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for the religious, in order that the latter may minister to the
colonists and the natives. "And you shall have especial care that,
in all your negotiations with the natives of those regions, some of
the religious accompanying you be present, both in order to avail
yourself of their good counsel and advice, and so that the natives
may see and understand your high estimation of them; for seeing this,
and the great reverence of the soldiers toward them, they themselves
will hold the religious in great respect. This will be of great
moment, so that, when the religious shall understand their language,
or have interpreters through whom they may make them understand our
holy Catholic faith, the Indians shall put entire faith in them;
since you are aware that the chief thing sought after by his majesty
is the increase of our holy Catholic faith, and the salvation of the
souls of those infidels." To this end all help must be given to these
ministers of God. The Indian interpreters carried in the fleet must
be well treated. In case it shall be necessary, changes may be made
in these instructions, but with the advice of the other officers; but
it must be ever kept in mind that he is "to go to the said Filipinas
Islands, and other islands contiguous thereto, ... and to discover
the return route to this Nueva España with the greatest despatch
possible, bringing or sending spices and other valuable articles of
those regions." Urdaneta must return with the ship or ships sent
back to discover the return route, because of his experience. No
person shall be restricted from sending letters, in the return ship
or ships, to the king or the royal _Audiencia_. The commander of
the return ship shall deliver all the letters to the _Audiencia_,
and they, after reading their own shall despatch the others. This
person shall be most emphatically charged to communicate with no one
until the _Audiencia_ has been advised of everything that has happened
since the fleet left New Spain. Legazpi is enjoined in strong terms
to seek advice among the religious "especially father Fray Andres de
Urdaneta," and the officers of the fleet, on all important matters. In
case of Legazpi's death the person succeeding to his office is to
keep these instructions faithfully. A small box, carefully fastened,
is given into Legazpi's keeping, containing a sealed paper in which
is written the name of the person who is to succeed to his command
in case of his death, but this person is not to be known until such
a casualty. Another similar box, sealed and fastened as the other
casket, contains the name of the person who shall receive the command
in case Legazpi's successor dies also. At the end of the instructions
proper is Legazpi's oath to observe with care the commands enjoined
upon him therein. (Tomo ii, no. xxi, pp. 145-200.)

Méjico, September 12, 1564. A letter from the royal _Audiencia_ to the
king informs the latter of the changes which they have made in the
instructions given to Legazpi by Luis de Velasco, who has died. The
general and other officers have left for the port of departure, and
the fleet will sail some time in October. The first instructions,
which were in accordance with Urdaneta's opinion, were to sail
toward New Guinea and coast along its shores in order to discover
its products and other things. "It seemed to this royal _Audiencia_,
discussing and communicating in this regard with persons of experience,
who have been in those regions, that, although it be true that the
discovery of New Guinea would be important, especially if the riches
asserted should be found there, it is not fitting that the voyage
thither be made now - both because, as it is new, it has not hitherto
been navigated; and because, doing so now, it would be necessary to
deviate widely from the course to reach the Western Islands, and the
return voyage would be delayed; and it would be running a great risk
to navigate in an unknown course." The king's letter of September 24,
1559, is cited in support of the _Audiencia's_ change in route, and
they "determined to order the general to sail straightway in search
of the Filipinas Islands, and the other islands contiguous thereto,
by the same route taken by Ruy Lopez de Villalobos." The _Audiencia_
do not agree with Urdaneta (see above, p. 81) that the Philippines
are in Portugal's demarcation. (Tomo ii, no. xxi, pp. 200-205.)

