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(Quebec, 1898); Winship's _Cabot Bibliography_ (London, 1900).

[12] João Serrão, one of Magalhães's captains, was elected, after the
latter's death, to the command of the fleet. On May 1, 1521, he was
murdered by natives on the island of Cebú, having been treacherously
abandoned there by his own companions.

[13] The "Santiago," in which was the priest Areizaga (see note 3).

[14] Saavedra died at sea in the month of December, 1529. See
Navarrete's _Col. de viages_, v, p. 422.

[15] Lib. xx of Oviédo's _Hist. de Indias_ is devoted to the relation
of these early expeditions to the Philippines of Magalhães, Loaisa,
and Saavedra.

[16] Ruy Lopez de Villalobos is said to have been a man of letters,
licentiate in law, and born of a distinguished family in Malaga; he was
brother-in-law of Antonio de Mendoza, who (then viceroy of New Spain)
appointed him commander of the expedition here described. Departing
from Navidad, Mexico (November 1, 1542), he reached Mindanao on
February 2 of the following year; he was the first to make explorations
in that island. It was he who bestowed upon those islands the name
Filipinas (Philippine), in honor of the crown-prince Don Felipe of
Spain, afterward known as Felipe II; he conferred this appellation
probably in 1543. The Portuguese, then established in the Moluccas,
opposed any attempt of Spaniards to settle in the neighboring islands,
and treated Villalobos as an enemy. After two years of hardships
and struggles, he was obliged to place himself in their hands; and,
departing for Spain in one of their ships, was seized by a malignant
fever, which terminated his life at Amboina, on Good Friday, 1546. In
his last hours he was spiritually assisted by St. Francis Xavier
(styled "the Apostle of the Indies"). For biographical material
regarding Villalobos, see _Dic.-Encic. Hisp.-Amér.,_ article: "Lopez
de Villalobos;" Galvano's _Discoveries of the World_ (Hakluyt Society
edition), pp. 231-238; and Buzeta and Bravo's _Diccionario Filipinas_;
Retana's sketch, in his edition of Zúñiga's _Estadismo_, ii, p. 593*.

[17] Pedro de Alvarado was, after Hernán Cortés, the most notable of
the early Spanish conquerors of New Spain. He was born at Badajoz,
about 1485, and came to America in 1510. He served with distinction
in many wars and expeditions during the conquest, and received from
Cortés various important commands. Among these was the post of governor
and captain-general of Guatemala (1523); in the following year he
founded the old city of Guatemala, which later was destroyed by the
eruption of a volcano. In 1534 he planned to send an expedition to the
Pacific islands; but news of the discovery of Peru and the conquests
of Pizarro caused him to defer this enterprise, and he sent instead
troops to Peru, fitted out through his extortions on the inhabitants
of his province. Afterward he planned, with Mendoza, the expedition
conducted by Villalobos, but never knew its outcome; he died on July 4,
1541, from wounds received while attacking an Indian village.

[18] Antonio de Mendoza belonged to a family of distinction, and was
born at Granada, toward the close of the fifteenth century. He was the
first viceroy of New Spain, being appointed April 17, 1535. He was
beloved by the people for his good government; he made wise laws,
opened and worked mines, coined money, founded a university and
several colleges, and introduced printing into Mexico. He despatched
two maritime expeditions of discovery - that of Villalobos, and another
to California; and made explorations by land as far as New Mexico. In
1550 he was sent as viceroy to Peru, and administered that office
until his death, which occurred July 21, 1552, at Lima.

[19] The title of Marquis del Valle de Oaxaca was conferred upon Hernán
Cortes, July 6, 1529. He had taken great interest in the exploration
of the Pacific Ocean and its coasts; and had spent on expeditions sent
out with that object no less sum than three hundred thousand pesos
(Helps's _Life of Cortés_, p. 282.)

