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and will be provisioned for the trip to the Western Islands and the
return to New Spain. They will be fully equipped by about the end
of the present year. "It is necessary that your majesty have two
pilots sent me for this expedition - men skilled and experienced in
this navigation of the Ocean Sea; for, although I have three, I need
two more, so that they may go two and two in the ships.... I have
appointed Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, [40] a native of the province
of Lepuzcua, and a well-known gentleman of the family of Lezcano,
as the general and leader of those embarking in these vessels - who
all told, soldiers, sailors, and servants, number from two hundred
and fifty to three hundred people. He is fifty years old [41] and has
spent more than twenty-nine years in this Nueba España. He has given a
good account of the offices he has held, and of the important affairs
committed to him. From what is known of his Christian character and
good qualities hitherto, almore suitable man, and one more satisfactory
to Fray Andres Urdaneta, who is to direct and guide the expedition,
could not have been chosen; for these two are from the same land,
and they are kinsmen and good friends, and have one mind." (Tomo ii,
no. xiv, pp. 113-117.)

Mexico, 1561. Urdaneta, in a memorial to the king, points out the
greater advantages of Acapulco as a port, than those possessed by
Puerto de la Navidad. It has a more healthful location than the
latter, is nearer Mexico City, and supplies can be taken there
more easily. The lack of necessities, "such as wine, oil, etc.,
from España," and its unhealthful location have debarred workmen from
going to Puerto de la Navidad; and hence the completion of the vessels
has been retarded, and about a year must pass yet before they will
be finished. "It is of great advantage that the port whence the men
embark be healthful,... because if they embark from an unhealthful
land, many fall sick before embarking, and many die afterwards while
at sea ... The port of Acapulco appears to have a good location,
so that a dockyard might be fitted up there, where vessels can be
built, and may there take and discharge their cargoes; for it is one
of the foremost ports in the discovery of the Indies - large, safe,
very healthful, and with a supply of good water. It abounds in fish;
and at a distance of five or six leagues there is an abundance of
wood for the buttock-timbers of the vessels, and, some distance
farther, of wood for decks and sheathing, and pines for masts and
yards." Further, the district about this port is reasonably well
populated. Urdaneta says that if material for making the artillery be
sent from Spain, and good workmen, the artillery can be made in New
Spain; as well as anchors. "In this land there is copper in abundance,
from which artillery can be made," which only needs to be refined. The
Augustinian makes some interesting observations regarding social and
economic conditions in Mexico, and suggests that it would be very
advantageous to compel many youths who are growing up in vagabondage
to learn trades, "especially the _mestizos_, mulattoes, and free
negroes." Weapons, ammunition, and defensive armor must be sent from
Spain for this expedition. Urdaneta requests that hemp-seed be sent, in
order that ropes may be made in New Spain. He tells of a plant _pita_
[agave], growing in this country which can be used as a substitute
for hemp, and many plants of it must be planted near the ports. The
pitch, tar, and resin, the instruments and charts for navigation, etc.,
must be sent hither from Spain. They need good seamen and workmen. The
king is requested to allow them to make use of any workmen in the other
provinces of "these parts of the Indies," paying them their just wages;
likewise to take what things they need, paying the just price. It
is advised that the necessary trees for shipbuilding be planted near
the ports, and that ranches be established near by to furnish food.