Nueva España, 1564 (?). The first-appointed admiral of the fleet,
Juan Pablo de Carrión, writes to King Felipe in regard to the
proposed route. He gives a brief outline of Urdaneta's opinion
that they should sail first to New Guinea. This island he declares
"is one that we discovered in the year forty-four." He describes
it as a desolate region, with but scant food, and declares that the
voyage thither is dangerous and arduous. His own opinion is that the
fleet should take the same course as did Saavedra and Villalobos;
"and that the fleet should put in at the Filipinas Islands, which
are friendly islands, with whom we have had trade and friendship,
and where even eight Spaniards of the fleet in which I sailed
remained. They are islands well supplied with all manner of food,
and there is much trade there. They are wealthy and large, and have
the best location of the entire archipelago. Their language is known,
and their ports, and even the names of their principal rulers, with
whom we have contracted friendship.... There are islands among them
with a circuit of three hundred leagues, and so down to fifty. Those
islands that have been seen are eight large ones, without reckoning
the small ones between them. They are within sight of one another,
so that the most distant of them is not more than ten leagues from
another. To the north of them lies the mainland of China, a distance
of about two hundred leagues; at about the same distance to the south
lies Maluco. And since the route from these lands thither is already
known, and we have had experience of it and since it is a land most
abundantly provisioned and has much trade, and is rich, I have been
of the opinion that we should go thither, inasmuch as this navigation
is understood and that we should not seek a new course attended with
so great uncertainty and risk." He recounts that "these islands were
discovered first by Magallanes in the year twenty-one," and afterward
by Villalobos, and their secret discovered. "They are islands that
the Portuguese have never seen, and they are quite out of the way of
their navigation; neither have the latter had any further information
of them beyond our drawing or chart. They have the best situation for
the return voyage, because they are in north latitude." He ascribes
his not being permitted to accompany the expedition to the divergence
of his opinion from that of Urdaneta. The latter has declared that
he will not go on the expedition if it takes Carrión's course;
"and as he who goes as general, ... is of his nation and land, and
his intimate friend, he wishes to please the father in everything;
and as the said general has no experience in these things, nor does he
understand anything of navigation, through not having practiced it,
he is unable to distinguish one thing from another, and embraces the
father's opinion in everything." Carrión, in a very brief résumé of
Urdaneta's life, declares that he is a man of over sixty. (Tomo ii,
no. xxiii, pp. 205-210.)

Puerto de la Navidad, 1564. In a letter to the king November 18,
Legazpi announces that he has taken over "two large ships and two
_pataches_, and one small brigantine," in which are one hundred and
fifty seamen, two hundred soldiers, and six religious of the order of
Saint Augustine, the chief of whom is father Fray Andres de Urdaneta;
in all, the number of souls, counting servants, amounts to three
hundred and eighty. "I shall leave this port, please God, our Lord,
tomorrow ... and will display, on my part, all possible diligence and
care, with the fidelity which I owe, and which I am under obligation
to have." He hopes for a successful voyage. He begs the king to bear
them in mind, and send aid "to us who go before," and to commit this
to one who has care and diligence, "as a matter that concerns greatly
the service of God, our Lord, the increase of his holy Catholic faith,
and the service of your majesty, and the general good of your kingdoms
and seigniories." He asks the king to grant (as in his other letter,
_q.v._ above) the requests he had made to the viceroy, and which
the latter had sent to Spain; for the preparation for the voyage
has taken all his possessions. Two days later (November 20) Urdaneta
writes the king to somewhat the same effect, enumerating the vessels,
men, etc. Besides himself there are four other religious, "and the
other ... God has taken to himself in this port." They will set out
the following day, all being well. He praises Legazpi, and requests
the king to keep him in his remembrance. Urdaneta's nephew, Andrés
de Mirandaola, is the royal factor of the fleet, and the former begs
favor for him. "Also since the religious of the order of our father
Saint Augustine are the first to embark in this undertaking, and to
undergo so many hardships for the service of God and your majesty,
I beg your majesty to grant them favors." (Tomo ii, nos. xxiv and xxv,
pp. 211-215.)

November 25, 1564. Legazpi gives instructions on this day to the
captains and pilots as to the course to be pursued. Hitherto,
since leaving port, a southwest course has been steered; but now,
in accordance with the royal instructions, and in the opinion of the
captains and pilots, it seems advisable to change the direction. They
shall sail first west-southwest to a latitude of nine degrees, and then
take a due course for the Philippines, stopping at the island of Los
Reyes on the way. If by any chance one of the vessels becomes separated
from Legazpi's vessel, the pilots are to return to the above latitude,
stopping at any port that they may find, for eight or ten days, in
hopes of meeting the other vessels. Whether they find the island or
not, and do not find the other vessels, this ship shall continue on
the course toward the Philippines. A token and letter must be left at
any port they may reach. When the island of Los Reyes is reached, the
ship will wait there ten days, after which time they shall continue
their course, stopping likewise at Matalotes and Arrecifes, leaving
tokens at all places, and trying to explore them and discover their
products. (Tomo ii, no. xxvi, pp. 215-217.)

