And,
not to be prolix with long relations of affairs and details concerning
this land, I will refer you to those which I am writing to the royal

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Online LibraryUnknownThe Philippine Islands, 1493-1803 — Volume 02 of 55 1521-1569 Explorations by Early Navigators, Descriptions of the Islands and Their Peoples, Their History and Records of the Catholic Missions, as Re → online text (page 13 of 22)