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The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803 — Volume 02 of 55 1521-1569 Explorations by Early Navigators, Descriptions of the Islands and Their Peoples, Their History and Records of the Catholic Missions, as Re online

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affairs which I am carrying on with the very illustrious Miguel Lopez
de Legazpi, general of the fleet and forces of Nova Spanha. Therefore,
in certification of the above, I, Pero Bernaldez, notary-public of
this fleet, signed this document on the galleon "San Francisco,"
in the port of Çebu, on the thirteenth day of the month of October,
in the year of the birth of our Lord Jesus Christ one thousand five
hundred and sixty-eight.


_Goncalo Pereira_,
_Pedro Bernaldez_.


(_Reply:_ This is the copy of the answer which the very illustrious
Miguel Lopez de Legazpi sent to Gonçalo Pereira, captain-general
of the armada in the South Sea. I, Pero Bernaldez, notary-public of
this fleet for the king our sovereign, copied the summons of the said
Miguel Lopez de Legazpi.)

I, Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, governor and captain-general for his
majesty the king Don Felipe, our sovereign, of his forces and
the royal fleet, for the discovery of these islands of the West:
inasmuch as certain demands, contained in a summons which Pero
Bernaldez - notary-public, as he said, of his armada - read to me on
behalf of the very illustrious Gonçalo Pereira, captain-general of
the Portuguese armada, have been made upon me on the petition of
Alonso Alvarez [Furtado], factor of the said armada (as in the said
summons to which I refer, is set forth, at greater length); therefore
replying to the said demand and to the things contained therein,
I say that I came by command of his majesty the king Don Felipe,
our sovereign, and with his royal fleet as the governor and general
thereof, with the purpose of discovering the lands and islands of
the West, which are and always were within his demarcation, in order
to propagate and teach therein the gospel and the evangelical law,
and to spread the Christian sway of our holy Catholic faith - the thing
which, most of all, his majesty purposes in these parts. In the course
of my expedition I arrived at these islands, where I was obliged to
provide myself with certain supplies which I needed and which I did
not have at hand; and in search of which I went about among the said
islands for many days without being able to secure them, until by
chance I arrived at this port of Cubu, where I was obliged to spend
the winter. I sent from here the flagship, in which I came, to Nueva
Spaña with a report of all that had happened during the expedition;
and I wrote to his majesty saying that I would await here his answer
and despatches in order to learn whither he commanded me to go. And it
was because no despatch or answer came to me from his majesty that I
stayed here so long, and not from any intention or desire to settle
or remain in this land. As a matter of fact, in my instructions
I am commanded not to make entry in the islands of Maluco, or to
infringe the treaty made between the kings of Castilla and Portugal,
our sovereigns. In a clause contained therein, moreover, I am ordered
to come to these Felipinas islands and seek for certain people, lost
here, who had belonged to the armada of Rui Lopez de Villalobos; and,
in case I found them alive, to ransom them at his majesty's expense
and deliver them out of their subjection to the infidels, in order to
return them to their native lands and to the Christian faith in which
they were born and reared. This I have successfully accomplished;
of those who had come over in the said armada one was found in the
island of Tandaya, and I ransomed him. And I have also received notice
that two Spaniards were sold by the natives of the island aforesaid
to the Indians of Burney, which piece of information has made me
desirous of knowing their whereabouts and what was done with them,
that I might bestow upon them the same benefit of ransom. By this
it is clearly seen and inferred that his majesty is convinced and
believes that the Filipinas islands are within his demarcation, for
on the one hand he orders me to come to them, and on the other not
to infringe the royal treaty of our kings and sovereigns. And in this
faith and belief I came and have remained here in his royal name, and
not with the intention of injuring the most Christian king of Portugal
or harming any of his possessions, or in any way to transgress the said
treaty. And even though the lands belong to his majesty, my will and
intention has, up to the present time, not been to settle in them or
in any others until I should have the authority of his majesty; and
the assurances and letters of protection which have been given to the
natives of this land were so given, to the end and purpose that the
warriors and soldiers who go and come from one place to another in
search of provisions should not be harmed or injured or robbed. In
this, indeed - even though the lands do belong to his highness,
as is set forth in the said summons - a service has been done him;
for all was done with the intention of protecting and preserving the
natives thereof. Moreover, just as soon as I arrived at these islands
I endeavored to learn and ascertain if the Portuguese had come here,
and if they had any intercourse and commerce with the natives; and
if the said natives did them any service, or paid them tribute, or
if the Portuguese derived any other advantage from them. And the said
natives assured me that this was not the case, and that they neither
knew them nor had ever seen them. This assurance emboldened me in
thinking myself the more authorized to provide and supply myself from
among them, without harm to anyone. As regards the tributes mentioned
in the summons aforesaid, the fact is that on a few occasions no
supplies were to be bought; and, in order not to make war upon the