Relation of the expedition, from November 19, 1564, to the end of May,
1565, when the "San Pedro," under command of Felipe de Salcedo, left
Cebú for New Spain. The fleet set sail from "Puerto de Navidad, Monday,
November 20, two hours before midnight, or rather on Tuesday, November
21, three hours before daybreak." It consisted of the flagship,
"San Pedro," the "San Pablo," captained by the master-of-camp,
Mateo del Saz, and the _pataches_ "San Juan" and "San Lucas,"
captained by Juan de la Isla and Alonso de Arellano respectively. The
vessels bore as pilots Esteban Rodriguez (chief pilot), Pierres
Plin (or Plun, a Frenchman), Jaymes Martinez Fortun, Diego Martin,
Rodrigo de Espinosa, and Lope Martin. Legazpi's vessel, the "San
Pedro," carried a small brigantine on her poop deck. On November 25,
Legazpi opened the instructions given him by the _Audiencia_, which
radically changed the course from the one that had been hitherto
pursued - the new course being in accord with the advice of Carrión,
and by the same route which Villalobos had taken. "The religious in
the fleet were very sorry at this, giving out that they had been
deceived; and had they known while yet ashore, that such a route
was to be pursued, they would not have accompanied the expedition,
for the reasons that father Fray Andres de Urdaneta had advanced in
Mexico." But they expressed their willingness to make the expedition
now for the service of God and the holy Catholic faith, the increase
of the kingdom, and the general good of the fleet. On the night of
the twenty-ninth, the "San Lucas," which, by the general's orders,
was accustomed to take its position at night ahead of his vessel,
became separated from the rest of the fleet and was seen no more. [47]
Being speedier than, the others, Legazpi naturally expected that
it would reach the islands ahead of him and there await the fleet,
but he was disappointed. The fleet reached on December 18, the ninth
degree of latitude, from which it must proceed westward to the island
of Los Reyes. It was found that there was no uniformity among the
distances and reckonings of the pilots; and although each contended
for the accuracy of his reckoning, they were accustomed to change
their figures somewhat, before reporting to Legazpi. Urdaneta's
figures proved nearer the truth, but even he changed his reckoning,
enlarging it, that he might be more in harmony with the pilots. Thus
it happened that the daily runs were exaggerated, giving rise to the
belief that Los Reyes had been passed. In accordance with this belief
the course of the fleet was changed on the twenty-eighth of December,
taking the latitude of ten degrees, in order to reach Matalotes and
other islands. On January 8, 1565, the "San Pablo" reported land on
the port bow, and the fleet directed its course southward. The report
proving incorrect, the former course was resumed and on the next day
a low, small island was discovered. The natives fled at sight or the
squadron. The ships ran close to land, and finding no anchorage, for
the anchors failed to touch bottom, Martin de Goyti was ordered to
go ahead to look for an anchorage. Landing-parties (among whom were
Urdaneta and Legazpi's grandson, Felipe de Salcedo, Martin de Goyti,
and Juan de la Isla) went on shore to gather what information they
could, and Salcedo was empowered to take possession of the island for
the king. Meanwhile it became necessary for the vessels to weigh anchor
and set sail, as the ebb-tide was taking them out to sea. The small
boats that had been sent ashore regained the fleet at ten o'clock,
and it continued its voyage. The landing-party had been well received
by the natives who had not decamped - an old man, his wife, and a
young woman with her child - who showed them their houses, fruits,
and articles of food, giving them some of the latter. They showed
signs of regret at the departure of the Spaniards. "The Indian was
well built and the women good looking. They were clad in garments
made of palm-leaf mats, which are very thin and skilfully made. They
had many Castilian fowl, quantities of fish and cocoanuts, potatoes,
yams, and other grain, such as millet." They used canoes, and made
fish-hooks from bone and other articles. "Their hair is loose and
long." This island was named Barbudos. [48] No weapons, offensive
or defensive, were seen. On the tenth they reached another larger
island and many small islets, which they called Los Plazeles from
the surrounding shoals. They appeared uninhabited. The same day
they passed another uninhabited island, which they called the isle
of Birds, from its many wild-fowl. On the twelfth they passed other
uninhabited islands which they called Las Hermanas ["The Sisters"]. On
the fourteenth, they passed islands which Urdaneta declared to be
