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they determined to take it by force. The island was soon gained,
and "Rui-Lopez labored with that people with entreaties and gifts
to make friendship, and to induce them to return to their houses,
but in vain." Then began the hunt for food in various places, but
much opposition from the natives was encountered. Santistéban says
"If I should try to write, to your lordship in detail of the hunger,
need, hardships, disease, and the deaths that we suffered in Sarragan,
I would fill a book ... In that island we found a little rice and sago,
a few hens and hogs, and three deer. This was eaten in a few days,
together with what remained of the ship food. A number of cocoa-palms
were discovered; and because hunger cannot suffer delay, the buds which
are the shoots of the palms were eaten. There were some figs and other
fruits. Finally we ate all the dogs, cats, and rats we could find,
besides horrid grubs and unknown plants, which all together caused
the deaths, and much of the prevalent disease. And especially they ate
large numbers of a certain large variety of gray lizard, which emits
considerable glow; very few who ate them are living. Land crabs also
were eaten which caused some to go mad for a day after partaking of
them, especially if they had eaten the vitals. At the end of seven
months, the hunger that had caused us to go to Sarragan withdrew us
thence." The booty of the island was but little, for the natives had
carried away and hidden the greater part of their possessions. The
vessel of Villalobos and two small brigs put out from this place
of famine to go to the upper islands, the other vessels having
been sent on ahead on various commissions. After sailing for forty
leagues, the large vessel was unable to advance farther, and put in
at a bay called Sacayan [Cagayan], to await good weather, while the
two small vessels went on ahead [because according to Alvarado they
could navigate nearer the shore] in search of food. Troubles from the
natives still pursued these smaller vessels. At one part of Mindanao
they tried to secure food. Fourteen of the crew were left ashore,
ten of whom were killed. The two brigs anchored at Mindanao, remaining
there for more than fifty days, awaiting the arrival of the ship and
galley. From this place they went to Tandaya, [28] where they were
well received by the natives. Here the sick men were left, while the
others went in search of the rest of their men, but failed to find
them where they had been left. A letter was found which directed the
searchers to the "islands of Talao, which are forty leagues south
of Maluco." Returning to Tandaya, it was found that the men left
there had been taken off by the "Sant Juan." Here Santistéban and
his party remained for two months, until the king of Tidore sent in
quest of Villalobos. A description of these people follows. Finally
Villalobos, forced to do so by hunger, cast anchor in Portuguese
possessions. Negotiations with the Portuguese followed. The "Sant
Juan" was despatched to New Spain May 16, 1545, but it was unable
to make the journey and returned within five months. Finally the
remnants of the expedition were taken in Portuguese vessels to Ambón
[Amboina], where Villalobos died; and thence to Malacca, where only
one hundred and seventeen of the three hundred and seventy who left
New Spain arrived, thirty remaining in Maluco. Santistéban justifies
Villalobos, saying "Your lordship will bear in mind your promise to Ruy
Lopez ... to be a father to his children. In the judgment of certain
men, Ruy Lopez performed no services for your lordship, for which
his children deserve recompense. I know most certainly that, in the
judgment of God and of those who regard his works without passion, he
did everything possible for the service of your lordship, and that he
grieved more over not having fulfilled exactly your lordship's design
than over all the other losses, sorrows, and persecutions that he
endured." (_Col. doc. inéd. Amér. y Oceanía,_ tomo xiv, pp. 151-165.)