[20] This compares favorably with the homestead law of the United
States. The institution mentioned in the next sentence apparently was
peculiar to Spanish colonial administration in America. Its origin
was in the _repartimiento_, which at first (1497) meant a grant of
lands in a conquered country; it was soon extended to include the
natives dwelling thereon, who were compelled to till the land for the
conqueror's benefit. In 1503 _encomiendas_ were granted, composed of
a certain number of natives, who were compelled to work. The word
_encomienda_ is a term belonging to the military orders (from the
ranks of which came many officials appointed for the colonies),
and corresponds to our word "commandery." It is defined by Helps
(practically using the language of Solorzano, the eminent Spanish
jurist), as "a right conceded by royal bounty, to well-deserving
persons in the Indies, to receive and enjoy for themselves the
tributes of the Indians who should be assigned to them, with a charge
of providing for the good of those Indians in spiritual and temporal
matters, and of inhabiting and defending the provinces where these
_encomiendas_ should be granted to them." Helps has done good service
to historical students in recognizing the great importance, social
and economic, of the _encomienda_ system in the Spanish colonies, and
its far-reaching results; and in embodying the fruits of his studies
thereon in his _Spanish Conquest in America_ (London, 1855-61), to
which the reader is referred for full information on this subject;
see especially vols. iii, iv.

[21] See the Treaty of Zaragoza, vol. i, p. 222.

[22] This was the dust or residue of the filings from the various
assays and operations in the founding of metals, and was usually
applied to the benefit of hospitals and houses of charity. It belonged
to the king, and was placed under lock and key, one key in possession
of the founder and the other of the king's factor. - Note by editor
of _Col. doc. inéd_.

[23] This name is variously spelled Labezaris, Labezares, Labezarii,
Lavezarii, and in other ways. This man occupied an important place
in Legazpi's expedition, and was later governor of the Philippine
Islands. Several documents by him will appear in this series.

[24] A note by the editor of _Doc. inéd._ says that the religious
sent in this expedition were Fray Jerónimo de San Estevan, prior of
the Augustinians; Fray Nicolás de Perea, Fray Alonso de Alvarado,
and Fray Sebastián de Reina.

[25] A small vessel with lateen sails.

[26] This was the Portuguese governor of Ternate and the Moluccas. The
correspondence may be found in the archives of Torre do Tombo.

[27] Apparently a reference to the islands Sarangani and Balut, off the
southern point of Mindanao. Regarding Mazaua (Massava, Mazagua) Stanley
cites - in _First Voyage by Magellan_ (Hakluyt Society Publications,
no. 52), p. 79 - a note in Milan edition of Pigafetta's relation,
locating Massaua between Mindanao and Samar. It is doubtless the
Limasaua of the present day, off the south point of Leyte.

[28] A map by Nicolaus Visscher, entitled _Indiae Orientalis nova
descriptio_ (undated, but probably late in the seventeenth century)
shows "Philippina al Tandaya," apparently, intended for the present
Samar; but Legazpi's relation of 1565 (_post_) would indicate that
Tandaya was the modern Leyte. Ortelius (1570) locates the Talao
Islands about half-way from Mindanao to Gilolo they are apparently
the Tulour or Salibàbo Islands of today.

[29] The names in brackets are the modern appellations (see
_Col. doc. inéd. Ultramar,_ ii, pp. xvi, xvii).

[30] Antonio Galvano explains this by declaring that he had in 1538
(being then the Portuguese governor of the Moluccas) sent Francisco
de Castro to convert the natives of the Philippines to the Catholic
faith. On the island of Mindanao he was sponsor at the baptism of
six kings, with their wives, children, and subjects. See Galvano's
_Tratado_ (Hakluyt Society reprint of Hakluyt's translation,
_Discoveries of the World_, pp. 208, 233).

[31] See _Col. doc. inéd. Ultramar_, ii, p. xvii.

[32] On old maps Abuyo; the aboriginal appellation of the island of
Leyte (Retana-edition of Combés's _Mindanao_, p. 749).