the Jardines of Villalobos. The pilots ridiculed this assertion,
saying that they were much farther on their course. In a general
council on the seventeenth the best course to the Philippines was
discussed, as it was advisable to avoid entering at the hunger-point
of Villalobos. It was agreed to sail along the thirteenth degree,
in which course Urdaneta declared they must meet the Ladrones. On the
twenty-second of January land was sighted which the pilots declared
to be the Philippines, but which Urdaneta said might be the Ladrones,
which he afterwards affirmed to be the case from the lateen-sails
of the native boats, "which the inhabitants of the Filipinas do not
make." The pilots continued to ridicule him, but Urdaneta's reasoning
was correct. The fleet was surrounded by a multitude of boats, whose
occupants, all talking at once, invited them with word and sign to
land, offering refreshment. Some knives, scissors, beads, a mirror,
and other articles were given to the occupants of the nearest canoe. On
the following Tuesday the vessels succeeded in finding an anchorage,
and the instructions as to behavior on land were carefully enjoined
on all the men. [49] They were immediately surrounded by the canoes
of the natives, the occupants of which brought many kinds of food,
but in very small quantity. They would not enter the vessels although
asked to do so by Legazpi, "who showed them much love and affection,
and looked upon them as friends." They sold their food for such things
as playing cards, little bits of cloth, etc. "The father prior talked
with them, using the few words of their language that he remembered,
especially counting up to ten, whereat they manifested great pleasure;
and one of them mentioned the name Gonzalo, which as the father prior
said, was the name of a Spaniard who had been found in one of those
islands, which was called Goam." The natives signed to them to enter
their villages, where they would find food in abundance. "And all the
canoes, and those in them, had their arms, which consisted of shields,
bundles of throwing-sticks, slings, and egg-shaped stones.... They
leave the body quite uncovered. They are tall, robust, well built,
and apparently of great strength. The women, too, are very tall,
and wear only a cord tied about the waist, and to the cord they
hang some grass or leaves from the trees, whereby they cover the
shameful parts. Some cover the latter also with mats made from
palm-leaves. All the rest of the body is uncovered. Both men and
women wear their hair, which is of a yellowish color, loose and long,
gathering it up behind the head." Their canoes are "very neatly and
well made, sewed together with cord, and finished with a white or
orange-colored bitumen, in place of pitch. They are very light, and
the natives sail in them with their lateen sails made of palm-mats,
with so much swiftness against the wind or with a side wind that it
is a thing to marvel at." The trading was all done from the canoes
for the natives would not enter the vessels. They cheated much,
passing up packages filled mainly with sand, or grass, and rocks,
with perhaps a little rice on top to hide the deceit; the cocoa-nut
oil was found to be mixed with water. "Of these the natives made many
and very ridiculous jests." They showed no shame in these deceits,
and, if remonstrance was made, began straightway to show fight. "They
are inclined to do evil, and in their knavishness they exhibit a very
great satisfaction in having done it; and truly whoever gave the name
of island of Ladrones [robbers] was right; for they are robbers and
boast of it, and are quite shameless and inclined to evil. They render
account to no one, each man being sufficient to himself. Thus it was
seen that, whenever the general gave some articles, such as beads,
mirrors, and articles of barter, to the Indians who seemed to be
the principals, they quarreled over who should take them, snatching
them from one another and fleeing. And they were always looking for
something to steal. They unfastened a large piece of one rudder blade
in the _patache_ 'San Joan,' and they tried to, and actually did,
draw out the nails from the sides of the ships." [50] The vessels
having anchored in a small cove for the purpose of refilling the
water-butts, the natives showed hostility, discharging showers of
stones from two sides, wounding some of the Spaniards, among others
Captain Juan de la Isla, whereat the master-of-camp was sent ashore
to remonstrate. The natives, in consequence, promised to keep the
peace. Repeated experiences proved that no confidence could be placed
in these people; for they broke their word as soon as given. Legazpi
took possession of this island "in the name of his majesty"; and the
religious disembarked to say mass, and celebrated divine worship. [51]