natives and do them any injury, or to take the supplies from them by
force, we persuaded them to give us some provisions by means of which
our people might be maintained. Some of them gave and have given,
of their own free will, a certain amount of rice and other food,
but nothing whatsoever through which his majesty has derived any
profit - on the contrary, a large amount of gold has been paid out for
the provisions aforesaid; and this, moreover, the natives gave, when,
and in what manner, and in what quantity they themselves desired,
without suffering any violence or receiving any reward. Everything
which I have enumerated was to protect and defend the natives
aforesaid, without doing them any harm or injury whatsoever. And
as for what his grace says in the summons aforesaid about sending
Antonio Runbo de Acosta and Baltesar de Soza to visit me, and how
they came in the month of July of the past year to this camp, with
letters from his grace and other captains entreating me to go to
their fleet and fortress of Maluco with all my people, together with
other offers, I would say that they were received in this camp with
all peace and amity and good will, in accordance with the custom of
the land. And through them personally I replied to his grace giving
them the reasons for my coming and my stay in this land, which are
those above-mentioned; and telling him that I was unable to accept the
kindness which was proffered me in the fleet and fortress of Maluco,
inasmuch as it would be contrary to the commands and orders which I
bore from his majesty. And certain persons who came in company with
Antonio Runbo, gave us to understand very differently from what had
been written me in the letters, and stated and declared that the said
captain-in-chief was on his way with all his fleet, with the intent of
coming here and taking prisoners all the Castilians that they should
encounter. The same purpose was indicated in a letter which Antonio
Lopez de Segueira, captain of a galley, wrote at Point Coavite to the
master-of-camp Mateus del Saz (may he rest in peace). Consequently,
the horizontal rampart of this camp was constructed, in order to guard
the munitions and the property of his majesty; for up to that time
there had been no fort or protection therefor whatsoever, save only
a palisade of palm-logs driven into the ground to keep the natives
from doing damage at night - for concerning all the rest our minds
were fully at peace, as was natural in the case of people who had no
idea or intention of remaining in the land, but only of awaiting the
message from his majesty and then going whither his majesty should
command. And so I stated and declared to the said Antonio Ronbo that
what I needed was ships to leave the land; and I intimated the same
to his grace at our interviews, and begged him to give me two ships
of his own, with which I might depart, on condition of my paying for
them from his majesty's possessions here. And the same I say today,
as the most expeditious means of departing hence and leaving the land
in the hands of its rightful owner; and if I have the said ships I
will do so now, in order to give satisfaction to his grace. Without
them, we are absolutely obliged to await the ships which are to come
from Nueva Spana in order that we may depart; and when they come I
promise to fulfil and accomplish what I specify above, without any
injury attaching to any one whomsoever from my stay in this island. And
although the intention and offers of his grace seem favorable, pacific,
and impelled by Christian feeling, the statements made public by the
people of his fleet are very much in opposition thereto; for they say
and declare that he comes only to take us prisoners, and that he has
sent for reënforcements from many sources to carry this purpose into
effect, and (which has the worst sound of all), that he is sending
for reënforcements from among the Mahometan Moros and pagans, to
fight against Christians and vassals of his majesty. This I do not
believe, as the fleet of his grace is so large and powerful that he
may do what he pleases, especially with people who desire to serve
him and who will vindicate themselves in everything pertaining to the
service of God and of the sovereigns our lords. And as regards the
request he makes, in the said summons, to be shown what authority I
have for entering these islands, I say, that I am ready and prepared
to show it to him as often as he may desire to see it, as I have
told him personally. And I likewise on my own part beg him, and if
necessary even summon him, in the name of his majesty, once, twice,
and thrice, and as many times as I am by law required: to show me if
he have any order or command from the kings our lords in order that
I may obey and fulfil it, as I am required to do; or if he has order
and command from his highness to trouble and make war upon the vassals
of his majesty who may be in these regions. Without that, I find no
cause or adequate reason, nor can I believe that his grace desires,
to do me violence or any injury, in transgression of the peace and
amity and relationship which is so close and intimate between the
kings our sovereigns; moreover, it would be a matter of very great
displeasure to God our lord. And if, through unwillingness to do so,
injuries and scandals should arise and increase on one side or the
other, I declare that it will be the fault and blame of his grace,
and that he will be obliged to give an account therefor to God and to
our sovereigns and lords. And this is what I say and respond to the
said summons, not consenting to the protests contained therein. And
I sign it with my name, and request you, the present notary, to read
and make known this my answer to the said captain-in-chief in person,
and that the same be incorporated and inserted in the said summons; and
that testimony thereof be given me, as well as the copies necessary,
in due form. Done in Çubu, the fifteenth day of the month of October,
of the year one thousand five hundred and sixty-eight.