[33] Probably the cannon belonging to Magalhães's ship "Trinidad,"
which the Portuguese seized in October, 1522; they had built a
fortified post on the island of Ternate in the preceding summer,
their first settlement in the Moluccas. Ternate, Tidore, Mutir, and
two others, are small islands lying along the western coast of Gilolo;
on them cloves grew most abundantly when Europeans first discovered
the Moluccas.

[34] Bisayas or Visayas is the present appellation of the islands
which lie between Luzón and Mindanao.

[35] This document is printed in both the original text and English

[36] Luis de Velasco succeeded Antonio de Mendoza as viceroy of New
Spain, taking his office in November, 1550, and holding it until his
death (July 31, 1564). He was of an illustrious family of Castile and
had held several military appointments before he became viceroy. He
exercised this latter office with great ability, and favored the
Indians to such an extent that he was called "the father of the
Indians." He died poor and in debt, and was buried with solemnity in
the Dominican monastery at the City of Mexico.

[37] A small vessel used as a tender, to carry messages between larger
vessels, etc.

[38] The Treaty of Zaragoza, _q.v._ vol. i, p. 222.

[39] This opinion is correct, referring as it does to the five islands
lying along the coast of Gilolo.

[40] Miguel Lopez de Legazpi who, with Andrés de Urdaneta, rediscovered
and conquered the Philippine Islands, was born in Zubarraja in
Guipúzcoa in the early part of the sixteenth century, of an old
and noble family. He went to Mexico in 1545, where he became chief
clerk of the _cabildo_ of the City of Mexico. Being selected to take
charge of the expedition of 1564, he succeeded by his great wisdom,
patience, and forbearance, in gaining the good will of the natives. He
founded Manila, where he died of apoplexy August 20, 1572. He was much
lamented by all. He was succeeded as governor of the Philippines by
Guido de Lavezaris.

[41] Navarrete says (_Bibl. Marit_., tomo ii, p. 492), that
Legazpi was fifty-nine years old when the fleet set sail in 1564,
which makes him six years older than the age given above. See
_Col. doc. inéd. Ultramar,_ tomo ii, p. 116, note.

[42] The Ladrones or Marianas number in all sixteen islands, and are
divided into two groups of five and eleven islands respectively. They
extend north and south about nine hundred and fifty kilometers, lying
between thirteen degrees and twenty-one degrees north latitude, and
one hundred and forty-eight degrees and one hundred and forty-nine
degrees forty minutes longitude east of Madrid. They are but thinly
populated; their flora resembles that of the Philippines. The largest
and most important of these islands, Guam, is now the property of
the United States.

[43] Although this allusion cannot well be identified, it indicates
some episode of the great eagerness and readiness for western
discovery then prevalent in France. Cartier's explorations (1534-36,
and 1540-43), and later those of Jean Allefonsce, had already been
published to the world; and maps of the eastern coast of North America
showed, as early as 1544, the great St. Lawrence River, which afforded
an easy entrance to the interior, and might readily be supposed to
form a waterway for passage to the "Western Sea" - especially as New
France was then generally imagined to be a part of Asia; Japan and
China being not very far west of the newly-discovered coast.

[44] These two vessels were rechristened "San Pedro" and "San Pablo"
before actually sailing. The admiral of the fleet was to have been
Juan de Carrión; but he was left behind because of his dissensions
with Urdanetá, and Mateo del Saz fulfilled his duties.

[45] The Theatins were a religious congregation founded in Italy (1524)
by Gaëtano de Tiene and Giovanni Pietro Caraffa, archbishop of Theato
(the modern Chieti) - who afterward became pontiff of Rome, under the
title of Paul IV. Their object was to reform the disorders that had
crept into the Roman church, and restore the zeal, self-sacrifice,
and charity of apostolic days. They would neither own property nor
ask alms, but worked at various trades and were thus maintained,
with voluntary offerings from the faithful. During the next century
they spread into other European countries (where they still have many
houses), and undertook missions in Asia.

