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incur on their persons the civil and criminal penalties imposed
on those who handle contraband goods, and of perpetual banishment,
and deprivation of the post that they shall have obtained from us
in the Indias. In regard to the above we charge the conscience and
care of our servants. [Felipe III - Valladolid, December 31, 1604 (?);
San Lorenzo, April 22, 1608 (?); clauses 16 and 17.] [7]


If any quantity whatever of Chinese stuffs be found in any boat sailing
from Nueva España to Perú or in the opposite direction, the inspector,
royal officials, and the other persons who take part in the register
and inspection shall be considered as perpetrators and offenders in
this crime; so that, taking example from them, others may abstain from
similar transgressions. The captains, masters, boatswains, and other
officers whose duties extend to the management of vessels, shall also
be considered as offenders and accomplices. [Felipe III - Valladolid,
December 31, 1604 (?); San Lorenzo, April 22, 1608 (?); clause 18.]


We order the viceroys of Nueva España to maintain very special care
of the observance and execution of the ordinances for the commerce
of the Filipinas line, established by the laws of this titulo; and
to keep at the port of Acapulco, in addition to the royal officials
who shall be there, a person of great honesty and trustworthiness,
with the title of alcalde-mayor, so that everything be done with very
great caution, and justice be observed. He shall not permit more
silver to be taken to Filipinas than that conceded by these laws,
with or without license. [Felipe III - Valladolid, December 31, 1604.]


The viceroy of Nueva España, and the governor and captain-general
of Filipinas, all other of our judges and magistrates, and private
individuals, each one in what pertains to him, shall observe, and cause
to be observed and fulfilled, the ordinances regarding this traffic
and commerce, and shall execute them exactly without remission or
dispensation. In their residencias, especial attention shall be paid
to their omission and neglect. We charge the archbishop of Manila to
exercise the same care in what shall be specially entrusted to him,
which is not repealed or altered by these laws. Of all, advice shall
be given us. [Felipe III - Valladolid, December 31, 1604.]


We charge and order the viceroys of Perú to see that all the
ordinances in regard to the prohibition of Chinese stuffs be
fulfilled and executed exactly. For their execution and fulfilment,
they shall appoint an auditor of our royal Audiencia of Los Reyes,
in whom they can place entire confidence. They shall see that he
proceeds thoroughly and executes the penalties with the required rigor,
without any dispensation. The auditor shall privately try these cases
in the said city and its districts in so far as he shall have cause
to invoke the law; and all other justices in their territories shall
do the same. [Felipe III - Valladolid, December 31, 1604.]


Permission was given for two ships to go to Nueva España annually
from Perú for commerce and trade to the value of two hundred
thousand ducados; which was afterward reduced to one ship, with
certain conditions. And inasmuch as the trade in Chinese stuffs
has increased to excessive proportions in Perú, notwithstanding so
many prohibitions expedient to our royal service, the welfare and
utility of the public cause, and the commerce of these and those
kingdoms; and a final decision of the viceroy, Conde de Chinchon, [8]
having preceded, and a vote of the treasury to suppress absolutely any
opportunity for this trade: therefore we order and command the viceroys
of Perú and Nueva España to prohibit and suppress, without fail, this
commerce and trade between both kingdoms, [9] by all the ways and
means possible; and that it be not carried on by any other regions,
for we by this present prohibit it. This prohibition shall be kept
strictly and shall continue to be so kept. [Felipe III - Valladolid,
December 31, 1604; San Lorenzo, June 20, 1609; Madrid, March 28, 1620,
clause 1. Felipe IV - Madrid, November 25, 1634; Madrid, March 29,
1636, a clause of a letter to the Conde de Chinchon.]


The inspection of ships sailing from Nueva España to Filipinas shall
be made by our royal officials, according to custom. They shall
examine in great detail the lists of soldiers and sailors of the
ships, in order to abolish the places that shall be found without
justification; and they may proceed by law, when they discover any
infraction or fraud in this. Such shall be visited on the person
causing it, with the greatest severity. [Felipe III - Valladolid,
January 25, 1605. Felipe IV - Madrid, October 16, 1626.]


We order that the duties and freight customs collected in the port
of Acapulco on the Filipinas merchandise, shall not be placed in the
royal treasury of Méjico, but shall be expended in things necessary
to those islands; and the sum lacking [for those necessities] shall
be sent from the treasury of Méjico. The viceroy and the governor of
Filipinas shall send us a particular report for each voyage of the
amount of the duties and freight customs and what must be sent. [Felipe
III - Valladolid, February 19, 1606.]

Law IX

We declare that in the five hundred thousand pesos granted by
permission [to be sent] from Nueva España to Filipinas, must and
shall be entered the amounts of legacies, bequests, and charities
[_obras pias_], with the wrought silver and all other things carried
thither; and nothing shall be reserved, except the pay of the sailors,
as is ordered by the following law. [10] [Felipe III - San Lorenzo,
August 19, 1606.]