The second section of this document treats of the navigation to
the Western Islands: and Urdaneta maps out various routes which
should be followed, according to the time of the year when the fleet
shall depart on its voyage of discovery. These routes all have to do
primarily with New Guinea as the objective point of the expedition,
the Philippines being considered as only secondary thereto. Speaking
of the Ladrones and their inhabitants, Urdaneta says: "The islands
of the Ladrones are many, and thirteen [42] of them are said to
be inhabited. The inhabitants are naked and poor. They eat rice,
have many cocoa palms, and use salt. They fish with hooks made from
tortoise-shell, being destitute of articles made from iron. They
place a counterweight in one end of their canoes, and rig on them
lateen-like sails made of palm-mats. It is quite important to explore
this island thoroughly, or any of the others, in order to discover
and ascertain accurately the navigation that has been made up to
that point, and their distance from Maluco and the Filipinas Islands
... Those islands are somewhat less than three hundred and seventy
leagues from Botaba [one of the Ladrones]." The "modern maps that have
come to this Nueva España," are in his opinion incorrect, as certain
coasts are drawn more extensive than is actually the case. Calms
must be avoided and the trade winds caught, in order to facilitate
navigation. The errors of former expeditions must be avoided, as well
as a protracted stay at the Philippines - "both because of the worms
that infest that sea, which bore through and destroy the vessels;
and because the Portuguese might learn of us, during this time,
and much harm might result thereby." Besides. Spaniards as well as
natives cannot be depended upon to keep the peace. By leaving New
Spain before the beginning of October, 1562, much expense and the
idleness of the ships will be avoided. In case land be discovered
within Spain's demarcation. Urdaneta requests the king to provide
for its colonization by supplying a captain and some of the people
and religious - or even that the general himself remain there, "if
the natives thereof beg that some Spaniards remain among them." He
asks the king to ascertain the truth of the report that the French
have discovered a westward route "between the land of the Bacallaos
and the land north of it." [43] If it be true then trade might be
carried on more economically from Spain direct to the west than by
way of New Spain, and the fleets will be better provided with men
and equipments. (Tomo ii, no. xvii, pp. 119-138).

Mexico, May 26,1563. Legazpi writes to the king that "the viceroy
of this New Spain, without any merit on my part, has thought best
to appoint me for the voyage to the Western Islands, to serve your
majesty, putting under my charge the fleet prepared for it - not
because this land has few men who would do it better than I, and by
whom your majesty would be served better on this voyage, but rather,
because no one would give himself up to it with a more willing spirit,
as I have ever done in my past duties." He assures his majesty that he
will have the utmost care in this expedition. For the better success of
the voyage he has "asked the viceroy for certain things, which seemed
to me necessary ... and others of which, in the name of your majesty,
he should grant me, which although they were not of so great moment
that they were fitting to be asked from so exalted and powerful a
personage, the viceroy defers and sends them to you, so that your
majesty may order your pleasure regarding them." He asks these things
for "so important a voyage" not as "a remuneration for my work, since
that is due your majesty's service, but as a condescension made with
the magnificence that your majesty always is accustomed to exercise in
rewarding his servants who serve him in matters of moment." (Tomo ii,
no. xviii, pp. 139, 140.)

Mexico, 1564. The viceroy writes to Felipe on February 25 and again
on June 15, excusing the non-departure of the fleet. In the first he
says that the delay is due to the proper victualing of the vessels
for a two-years' voyage, and the non-arrival of certain pieces of
artillery, etc., which were coming from Vera Cruz; the things that
were to be sent, from the City of Mexico could not be sent until the
fleet was launched, as they would spoil if left on land. Everything
will be ready by May. In the second letter he excuses the delay as,
owing to calms and contrary winds, the vessels bearing the "masts,
yards, and certain anchors" for the fleet did not arrive at Puerto de
la Navidad until June 10. It still remained to step the masts and make
the vessels shipshape, and to load the provisions; and they will be
ready to sail by September. "Four vessels are being sent, two galleons
and two _pataches_; ... they are the best that have been launched
on the Southern Sea, and the stoutest and best equipped. They carry
three hundred Spaniards, half soldiers and half sailors, a chosen lot
of men.... Six religious of the order of Saint Augustine go with it,
among them Fray Andres de Urdaneta, who is the most experienced and
skilled navigator that can be had in either old or new España." He
encloses a copy of the instructions to Legazpi, in order that the king
may assure himself that his commands have been obeyed. The best pilots
have been secured. The questions of routes, seasons, and other things
have been discussed with Urdaneta and others who have made the voyage
before. "I trust ... that the expedition will come to a successful
end, and that your majesty will be very much served therein, and in
all that shall hereafter occur in it." Notice will be given to the
king of the departure of the fleet by the first vessel leaving for
Spain after that event. (Tomo ii, nos. xix and xx, pp. 140-145).