Garcia Descalante Alvarado, who accompanied Villalobos, left an account
of the expedition, dated Lisbon, August 7, 1548, and addressed to the
viceroy of New Spain; it deals more fully with the later adventures
of the expedition. A brief synopsis follows. The fleet left the port
of Joan Gallego [Navidad] on All Saints' Day, 1542. They passed, at a
distance of one hundred and eighty leagues, two uninhabited islands
which they named Santo Thomas [San Alberto] [29] and Añublada, or
"Cloud Island" [Isla del Socorro]; and eighty leagues farther another
island, Roca Partida or "Divided Rock" [Santa Rosa]. After sailing for
sixty-two days they came to a "lowlying, densely-wooded archipelago,"
which they named the Coral Archipelago, anchoring at one of the
islands, Santistéban [San Estevan]. The next islands they named Los
Jardines, or "The Gardens," from their luxuriant foliage. January 23,
1543, they passed a small island, whose inhabitants hailed them in
good Castilian, saying "Buenos dias, matalotes" [30] [meaning to say
"Good morning, sailors"], for which the island was named Matalotes. The
next island passed they named Arrecifes or Reefs, the significance
of which is apparent. February 2, they anchored in a beautiful bay
which they called Málaga [Baganga] and the island Cesarea Karoli
[Mindanao], "which the pilots, who afterwards sailed around it,
declared to have a circuit of three hundred and fifty leagues." After
a month's residence on the island, they left in search of the island
of Mazagua, but contrary weather forced them to anchor at an island
named Sarrangar and by them called Antonio, [31] where they had
trouble with the natives, who were attacked by the Castilians under
command of Alvarado. The people defended themselves valiantly with
"small stones, poles, arrows, and mangrove cudgels as large around
as the arm, the ends sharpened and hardened in the fire," but were
finally vanquished; they abandoned this island afterwards and went to
Mindanao. "Upon capturing this island we found a quantity of porcelain,
and some bells which are different from ours, and which they esteem
highly in their festivities," besides "perfumes of musk, amber, civet,
officinal storax, and aromatic and resinous perfumes. With these they
are well supplied, and are accustomed to their use; and they buy these
perfumes from Chinese who come to Mindanao and the Philipinas." They
found a very small quantity of gold. The booty was divided among the
company, during which a controversy arose as the soldiers objected to
both Villalobos and the viceroy of New Spain having separate shares
therein, claiming that it was sufficient to pay the former the seventh
which he asked, with the choice of one jewel. After this was settled,
the general ordered maize to be planted "which was done twice,
but it did not come up. This irritated them all, and they said they
did not come to plant, but to make conquests." To their complaints,
and requests to change their location, Villalobos replied "that he
came for the sole purpose of discovering the course of the voyage,
and of making a settlement." "The offensive arms of the inhabitants
of these islands are cutlasses and daggers; lances, javelins, and
other missile weapons; bows and arrows, and culverins. They all,
as a rule, possess poisonous herbs, and use them and other poisons
in their wars. Their defensive arms are cotton corselets reaching to
the feet and with sleeves; corselets made of wood and buffalo horn;
and cuirasses made of bamboo and hard wood, which entirely cover
them. Armor for the head is made of dogfish-skin, which is very
tough. In some islands they have small pieces of artillery and a few
arquebuses. They are universally treacherous, and do not keep faith,
or know how to keep it. They observe the peace and friendship they
have contracted only so long as they are not prepared to do anything
else; and as soon as they are prepared to commit any act of knavery,
they do not hesitate because of any peace and friendship that they
have made. Those who carry on trade with them, must hold themselves
very cautiously. Certain Spaniards who trusted in them were killed
treacherously, under pretense of friendship." The Castilians endured
much hunger on this island of Sarrangar, and a number of them died. A
ship was despatched to Mindanao to make peace, and to arrange terms of
trade, and for food, and was received with apparent friendliness. A
boat with six men was sent ashore, but was attacked by the natives;
one man was killed and the others badly wounded. Failing to obtain
food here, Villalobos set out with twenty-five men for the island
of Santguin [Sanguir]. They anchored midway at a small island where
"the natives had fortified themselves on a rock ... in the sea,