Law X

We grant permission to the sailors serving on the trading ships
between Nueva España and Filipinas to carry in money the actual and
exact sum of their pay, in addition to the general permission. Thus
shall the viceroys of Nueva España provide, unless they perceive some
considerable objection. They shall see to it that the said sailors
or other persons shall not be allowed to exceed the amount permitted
by this law. [Felipe III - San Lorenzo, August 19, 1606.]

Law XI

No wrought silver can be taken to Filipinas, even when for the service
of those who shall go thither, or for any other purpose, unless bonds
are first given to return it, or unless it shall have been included
in the permission. [Felipe III - San Lorenzo, August 19, 1606.]


The governor of Filipinas shall send the viceroy of Nueva España a
report of the apportionment of toneladas that he shall make, and what
is to be laden in the ships of that commerce. The viceroy shall send
the former a report of the money that shall be sent in accordance with
the ordinance. The latter shall pay consideration and attention to
the reports sent him by the said governor, so that he may adjust more
equitably and circumspectly the licenses of this kind that he shall
give. [Felipe III - San Lorenzo, August 19, 1606; Madrid, June 4, 1620.]

Law IV

Inasmuch as it is advisable for the security and conservation of
the Filipinas Islands that great care and vigilance be taken there
regarding the foreign nations and Sangleys who live in Manila;
and inasmuch as there should be a trustworthy, influential, and
disinterested person in the said city, who should have charge
of purifying the country and giving license to those who must
remain there: therefore we order the governor to take charge of
his appointment and to appoint for the said commission the person
most suitable for it in that community, of whose zeal for our royal
service and the common welfare, and of whose trustworthiness and care,
he has the greatest assurance. The governor shall not appoint for this
office and employment any of his servants, inasmuch as we expressly
prohibit that. [Felipe III - San Lorenzo, March 6, 1608.]


The cargo of the ships of the line, on both outward and return
trips between Nueva España and Filipinas, shall be stowed in the
fore-hold; and only the sea stores, the sailors' and mess chests,
the rigging, sails, and all the necessities, between decks. Likewise
rigging shall be taken to the port of Acapulco, in consideration of
the fact that the city of Manila has it at cheaper rates than the
port of Acapulco - whither it is carried from San Juan de Ulua [11]
at very great cost and expense. We order this to be so executed,
providing there is no inconvenience; and if there should be any, we
shall be advised in order to provide the advisable measures. [Felipe
III - San Lorenzo, April 22, 1608.]

Law XX

The governor and captain-general of Filipinas shall furnish the ships
of that commerce from Nueva España with the arms needed for their
defense, and shall see that the soldiers, sailors, and passengers
go well armed. He shall order each ship to carry a person to whose
care the arms shall be confided, and who shall have charge of them,
and shall make efforts to preserve them, as is advisable. [Felipe
III - San Lorenzo, April 22, 1608.]


Great disorder has occurred in the Filipinas ships, and the sailors
have been permitted to take two or three very large boxes, under
pretext that these contain wearing apparel, and thus cumber the
ships. We order that no irregularity be permitted in this, and that
the utmost circumspection be exercised; and that the sailors be not
allowed to carry more boxes or clothing on the said ships than that
indispensably needed for the voyage. [Felipe III - San Lorenzo, April
22, 1608.]


It has been reported that the passengers and sailors of the trading
ships of Filipinas transport and carry slave-women, who are the cause
of very great offenses to God, and other troubles; this should be
prohibited and reformed (and more reasonably so in a navigation so long
and dangerous), and all occasions for offending God suppressed. For
the remedy of this, we order and command the president and auditors
of our royal Audiencia of Manila not to permit any slave-women to
be transported or carried on those ships. They shall pay particular
attention to the correction of the aforesaid evil, so that those
difficulties may cease and be avoided. We also order and command the
fiscal of the Audiencia to see to its execution. The senior auditor
shall inspect the ships at the time of their sailing, and see if
any married woman is aboard, who has no necessity for making the
voyage. The trying of any cause shall be before the said president
and auditors, who shall provide justice, and this shall be made a
clause of their residencias. [Felipe III - San Lorenzo, April 22, 1608.]


After those who wish to go to the Filipinas have bound themselves
and given bonds to live in the islands for at least eight years, the
viceroy of Nueva España shall permit them to take thence their own
property in money, outside of the general permission. He shall take
precautions and ordain that there shall be no fraud; and that such
persons shall not carry more than the value of their own property,
under any consideration. In case of a violation of this, the penalties
imposed shall be executed. [Felipe III - El Pardo, November 20, 1608.]

Law II

The trade, commerce, and navigation from the Filipinas to Japon shall
be made by the citizens of the former islands, and the Japanese shall
not be allowed to go to the islands. On the merchandise carried
in the ships despatched on the account of our royal treasury, no
less freight charges shall be collected than those caused in the
ships of private persons, so that the cost of the merchandise may
be assured. If there should be any inclination or substance in this
trade, so that the duties may be paid and our treasury relieved of
a portion of its costs and expenses that be paid from them, we order
that they be collected and paid. [Felipe III - Segovia, July 25, 1609.]


Province of the Philippine Islands

These islands have ninety-one [_sic_] members of the Order. Four have
passed away; and the same number have been received into the Order.