Méjico, September 1, 1564. After the death of Luis de Velasco,
instructions are issued to Legazpi by the president and auditors of
the royal _Audiencia_ of Mexico, the chief provisions of which here
follow. Before the royal officials of this expedition, namely, "Guido
de Labezaris, treasurer, Andres Cauchela, accountant, and Andres de
Mirandaola, factor," he will take possession of the vessels and their
equipment. The flagship will be the "Sant Felipe," in which Legazpi
will embark; the "Sant Andres" will carry the commander of the fleet;
[44] Captain Juan de la Isla and Captain Hernán Sanchez Muñon will
command the _pataches_, the "Sant Juan de Letran" and the "Sant
Lucas," respectively. Legazpi's first duty is to appoint pilots,
masters, boatswains, notaries, artillery officers, and all other
necessary officials. Inventories of the equipment of the fleet, and
of the merchandise, etc., carried, are to be made and signed by him;
and a copy of the same shall be given to the officials of the royal
_hacienda_ [treasury]. He shall apportion the cargo, provisions,
etc., among the different vessels, as he judge best. Martin de
Goiti is to have entire charge of all the artillery, ammunition,
etc., "as he is a person to be trusted," and he shall be given a
memorandum of all such things. The men embarking in the fleet shall
pass a general review; their names, age, parentage, occupation in
the fleet, and pay, shall be enrolled in a book; and they shall
be apportioned to the various vessels of the fleet. In Legazpi's
ship will embark Captain Mateo del Saz, appointed master-of-camp,
two officials of the royal _hacienda_, and those "gentlemen to whom
has been given the preference for attendance on you and the standard,
and the other necessary persons;" the royal standard and the ensign
shall be carried on his vessel. "In the admiral's ship you shall
appoint as captain thereof, and as admiral of the whole fleet,
the man who is, in your judgment, most suitable." This vessel must
carry one of the royal officers. The soldiers and sailors must see
that the arquebuses delivered to them are kept in good order. Great
care must be exercised in regard to the provisions, and they must be
apportioned in set quantities, "as the voyage is of long duration." To
this end no useless person shall be taken, and no Indians or negroes
(male or female) - beyond a dozen of the latter for servants - or women
(married or single) shall accompany the fleet. When the fleet is upon
the point of embarking, the Augustinian religious shall be taken on
board, who go "to bring the natives of those regions to a knowledge
of our holy Catholic faith." They are to have good quarters and to
receive good treatment. Before setting sail "you shall have care that
all the people have confessed and received communion." The general
must perform homage and take oath to "perform well and faithfully
the said office and duties of governor and captain-general." Also
the oath of obedience and faithfulness to Legazpi shall be taken by
all embarking in the fleet, "that they will not mutiny, or rebel,
and will follow the course marked out by you, and your banner." The
general must guard carefully the morals of his men, and shall punish
"blasphemy and public sins with all severity." The property of
the dead shall be kept for their heirs, persons being appointed to
administer it. The admiral, captains, pilots, and masters shall be
given ample instructions concerning the course before setting sail,
which they must follow to the letter. The men are to be divided
into watches, no one being excused, except for sickness. The fleet,
setting sail, shall proceed "in search of and to discover the Western
Islands situated toward the Malucos, but you shall not in any way or
manner enter the islands of the said Malucos, ... but you shall enter
other islands contiguous to them, as for instance the Filipinas, and
others outside the said treaty, and within his majesty's demarcation,
and which are reported also to contain spice." They are to labor for
the evangelization of the natives, to ascertain the products of the
islands, and to discover the return route to New Spain. The route
to be taken on the westward journey will be by way of the "island
Nublada, discovered by Ruy Lopez de Villalobos" and Roca Partida;
then to the islands Los Reyes, the Coral Islands - "where you may
procure water," - and thence to the Philippines; passing perhaps the
islands of Matalotes and Arrecifes, in which event they shall try to
enter into communication with the natives. "When you have arrived at
the said Filipinas Islands, and other islands contiguous to them and
the Malucos, without however entering the latter, ... you shall try to
discover and examine their ports, and to ascertain and learn minutely
the settlements therein and their wealth; the nature and mode of life
of the natives; the trade and barter among them, and with what nations;
the value and price of spices among them, the different varieties of
the same, and the equivalent for each in the merchandise and articles