with an entrance on only one side; this was strongly fortified with
two defenses, and its summit was enclosed by very large and numerous
trees. The approach was from the water side. The houses within were
raised up high on posts, and the sea quite surrounded the rock." The
people refusing to give provisions, "we fought with them, the combat
lasting four hours. Finally we carried the place, and as they would
not surrender, they were all killed, with the exception of some
women and children." One Spaniard was killed and a number wounded;
and, after all but little food was found. On his return to Sarrangan,
Villalobos despatched his smallest ship to New Spain to solicit aid,
on August 4, 1543. Another vessel started on the same day to "some
islands ... which we call Felipinas, after our fortunate prince,
which were said to be well supplied with provisions," for the
purpose of securing food. Three days after this the troubles with
the Portuguese began, with the arrival of the deputy sent by Jorge
de Castro. Meanwhile the numbers of the Spaniards and the Indian
slaves brought from New Spain were being decimated through the
famine they experienced. Expeditions were sent out to gather food,
but resulted disastrously. The Portuguese intrigued with the natives
not to sell provisions to the Castilians, and to do them all the harm
possible. On the arrival of the ship sent to the Philippines for food,
it was determined "to go to the Felipinas, to a province called Buio,"
[32] a salubrious land, "and abounding in food." Further misfortunes
met them through stormy weather and the hostility of the natives,
who treacherously killed eleven of the Spaniards in one vessel sent
ahead to procure provisions. Further trouble with the Portuguese
followed at the island of Gilolo, the king of which was hostile to the
Portuguese. In these straits, Villalobos determined to appeal to the
king of Tidore for aid and supplies, as he was formerly friendly to the
Spanish; but his hopes were disappointed. Then he sent to Terrenate,
at the instance of the king of Gilolo, to demand from the Portuguese
the Castilian artillery in that island. [33] Finally treaties were made
between the two kings and the Castilians. Alvarado was sent (May 28,
1544) to the Philippines to conduct back certain of the boats that had
been sent thither when the expedition left the island of Sarrangan. At
Mindanao, he was told of three provinces; "the first is Mindanao, and
it has gold mines, and cinnamon; the second is Butuan, which has the
richest mines of the whole island; and the third Bisaya, [34] likewise
possessing gold mines and cinnamon. Throughout this island are found
gold mines, ginger, wax, and honey." At the bay of Resurrection on
this island he found a letter left previously by Villalobos and two
others, - one by Fray Gerónimo de Santistéban dated in April, saying
that he with eight or ten men was going in search of the general in
one of the small vessels; that fifteen men had been killed by the
natives, and that twenty-one remained at "Tandaya in the Felipinas,
at peace with the Indians;" that one of the small vessels had been
shipwrecked and ten men drowned at the river of Tandaya; and other
news. The other letter was from the captain of the ship sent to New
Spain, saying that he had set out too late to return to New Spain,
and had taken the twenty-one men from Tandaya, and was going now
in search of Villalobos. Alvarado coasted among many of the islands
meeting with various adventures. He heard that in the "island of Zubu,
there were Castilians living, since the time of Magallanes, and that
the Chinese were wont to go thither to buy gold and certain precious
stones." He returned on October 17 to Tidore where he found Villalobos
and the other Castilians. A detailed account of the adventures of one
of the two small vessels sent to the Philippines follows. Reunited
at Tidore, the Spaniards began to repair the ship in order to return
to New Spain. Meantime Jorge de Castro was superseded by Jordan de
Fretes, and a truce was arranged between the two nationalities. A
ship left Tidore May 16, 1545, for New Spain, but it was unable to
get beyond range of the islands, and returned to Tidore October 3
of the same year. The Spaniards began to desert to the Portuguese,
arousing the suspicions of the king of Tidore. The negotiations with
the Portuguese and the discord among the Castilians are minutely
detailed. On February 18, 1546, those wishing to do so embarked in
the Portuguese fleet, arriving at Ambón, where a number of them died,
including Villalobos. They left here on May 17, going by way of Java
to India. A list of the surviving members of the expedition concludes
the relation. (_Doc. inéd. Amér. y Oceania_, tomo v, pp. 117-209.)