[46] The total cost of the preparation of Legazpi's fleet was 382,468
pesos, 7 tomines, 5 grains of common gold; and 27,400 pesos, 3 tomines,
1 grain of gold dust. These expenses cover the period from December
13, 1557, until March 2, 1565. See _Col. doc. inéd. Ultramar,_ iii,
no. 36, pp. 461-463.

The gold dust here mentioned (Spanish _oro de minas_) means gold in
the form of "gravel" or small nuggets, obtained usually from placers,
or the washings of river-sands. The "common" gold (_oro común_)
is refined gold, or bullion, ready for coinage.

[47] This vessel, after trying to find - or at least making such a
claim - the fleet in Mindanao and other islands, returned to New Spain,
anchoring at Puerto de la Navidad August 9, 1565. A relation by its
captain Alonso de Arellano, gives an account of this voyage (published
in _Col. doc. inéd. Ultramar,_ iii, no. 37, pp. 1-76). Testimony as
to the truth of this relation is given under oath by its author, his
pilot Lope Martin, and others. It is quite evident throughout that it
was written with the hope of explaining satisfactorily the "San Lucas's
" sudden disappearance and failure to rejoin the flagship. Accounts of
islands passed by the vessel are given and the various and frequent
mishaps of wind and wave detailed at length. On January 8 an island
was reached where the people "were afraid of our ship and of us and
our weapons. They are well proportioned, tall of stature, and bearded,
their beards reaching to their waists. The men wear their hair long
like women, neatly combed and tied behind in a knot. They are greedy,
very treacherous, and thoroughly unprincipled.... They are Caribs, and,
I understand, eat human flesh. They are warlike, as it seemed to us,
for they were always prepared, and they must carry on war with other
islands. Their weapons are spears pointed with fish bones, and masanas
[a wooden weapon, generally edged with sharp flint, used by the early
Mexican and Peruvian aborigines.].... They are much given to hurling
stones from slings, and with very accurate aim. They are excellent
swimmers and sailors. We called this island Nadadores [Swimmers],
because they swam out to us when we were more than a league from
the island." A mutiny sprang up after reaching the Philippines, but
was checked. Arellano claims that he left the prescribed tokens of
his visit in Mindanao. The _patache_ reached Puerto de la Navidad
on August 9, after its crew had suffered many hardships and much
sickness. Legazpi, quite naturally, was much displeased at the evident
desertion of the "San Lucas" and caused action to be taken against
Arellano and Lope Martin, by Gabriel Diaz of the Mexican mint. This
latter presented various petitions before the _Audiencia_ of Mexico,
detailing the charges and asking investigation. The charges were
desertion, - "in which the loss he occasioned cannot be overestimated,"
because this vessel was intended for a close navigation of the islands
and their rivers and estuaries, which the larger vessels could not
attempt, - assuming to himself powers of jurisdiction that belonged to
Legazpi as general of the expedition, - executing summary justice on two
men (causing them to be thrown overboard), - cruelty, and "many other
grave and serious offenses;" which "he had committed in company with
the pilot and others." Diaz asked that Arellano be made to render an
account to Legazpi and to serve for his pay, as he had served in the
expedition but ten days. However just the demand for an investigation,
it was never made, which was probably due to Arellano's influence
with the court in Spain. The only notice that appeared to be taken
of the petitions was a request from the _Audiencia_ that Diaz show
his authority to act in the case, which he had showed already in the
petitions. The voyage of the "San Lucas" is called by the editor of
_Col. doc. inéd. Ultramar,_ "one of the boldest registered in the
history of navigation." See the above series, tomo ii, pp. 222, 223;
and tomo iii, pp. v-xviii, and 1-76.

[48] See the notarial attestation of the taking of possession of
Barbudos in _Col. doc. inéd. Ultramar,_ iii, pp. 76-79. This was
apparently one of the Marshall Islands.