_Miguel Lopez de Legaspi_.


_Notification:_ In the island and port of Cubu, in the galleon said
to be called "San Francisco," I, Fernando Riquel, notary-in-chief,
and government notary at the instance of Andres de Mirandaola, factor
and inspector for his majesty, read this response and summons to the
very illustrious Gonçalo Pereira, captain-general of the royal fleet of
Portugal, in person, _de verbo ad verbum_ exactly in accordance with
the tenor thereof. He said that he had heard it, and would reply. The
said Andres de Mirandaola in virtue of his authority presented
it, in the name of the very illustrious Miguel Lopez de Legazpi,
governor and captain-general of the royal fleet for the discovery
of the islands of the West, there being present, as witnesses to
all above-mentioned, Alonso Alvarez Furtado, factor of the royal
fleet of Portugal; Pedro Dacuna de Moguemes, captain-general of the
sea of Maluco: Sancho de Vasconcellos, nobleman; Guoncallo de Sousa,
nobleman of the household of his highness, the king of Portugal; Pero
Bernaldez, notary public; and Christoval Ponze, scrivener, notary,
all of whom signed it together with me, the said Fernando Riquel.


_Andres de Mirandaola_,
_Pero Dacunha de Moguemes_,
_Sancho de Vasconcellos_,
_Afonso Alvarez Furtado_,
_Guoncallo de Sousa_,
_Pero Bernaldez_,
_Christoval Ponce de Leon_.


In testimony thereof

_Fernando Riquel_.

(This copy herewith above-written was well and faithfully compared
with the original by me, Pero Bernaldez, notary public of this fleet,
without there being found any interlineation or erasure of a kind
which would occasion doubt: only the word _perjuizio_ [harm], and
the interlineations _premio_ [reward], and _dha_ [for _dicha_ - said]
are scratched out. Everything there is correct, and the said Fernaõ
Riquel, notary-in-chief, was present at the comparison and subscribed
his name here with me, together with Baltesar de Freitas, notary of
the fleet, who affixed here his assent, on this day, the twenty-ninth
of December of the year one thousand five hundred and sixty-eight.

_Pero Bernaldez_.)

(This copy was compared before me, Baltesar de Freitas, notary of
the fleet, on the said day, month, and year, aforesaid.

_Baltesar de Freitas_.)

(On the said day, month, and year above-mentioned, I was present at
and saw the correction and comparison of this copy.

_Fernando Riquel_.)