Expedition of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi - 1564-68

[Résumé of contemporaneous documents, 1559-68.]

Illustrative Documents -

Warrant of the Augustinian authorities in Mexico establishing
the first branch of their brotherhood in the Philippines; 1564.
Act of taking possession of Cibabao; February 15, 1565.
Proclamation ordering the declaration of gold taken from the
burial-places of the Indians; May 16, 1565.
Letters to Felipe II of Spain; May 27 and 29, and June 1, 1565.
Letter to the royal Audiencia at Mexico; May 28, 1565
Legazpi's relation of the voyage to the Philippines; 1565.
[35]Copia de vna carta venida de Seuilla a Miguel Saluador
de Valencia; 1566.
Letters to Felipe II of Spain; July, 1567, and June 26, 1568.
Negotiations between Legazpi and Pereira regarding the Spanish
settlement at Cebú. Fernando Riquel; 1568-69.

_Sources_: See Bibliographical Data at end of this volume.

_Translations_: The résumé of documents, 1559-69, is translated and
arranged, by James A. Robertson, from _Col. doc. inéd. Ultramar,_
tomo ii, pp. 94-475, and tomo iii, pp. v-225, 244-370, 427-463. Of
the illustrative documents, the first is translated by Reverend
Thomas Cooke Middleton; the second and eighth by Arthur B. Myrick;
the third and fourth by James A. Robertson; the fifth, sixth, and
seventh by Alfonso de Salvio.

Resume of Contemporaneous Documents, 1559-68.

[The following synopsis is made from documents published in
_Col. doc. inéd. Ultramar,_ tomos ii and iii, entitled _De las Islas
Filipinas_. Concerning these documents the following interesting
statements are taken from the editorial matter in tomo ii. "The
expedition of Legazpi, which is generally believed to have been
intended from the very first for the conquest and colonization of
the Philippines, set out with the intention of colonizing New Guinea;
and in any event only certain vessels were to continue their course
to the archipelago, and that with the sole idea of ransoming the
captives or prisoners of former expeditions" (p. vii). "The course
laid out in the instructions of the viceroy [of New Spain, Luis de
Velasco] [36] ... founded upon the opinion of Urdaneta, was to New
Guinea. The instructions of the _Audiencia_ prescribed definitely the
voyage to the Philippines" (p. xxiv). Copious extracts are given from
the more important of these documents, while a few are used merely
as note-material for others. With this expedition begins the real
history of the Philippine Islands, From Legazpi's landing in 1564,
the Spanish occupation of the archipelago was continuous, and in a
sense complete until 1898, with the exception of a brief period after
the capture of Manila, by the English in 1762.]

Valladolid, September 24, 1559. The king writes to Luis de Velasco,
viceroy of New Spain and president of the royal _Audiencia_,
that he provide "what seems best for the service of God, our Lord,
and ourselves, and with the least possible cost to our estate; and
therefore I order you, by virtue of your commission to make the said
discoveries by sea, that you shall despatch two ships ... for the
discovery of the western islands toward the Malucos. You must order
them to do this according to the instructions sent you, and you
shall stipulate that they try to bring some spice in order to make
the essay of that traffic; and that, after fulfilling your orders,
they shall return to that Nueva España, which they must do, so that
it may be known whether the return voyage is assured." These ships
must not enter any islands belonging to the king of Portugal, but they
shall go "to other nearby islands, such as the Phelipinas and others,
which lie outside the above agreement and within our demarcation,
and are said likewise to contain spice," The necessary artillery,
articles of barter, etc., will be sent from the India House of Trade
in Seville. "I shall enclose in this letter the letter that you think I
should write to Fray Andres de Urdaneta of the order of Saint Augustine
in that city [Mexico], in order that he embark on those vessels because
of his experience in matters connected with those islands of the spice
regions, as he has been there." The viceroy must issue instructions
to the vessels that they "must not delay in trading and bartering,
but return immediately to Nueva España, for the principal reason
of this expedition is to ascertain the return voyage." The letter
enclosed to Urdaneta states that the king "has been informed that when
you were a secular, you were in Loaysa's fleet, and journeyed to the
Strait of Magallanes and the spice regions, where you remained eight
years in our service." In the projected expedition of the viceroy,
Urdaneta's experience will be very valuable "because of your knowledge
of the products of that region, and as you understand its navigation,
and are a good cosmographer." Therefore the king charges him to embark
upon this expedition. (Tomo ii, nos. x and xi, pp. 94-100.)