for exchange that you take from this land; and what other things may
be advantageous. You shall labor diligently to make and establish
sound friendship and peace with the natives, and you shall deliver to
their seigniors and chiefs, as may seem best to you, the letters from
his majesty that you carry with you for them.... You must represent
to them his majesty's affection and love for them, giving them a few
presents ... and treating them well. And you may exchange the articles
of barter and the merchandise that you carry for spice, drugs, gold,
and other articles of value and esteem.... And if, in your judgment,
the land is so rich and of such quality that you should colonize
therein, you shall establish a colony in that part and district that
appears suitable to you, and where the firmest friendship shall have
been made with you; and you shall affirm and observe inviolably this
friendship. After you have made this settlement, if you should deem
it advantageous to the service of God, our Lord, and of his majesty,
to remain in those districts where you have thus settled, together
with some of your people and religious, until you have given advice
of it to his majesty and this royal _Audiencia_ in his name, you
shall send immediately to this Nueva España, one or more trustworthy
persons ... with the news and relation of what you have accomplished,
and where you have halted. What you shall have obtained in trade shall
be brought back. This you shall do in such manner that with all the
haste, caution, and diligence possible, they shall return to this land,
in order that the return route hither may be known and learned; for
this latter is the chief thing attempted, since already it is known
that the journey thither can be made in a brief time. If you determine
to make the return in person to this land, you shall leave there,
where you have settled, persons in your stead and some people and
religious, but making sure that the commander left by you with such
people and religious is a thoroughly trustworthy man, and that he is
amply provided with the necessary supplies until aid can arrive. To
this man you shall give orders that he preserve with your friends
the friendship that you shall have established, without offending
or ill-treating them in any way; and that he be ever prepared and
watchful, so that no harm may come through his negligence." News
of any Spaniards left among these islands from the expedition
of Villalobos is to be earnestly sought; and Spaniards and their
children are to be ransomed when found, and brought back to Spanish
territory. Information is to be sought concerning the natives of the
Philippines. The Spaniards must ascertain whether the Portuguese have
built forts or made settlements in these islands since the treaty was
made, or since Villalobos arrived there. The exploration in Spain's
démarcation is to be as thorough as possible. Any land colonized
must be well chosen, regard being had to its easy defense. As much
treasure as possible must be sent back with the ship or ships that
return with news of the expedition. Further emphasis is laid on the
good treatment of the natives, "who, as we are informed, are men
of keen intellect, of much worth, and as white as ourselves." "In
whatever port, island, or land" they shall make explorations, they
are to gather information "of the customs, conditions, mode of life,
and trade of their inhabitants; their religion and cult, what beings
they adore, and their sacrifices and manner of worship. Information
must be obtained of their method of rule and government; whether
they have kings, and, if so, whether that office is elective, or by
right of inheritance; or whether they are governed like republics, or
by nobles; what rents or tributes they pay, and of what kind and to
whom; the products of their land most valued among them; what other
things valued by them are brought from other regions. And you shall
ascertain what articles taken by you from here are held in highest
estimation among them." Possession, in the king's name, shall be
taken of all the lands or islands discovered. The pilots shall make
careful logs. The powerful rulers of these districts are to be told
that the proposed destination of the fleet was not to their islands,
but the exigencies of the weather rendered a stay there imperative,
in order that they may not say "that you carry very little merchandise
to go a-trading in lands so distant" They shall request friendship
and alliance and trade; and presents shall be given these rulers from
the most valuable articles in the cargo. Legazpi must be watchful of
his own safety, carrying on negotiations with the natives through his
officers, thus guarding against treachery. The person transacting such
business shall be accompanied by armed men, and the negotiations must
be carried on in sight of the vessels. Hostages must be procured when
possible. No soldiers or sailors shall go ashore without being ordered
to do so. Sleepless vigilance must be exercised to see that the natives