(_Authorization:_ In the island and port of Çubu, on the fifteenth
day of the month of October of the year one thousand five hundred and
sixty-eight, the very illustrious Miguel Lopez Legazpi, governor and
captain-general for his majesty over his people and royal fleet for
the discovery of the islands of the West, before me, Fernando Riquel,
notary-in-chief and government-notary, and in the presence of the
witnesses hereunto subscribed, said that, in the name of his majesty
he gave and granted all and every authority he possessed - as in such
case is by law required, and it may and ought to be sufficient - to
Andres de Mirandaola (who was present), factor and overseer of the
royal estate of his majesty, in order that in his place, and as if it
were he himself, the said Mirandaola might present whatever summons,
protests, and replies, and other documents whatsoever, that might prove
necessary, to the very illustrious Gonçalo Pereira, captain-general of
the Portuguese fleet anchored in this port, in regard to the affairs
under negotiation at the present moment between them concerning the
service of God our Lord, and that of the kings our sovereigns; and in
testimony thereof I sign the present with his name, the witnesses being
Martin de Goiti, the master-of-camp, and Captain Diego de Artieda.

_Miguel Lopez de Legaspi_.

Done before me,

_Fernando Riquel_.)

(This copy was well and faithfully compared with the original by me,
Pero Bernaldez, notary-public of this fleet, without there being found
any interpolation or erasure which would occasion doubt; and the said
Fernaõ Riquel was present at the comparison, and signed here with
me - together with Baltesar de Freitas, notary of this fleet of the king
our lord, who affixed here his assent - on this day, the twenty-ninth
of December of the year one thousand five hundred and sixty-eight.

_Pero Bernaldez_.)

(This copy was compared before me, Baltesar de Freitas, notary of
the fleet, in the said day, month, and year, aforesaid.

_Baltesar de Freitas_.)

(On the said day, month, and year, above-mentioned, I was present at
the correction of this copy.

_Fernando Riquel_.)