Mexico, May 28, 1560. Yelasco writes to the king in answer to this
letter, saying that he will do his utmost to fulfil his commands in
regard to the voyage. He says "it is impossible to go to the Filipinas
Islands without infringing the contents of the treaty, because the
latter are no less within the treaty than are the Malucos, as your
majesty can see by the accompanying relation, made solely for myself
by Fray Andres de Urdaneta. This latter possesses the most knowledge
and experience of all those islands, and is the best and most accurate
cosmographer in Nueva España." He asks the king to show this relation
to any living members of Loaysa's expedition in order to verify
it. The king should redeem the Spaniards captured by the natives
in the Philippines and other islands near the Moluccas. To do this
and to reprovision the ships would not be in violation of the treaty
made with Portugal. In case the ships should depart before the king's
answer is received, the viceroy will order them to act in accordance
with the above-mentioned relation. The vessels of the expedition will
consist of two galleys of two hundred and one hundred and seventy
or one hundred and eighty tons respectively, and a _patache_. [37]
Wood, already fitted, is to be sent in the galleys, with which to
make small boats for use among the islands. "The man in charge of
the work, writes me that the cables and rigging necessary for these
vessels will be all ready, by the spring of sixty-one, at Nicaraugua
and Realexo, ports in the province of Guatimala where I have ordered
these articles made, because they can be made better there than in all
the coast of the Southern Sea; and because they can be brought easily
from those ports to Puerto de la Navidad, where the ships must take
the sea." The artillery and other articles sent from Spain for the
vessels have arrived. The letters written by the king to Urdaneta and
the Augustinian provincial were delivered, and both have conformed
to the contents thereof. "It is most fitting that Fray Andres go on
this expedition, because of his experience and knowledge of these
islands, and because no one in those kingdoms or in these understands
so thoroughly the necessary course as he; moreover, he is prudent and
discreet in all branches of business, and is of excellent judgment." He
assures the king that the return voyage to Spain will be made as
quickly as possible. In a postscript he adds that all due secrecy has
been observed in regard to the purpose of the fleet, and it has been
given out that it is for the trade with Peru and for coast defense;
however it is rumored that they are for the voyage westward. The
same ship carried to the king a letter from Urdaneta accepting the
service imposed upon him. He relates briefly his connection with the
expedition of Loaysa and his experiences in, and return from, the
Moluccas. "And after my return from the spice region until the year
fifty-two, when our Lord God was pleased to call me to my present
state of religion, I busied myself in your majesty's service, and
most of the time in this Nueva España ... both in matters pertaining
to war ... and those of peace." Notwithstanding his advanced age and
his feeble health, he will undertake this new service. In a separate
and accompanying paper Urdaneta sends his opinion concerning the
Philippines and neighboring islands, which the viceroy has mentioned
in his letter. In this relation Urdaneta declares that "it is evident
and clear that the Filipina Island [Mindanao] is not only within the
terms of the treaty, [38] but the point running eastward from this
said island lies in the meridian of the Malucos, and the greater
part of all the said island lies farther west than the meridian of
Maluco." [39] He quotes the terms of the treaty to emphasize the fact
that the Filipina Island is within Portugal's demarcation. "Therefore
it seems that it would be somewhat inconsistent for your majesty to
order the said vessels to the Filipina Island without showing some
legitimate or pious reason therefor." He advises the king to despatch
the expedition strictly within his demarcation, asking him, however,
to allow the ships to go to the Philippine Islands for the purpose
of redeeming the Spanish captives, "without going to the Malucos,
or engaging in trade, except to buy some things which may be worth
seeing as specimens, or food and other articles necessary for the
voyage." The best pilots and experienced men should be engaged for
this expedition, "so that the most accurate relation possible may be
made both of the lands newly-discovered and their longitude, and the
route from Nueva España to the said Filipina Island, and the other
islands of its neighborhood, so that it shall be understood where
the one hundred and eighty degrees of longitude of your majesty's
demarcation end. Therefore it seems that not only is it a just cause
to go to the Filipina Island in search of your said vassals ... but
there appears to be a necessity for it, since they were lost in your
majesty's service." These men will be very useful because of their
knowledge of the language of the infidels and their acquaintance with
those regions. (Tomo ii, nos. xii and xiii pp. 100-113.)

The king replies to Urdaneta from Aranjuez, (March 4, 1561), accepting
his offer "to go to the Western Islands in the vessels that Don Luis
de Velasco, our viceroy of those regions, is sending thither by our
command ... I feel much pleasure at your willingness to undertake this
expedition and your understanding that it will be for the service of
God, our Lord, and of ourselves ... I charge you that, in accordance
with your offer, you make this expedition, and do therein all that
is expected from your religion and goodness. In regard to the advice
you sent everything has been sent to the said viceroy, so that he
may arrange what is most suitable according to his orders." (Tomo ii,
no. xvi, pp. 118, 119.)

Nueva España, February 9, 1561. The viceroy writes to the king
concerning the fleet. Two ships and one small vessel are being built,

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Online LibraryUnknownThe Philippine Islands, 1493-1803 — Volume 02 of 55 1521-1569 Explorations by Early Navigators, Descriptions of the Islands and Their Peoples, Their History and Records of the Catholic Missions, as Re → online text (page 4 of 22)