Several natives were captured and held as hostages, being well
treated in each case. One escaped, although his legs were fettered
with irons, by swimming; one hanged himself, and the others were set
free. Urdaneta proposed that a settlement be made in this island, and a
vessel despatched to New Spain, but Legazpi said this would be acting
contrary to his instructions. Before leaving the island, however,
a hundred men under the command of Mateo del Saz landed to inflict
chastisement for the death of a ship-boy whom the natives, finding
him asleep in a palm grove, whither he had gone while the water-butts
were being refilled, had killed in a most barbarous manner. Four of
the natives were captured, three of whom (all wounded) were hanged
at the same place where the boy had been killed; and the other was,
through the intervention of the priests, taken aboard the ship, in
order to send him to New Spain. Many houses were burned, a damage,
"which, although slight, was some punishment for so great baseness and
treachery as they had displayed toward us, ... and was done, so that
when Spaniards, vassals of his majesty, anchor there another time,
the natives shall give them a better reception, and maintain more
steadfastly the friendship made with them." "This island of Goam is
high and mountainous, and throughout, even to its seacoast, is filled
with groves of cocoa-palms and other trees, and thickly inhabited. Even
in the valleys, where there are rivers, it is inhabited. It has many
fields sown with rice, and abundance of yams, sweet potatoes, sugar
cane, and bananas - these last the best I have seen, being in smell
and taste far ahead of those of Nueva España. This same island has
also much ginger, and specimens of sulphurous rock were found." The
island had "no wild or tame cattle, nor any birds, except some little
turtle-doves that are kept in cages." The natives captured would not
eat the meat offered them, nor "would they at first eat anything of
ours." The natives were skilful fishermen, being able to catch the
fish with the naked hands, "which is a thing of great wonder." "They
are excellent swimmers. Their houses are high, and neatly and well
made" - some, placed on posts of stone, served as sleeping-apartments;
other houses were built on the ground, and in them the cooking and
other work was done. They had other large buildings that served as
arsenals for all in common, wherein the large boats and the covered
canoes were kept. "These were very spacious, broad, and high, and
worth seeing." The fleet left this island on February 3, and anchored
on the thirteenth near the island of Cebú. Peace was made with the
natives of one of the islands. Inquiries were made for Bernardo de
la Torre, one of the captains of the Villalobos expedition, and they
were given to understand that he was north from there. The natives,
while professing friendship, brought their visitors but little
food. [52] Legazpi, therefore, sent Juan de la Isla with a party
to look for a good port. This party was gone six days, experiencing
the usual treachery from the natives, who killed one of the men, who
had disembarked without permission. Meanwhile another expedition was
despatched toward the south, with the same object in view. Possession
was taken of the island of Zibabao in the king's name. [53] On the
twentieth of February the fleet set sail passing southward between a
large island and a number of small islets. Next day they cast anchor
off the large island in a large bay to which they gave the name San
Pedro. [54] Here they learned that Tandaya, where they hoped to find
the Spaniards still remaining in these regions from the Villalobos
expedition, was a day's journey farther on. In this bay a native came
to Legazpi's ship who could speak a few words of Spanish. They wished
to send word to Tandaya and to buy provisions, but the natives, though
good promisers, were tardy doers. Goyti was sent in search of Tandaya,
while the general took possession of the island near which the ships
were anchored. The latter, attempting to ascend to the native village,
encountered the hostility of the people. Government here was in
"districts like communal towns, each district having a chief. We could
not ascertain whether they had any great chief or lord." Goyti returned
in ten days with news that he had found a large river which he was
told was Tandaya. As they explored the coasts they were followed by the
natives, who took every occasion of displaying their hostility. He had


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Online LibraryUnknownThe Philippine Islands, 1493-1803 — Volume 02 of 55 1521-1569 Explorations by Early Navigators, Descriptions of the Islands and Their Peoples, Their History and Records of the Catholic Missions, as Re → online text (page 6 of 22)