[49] On January 26, 1565, Legazpi in person took possession of the
Ladrones, for the Spanish crown. This possession was made in the
island of Guam, before Hernando Riquel, government notary, and with
all the necessary formalities. The witnesses were "Fray Andres de
Urdaneta, prior; the master-of-camp, Mateo del Sanz; the accountant,
Andres Cauchela; the factor, Andres de Mirandaola; the chief ensign,
Andres de Ybarra; Geronimo de Moncon, and many others." See the record
of possession, _Col. doc. inéd. Ultramar,_ iii, pp. 79-81.

[50] Cf. with this the thievishness, and dexterity therein, of the
Huron Indians, in _Jesuit Relations_ (Cleveland reissue), v, pp. 123,
241, 243, and elsewhere.

[51] This island is styled variously Guam, Goam, Guan, and Boan (see
_Col. doc. inéd. Ultramar_, ii, p. 243). The United States government
now uses it as a coaling station.

[52] From an official document drawn up by Hernando Riquel, it appears
that the fleet reached the Philippines in very poor condition, due
to insufficient and careless preparation. In response to a petition
signed by the royal officials "Guido de la Vaçares [Lavezaris],
Andres Cauchela, and Andres de Mirandaola," that testimonies be
received from certain officers and pilots of the fleet, in regard
to its poor condition, Legazpi ordered such depositions to be taken,
which was done on May 23, 1565. These testimonies show that the fleet
left Puerto de la Navidad with insufficient crews, marine equipment,
artillery, and food, in consequence of which great sufferings had been
and were still being endured. It was testified "that the provisions
of meat, lard, cheese, beans and peas, and fish lasted but a short
time, because of putrefying and spoiling by reason of having been
laid in many days before sailing." See _Col. doc. inéd. Ultramar,_
iii, pp. 305-318.

[53] The notarial testimony of this taking of possession will be
given in this volume, p. 167.

[54] Probably the island of Leyte. See _Col. doc. inéd. Ultramar_,
ii, p. 258.

[55] This ceremony of blood friendship will be explained in later
documents. It was characteristic of Malayan peoples. The present
Cabalian is in the extreme S.E. part of Leyte.

[56] Camiguin, north of Mindanao, and north by west from Butuan Bay.

[57] The testimonies of the "wrongs inflicted on the natives in
certain of the Philippines, under cover of friendship and under
pretext of a desire to trade," by Portuguese from the Moluccas, and
the injuries resulting therefrom to the Spaniards, are recounted in
_Col. doc. inéd. Ultramar_, iii, pp. 284-305.

[58] Probably in pique because Urdaneta's advice to colonize New
Guinea had been disregarded, and because these islands were, as
Urdaneta declared, in Portugal's demarcation.

[59] The notarial memorandum of the finding of the Niño Jesús will
be found in _Col. doc. inéd. Ultramar_, iii, pp. 277-284. It gives
Legazpi's testimony concerning the discovery, and his appointment
of the date of finding as an annual religious holiday, as well
as the testimonies of the finder, Juan de Camuz, and of Esteban
Rodriguez, to whom Camuz first showed the image (which is described
in detail). Pigafetta relates _{First Voyage of Magellan,_ pp. 93,
94) that he gave an image of the Infant Jesus to the queen of Cebú,
April 14, 1521 - evidently the same as that found by Legazpi's men.

[60] On this day Legazpi took formal possession of the island of Cebú
and adjacent islands for Spain. The testimony of Hernando Riquel,
government notary, of this act appears in _Col. doc. inéd. Ultramar,_
iii, pp. 89, 90.

[61] This image is still preserved in the Augustinian convent at Cebú;
a view of it is presented in this volume.

[62] The preceding relation says three hours.

[63] Probably the casava root.

[64] The native race inhabiting Guam is called Chamorro.

[65] This was the island of Negros (_Col. doc. inéd. Ultramar_, ii,
p. 410).