do not cut the anchor-cables, and thus send the ship adrift. To guard
against treason and poison, invitations to festivities or banquets
must not be accepted, nor shall any food be eaten unless the natives
partake of it first. If no settlement can be made because of the
unwillingness of the natives, or because of the scarcity of men, then
the expedition - the entire fleet, if Legazpi deem best - shall return,
after having first made peace and friendship, trying to bring enough
treasure, etc., to pay the expenses of the expedition. It is advisable
to leave some of the priests in any event, "to preserve the friendship
and peace that you shall have made." If any Portuguese are met among
the islands of Japan, part of which lie in Spain's demarcation, any
hostile encounter must be avoided, and the Spaniards must labor for
peace and friendship. In case they obtain such peace and friendship,
then they must try to see the charts carried by the Portuguese. Whether
the latter are found or not in these Japanese islands, Legazpi must
try to ascertain whether any Theatins [45] have been sent thither to
convert the natives. Finding these latter, information as to those
regions and the actions of the Portuguese therein must be sought. In
case the Spaniards and Portuguese come to blows, and the victory
remain to the former, a few Portuguese prisoners shall be sent to
New Spain. If the Portuguese have unlawfully entered the limits of
Spain, Legazpi shall, with the advice of his captains and the royal
officials, take what course seems, best. If vessels are encountered
in the Japanese archipelago or in districts contiguous thereto,
Legazpi must try to effect peace and friendship, declaring that he was
compelled to enter those districts because of contrary winds; he must
gather all the information possible from them, concerning themselves
and the Portuguese. Should these vessels thus encountered prove to be
armed fleets or pirates, any conflict with them must be avoided. In
case of a fight, let him depend on his artillery rather than on
grappling. Any prisoners must be well treated, "and after having gained
information of everything that seems best to you, you shall allow them
to go freely, giving them to understand the greatness of the king,
... and that he wishes his vassals to harm no one." Pirates are to
be dealt with as shall be deemed best. All trading must be at the
lowest possible price, and fixed figures shall be established. Native
weights must be used. The royal officials are to have entire charge
of all trading, of whatever nature, and no individual shall presume,
under severe penalties, to trade for himself, for in that case prices
will be raised by the natives. These officials shall trade first,
merchandise to the value of fifty thousand pesos of gold dust [46]
for the king, and then ten thousand pesos for private individuals;
then another fifty thousand for the king, and so on; but all drugs,
spices, and some other articles are the king's alone, and no one may
trade for them without his express permission. Careful entries of
all trading must be made, and the king shall receive one-twentieth
of all the return cargo of individuals in the fleet. Any merchandise
belonging to private individuals who do not embark in the fleet shall
be traded last, and seven per cent of its returns shall be paid to
the king. Slaves may be bought, for use as interpreters, but good
treatment is to be accorded them. No Indian shall be captured, nor
shall any soldier buy any slave during the time of the voyage; but
when a settlement is made they may do so, unless the king order the
contrary. Several of them shall be sent to New Spain, however, that
"they may be seen here, and from them may be ascertained the products
of their lands." In the fortress of any settlement made, two houses
shall be constructed, one for Legazpi, and the other for the safe
keeping of the artillery and stores; and a ditch and drawbridge are to
be made at the entrance to it. The people of the settlement shall live
outside the fortress, but in one place. Careful watch must be kept;
and the soldiers must take good care of their weapons, having them
always in readiness. The soldiers and others are to be prohibited
from "going to the villages of the natives of those regions without
leave, from entering their houses, from seizing by force anything
in the camp or in their village, or contrary to their will, and from
leaving their [the soldiers'] quarters. Especially shall you prohibit
them and order them that they have no communication with the women
of those regions." Legazpi is to remain aboard his vessel until the
fortress is completed. After its completion some small boats shall
be made. A church shall be built near the fort, as well as a house


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Online LibraryUnknownThe Philippine Islands, 1493-1803 — Volume 02 of 55 1521-1569 Explorations by Early Navigators, Descriptions of the Islands and Their Peoples, Their History and Records of the Catholic Missions, as Re → online text (page 5 of 22)