_Second Summons:_ Replying to this reply to my first summons, made
by the very illustrious Miguel Lopez de Leguazpi, general of the camp
and of the people of Nova Spanha, I declare that the essence, subject,
and right of all this matter is not contained in words, but in deeds;
and that his grace has up to the present time acted in a way very
displeasing to God, to his majesty and to the king our sovereign,
as I shall set forth in detail. As regards his grace's coming by
authority of his royal majesty, the king Don Felipe, in order to
discover lands, the islands of the West lying within his demarcation,
and to propagate Christianity therein, as should be the principal
purpose of so Christian a prince; and bearing withal instructions not
to enter into aught, or in any way infringe the treaty and agreement
made between the emperor Don Carlos and the king our sovereign Don
Joan the Third (both of whom I pray God may have in glory): this does
not absolve, but rather condemns him, inasmuch as he has acted in a
manner so contrary to his instructions, neither making discoveries,
nor founding any Christian communities, nor limiting himself to
his own demarcation, but hastening with great speed to penetrate so
many leagues through our demarcation - contrary to the faith, oath,
agreement, and instructions of his true king and lord. He would indeed
be able to say that he was ignorant of the bound and limit of these
two demarcations, if Father Urbaneta had not told and requested him
to settle such of the Ladrones Islands as, on his way around them,
he might discover; if his majesty had not charged him not to enter,
under any consideration, into the territory belonging to the king
our sovereign; and if he had not been told and informed by the
ships which were in this vicinity that the islands belonged to us,
all which will appear, in proper time, in documents sworn before a
notary. His grace's saying, in his letter written to me at Maluco,
that he entered into this our conquest in consequence of stormy weather
surprised me not a little, for the Portuguese in their voyages from
Portugal to India (although even more exposed to inclement weather,
to more violent winds, and to rough and heavy seas), never encountered
a tempest of such violence as to endure for more than twenty-four
hours, or in which, however far one of our ships might run, (with
sails either furled or spread forth to the wind) they ever passed
over an extent of more than fifty or sixty leagues - although, it is
true, I have heard it said that one of our ships once ran a distance
of eighty leagues; but his grace's having entered three hundred
leagues into these waters of ours causes me anxiety, especially in
view of his coming through a sea so calm and winds so gentle that
small boats are able to navigate it, as most of the people of this
region have told and declared to me. As regards his saying that he
was absolutely obliged to enter, owing to lack of provisions, I reply
through the lips of the captain of his company and those of ours here,
who affirmed that in the Ladrones Islands where he was best employed
in the service of God, so many boats brought him supplies that their
number was estimated in one single day at six hundred; moreover,
that in the islands aforesaid, and in others by which they passed,
they obtained hens, swine, fish, rice, and yams. The same thing was
told me by the father prior; and I understand that Guido de Lavezaris,
treasurer of his majesty and his grace, having, in this archipelago
of ours, nothing left of the six hundred boat-loads and obtaining in
this region so little food in the boats or camp, sent to Panae and
others of our districts for supplies at the cost of a great deal of
trouble. This is a fact well attested, since I have been in this port;
for I consented and allowed many vessels bearing supplies to enter,
on their declaring to me that there was so great lack of provisions
here that many soldiers were living upon grass. I assert it to be clear
and evident, moreover, for every man of judgment and understanding,
that so rich a fleet - comprising so large ships, sent forth for the
purpose of discovery by its king, and departing from his kingdom of
Nova Spanha, a land of so great fertility and abundance - would not
lack supplies and munitions for three or even four years; and that
a fleet so large as that of which his grace is commander must have
come provided and supplied with everything necessary for a long
period of time. And this was, indeed, declared to be the fact by
the chief men of the encampment, who said that biscuit and supplies
abounded on the flagship, when it arrived hence at Nova Spanha;
and that there was great superfluity in many things obtained from
the islands lying within their demarcation, as well as in many more
which his grace brought over in his fleet. In this lack of provisions
(in which he placed himself very much by his own choice), we placed
Alvoro de Mendonça, who was then captain of the fortress of Maluco,
at his disposal for everything that he might need from these lands and
seas of the king our sovereign, in the month of July of the year one
thousand five hundred and sixty-seven through the means of Antonio
Ronbo da Costa and Baltesar de Sousa, whom I sent for this purpose
from Maluco in two _caracoras._ This his grace did not accept -
on account of the abundance of everything which he possessed, as if
appears - contrary to the action which would be taken by one who is in
necessity, and who avails and assists himself even through the medium
of his enemies; and even more so in the case of so good friends as are
and always have been the vassals of the king our sovereign and those
of the sovereigns of Castela, between which princes there exists a very
ancient relation and intimacy. The excuse he gives, in addition to the
others already mentioned, of entering into this our sea and conquest,
because he knew that the Portuguese have no commercial relations as
yet within these islands, is weak and of no avail; for in what law,
either divine or human, does his grace find it written that, when the
kings and their vassals disregard for a time commercial relations with
lands belonging within their demarcations, others should consequently
take therefrom gold and drugs, which do not belong to them? As for
his saying that he entered here to look for Spaniards who remained in
these islands from the fleet of Ruilopez de Villalobos, and that he
has already ransomed one, and has information regarding two more - this
is a very poor reason for violating good faith, truth, oath, and so
solemn a compact between so Christian princes. This is especially true
in view of the knowledge and experience (to which Guido de Lavezaris
could testify) of the great affection and sheltering kindness with
which those of the company of Ruilopez de Villalobos were received
and transported to Spanha (at great expense to his highness and his
captains), through the favor of the viceroy, and were well looked
after in our merchant ships; while those who, with his approbation,
wished to remain here, were likewise granted many favors, and, having
become rich, now dwell in the fortresses and cities of India. Moreover,
he might have trusted us in this matter of the three Spaniards, who
remained here at all the less cost to his majesty, and without serving
his highness. As for trying to make me to believe that he was serving
the interests of the king our sovereign during his stay in this our
king's land, with his safeguards and defenses. I emphatically assert
that they were all erected very much against his interests; for one
who has the intention alleged by his grace gives evidences plain to
all, assuring the inhabitants of the land against those accompanying
him, but not by means of fortifications and a so great assumption
of authority in another's kingdom - usurping therein the vassalage
rights of his highness and transferring the same to his majesty,
who already has so many; obliging the natives to pay him tribute,
and laying down the law to them as if they were his own subjects; and
taking them prisoners on their coming to see the captains of their
real king and sovereign, as in the case of one who was captured as
he came to the pinnace of Antonio Ronbo da Costa, and prevented from
speaking with me. As for the chimerical charges which his grace makes


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Online LibraryUnknownThe Philippine Islands, 1493-1803 — Volume 02 of 55 1521-1569 Explorations by Early Navigators, Descriptions of the Islands and Their Peoples, Their History and Records of the Catholic Missions, as Re → online text (page 15 of 22)