[66] The pilot makes use of the familiar second person singular forms
throughout this relation.

[67] His relation of this voyage, continued until a few days before his
death), is preserved in the Archivo general de Indias, at Seville. See
_Col. doc. inéd. Ultramar_, ii, p. 456.

[68] His full name. He was a brother of Captain Juan de la Isla. See
_Col. doc. inéd. Ultramar,_ vol. ii, p. 458.

[69] The number in the printed document is one thousand three hundred
and seventy. This must be an error for one thousand eight hundred
and seventy, as so great a difference between the three maps would
hardly be likely to occur.

[70] This relation may be considered as the continuation of that
which records the voyage from New Spain, until the departure of die
"San Pedro" from Cebú. Neither is signed, but the former seems to
have been written by a military officer, as he speaks in one place of
"the men of my company."

[71] Cf. the Chinese belief, and the reverence of the American Indian
for his ancestors.

[72] Cf. the burial rites of North American tribes, as described in
the _Jesuit Relations_ (see Index, article: Indians).

[73] This chief's name is also spelled in this relation Mahomat.

[74] The _fanéga_ is a measure of capacity that was extensively used
throughout Spain and the Spanish colonies, and in the Spanish-American
republics; but it is now largely superseded by the measures of the
metric system. Its value varied in different provinces or colonies. Its
equivalents in United States (Winchester) bushels are as follows:
Aragón, O.64021; Teruel (Aragón), I.23217; Castile, 1.59914; Asturias,
2.07358; Buenos Aires, 3.74988; Canary Islands, 1.77679 (struck), 2.5
(heaped). The _fanéga_ of Castile is equivalent to 5.63 decaliters. The
name was also applied to the portion of ground which might be sown
with a _fanéga_ of grain.

[75] A detailed relation of the voyage of the "San Gerónimo"
was written by Juan Martinez, a soldier, being dated Cebú, July
25, 1567. It is given in _Col. doc. inéd. Ultramar,_ ii, no. 47,
pp. 371-475. From the very first the insubordination of the pilot
Lope Martin was manifest, who said to the easy-going captain. "If you
think you are going to take me to Cebú, you are very much mistaken;
for as soon as he saw me there, the governor would hang me."

[76] In regard to this use of precious gums, see _East Africa and
Malabar_ (Hakluyt Society Publications, no. 35), pp. 31, 230; in that
text _yncenso_ is incorrectly translated "wormwood."

[77] Document no. xli, pp. 244-276, tomo iii, consists of memoranda
made by Hernando Riquel, notary of the expedition. These were drawn
up by order of Legazpi, and relate to occurrences after the fleet
reached Cabalian (March, 1565), until the resolution to colonize in
Cebú. They are mainly concerned with negotiations with the natives,
and are fully attested; but contain nothing additional to the matter
in the relations.

[78] A tax paid to the monarch by those not belonging to the nobility.

[79] See note 18, _ante_, on _repartimientos_ and _encomiendas_.

[80] Counselors of the provincial or other high official, whose advice
was considered by him in all important affairs.

[81] Ours: a familiar term in use by members of a religious order,
referring to their fellows therein.

[82] This island is called by the French pilot Pierres Plun,
in his relation, Zibaban, Zibao, and Zibaba. La Concepción calls
it (_Historia,_ vol. i, p. 331) Ybabao. The editor of _Cartas de
Indias_ conjectures this to be the island of Libagas (near Mindoro);
but that would not agree with the statements made about it in
various documents. Retana (_Zúñiga,_ vol. ii, p. 383*) says that
Cibabao is Samar, which is, however, not an altogether satisfactory

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Online LibraryUnknownThe Philippine Islands, 1493-1803 — Volume 02 of 55 1521-1569 Explorations by Early Navigators, Descriptions of the Islands and Their Peoples, Their History and Records of the Catholic Missions, as Re → online text (page 21 of 22)