Total Priests Preceptors Scholastics Lay

Manila College XXXII XII XI IX
Seminary of St. Joseph III I II
Elementary School XI IX II
Establishment at Silang II I I
Establishment at Antipolo VII IV III
Cebu College VIII IV IV
Bohol Residence V IV I
Carigara Residence VI IV II
Dulac Residence VI IV II
Tinagon Residence V IV I
Palapag Residence V IV I
Arevalo Mission II I I

Adults cleansed by holy baptism, two thousand three hundred and
eight-three. Heretics condemned, twenty-three.

Chastity protected against suitors or immodest women, fifteen times.

Heretics reconciled, seven times.

The sacred commentaries have been used by eleven.

The Holy Cross and the recitation of the Gospel of St. John has
rescued thirteen persons from various dangers; the Blessed Virgin,
two; the Blessed Ignatius and Xavier, five.

The College at Manila

I. Since last year's letters regarding this college were very full,
we shall deal with it now very briefly; we will begin with two brethren
who have finished their course of life: Luis à Figueroa and Didacus de
Zarcuela. Luis was of noble birth, but of nobler nature. When he had
studied the humanities, he could not be persuaded that he might be
admitted to sacred orders; and when the fathers hesitated to admit
him into the Society because of a lack of strength in his feet,
"Receive me," he said, "I beg you, as a servant, to set fire to the
wood others have cut; and, when the work is done, to cover the fire
with ashes or put it out." Being admitted in so humble a frame of
mind, he took care for the most part of the wardrobe, being best
satisfied with the lot of Martha, which he praised wherever he had
the opportunity. So powerful and effective was he in persuasion and
dissuasion that one of his associates declared that he went to his work
more readily on account of Luis's words in conversation than through
the formal speech of any orator whatsoever. He exhibited the virtue
of charity in the highest degree; and although unable to tolerate the
slightest deficiency in himself, he strove with love and prudence to
effect the same perfection in others. Receiving from Rome at the end
of his illness letters by which he was formally enrolled among the
lay brethren, he was so penetrated with joy that he had strength to
offer his vows in the church - after which, his illness increasing
again, he soon died. Didacus also attained the same vows, having
been two and twenty years a servant of the Society; of this number
he devoted not a few to the seminary of St. Joseph. He was a man who
set a good example, and was of extraordinary diligence. So desirous
was he of the salvation of the Indian races that he said: "If Spain
were only two leguas away, I should not care to go thither. Nothing
would induce me to exchange my lot with any brother in Europe" - which
saying he repeated oftener as death approached. He died of a fever,
contrary to the expectation of the physicians, but not to his own;
for he declared that he should die when his illness attacked him,
and so he passed away. Some persons who took refuge from external
danger, under the protection of the Blessed, our fathers Ignatius
and Xavier, were preserved alive. To three women Ignatius granted
easy childbirth; and one Basque they relieved of toothache, when he
prayed to them. Xavier came to the aid of a Spanish commander of a
battalion of soldiers, who was near to death; and prolonged his life
in return for two wax candles promised him.

II. As for the rest. Among those of all ages, Christianity
advances daily throughout the population of Manila, so that the
devotion of youths cannot be affected by entreaties or overcome
by reward - especially among those who glory in the name of members
of sodalities; while women do not at all fall behind men in fervor
and piety. Although on account of their sex they cannot join men's
associations, they think that they have the right to perform the same
acts which would be praised in the members of sodalities. There are
some of the Spanish women who fast three times a week; they sleep
on the ground; in their private chambers, among their intimate
friends, they scourge themselves until they draw blood. One woman
who was delivered by the Virgin from a grievous illness vowed that
everything she and her women could make with the needle should be
wrought to adorn our church. She has already finished many articles;
and, because she seemed to have vowed beyond her strength, she was
directed to cease. Her answer was that she had taken her vow to do
this, so that if Ours refused the work she would bestow it on some
other church. Other decorations have been added to this church, so that
it is almost unique in the islands; and, as a result, the religious
services which are wont to be held on the three days of the Carnival
[12] have been attended by much larger congregations. For, before,
bare tiles scarcely covered it; and the dripping water penetrating
when it rained, the church was defiled by a multitude of bats. By the
contributions of very many pious men a new ceiling has been added to
the roof, adorned and wrought with various decorations, so that it
gives dignity and splendor to the place - a work worth many a piece
of gold, because it seems very great, considering the poverty of the
city. Those Indians, too, whom many years ago the Society supported
near this city, have now set up in a newly-built church a statue of
their patron Saint Michael, together with a new and beautiful image
of the Virgin Mother of God, and other statues - marks of no small
piety in a small town.

III. The heretics among the prisoners taken in the Dutch fleet last
year (they were over ninety) [13] have been visited and assisted by
Father Andrea de la Camara very often, both those in prison and the
wounded in hospitals. Of the Lutherans and Calvinists in both those
places he taught over twenty to recant their heresies - and those
generally of the higher rank among them, masters, superintendents,
surgeons, etc., and (if he ought to be named in the same class) a
minister of the Word. This man, ashamed of his ignorance, readily
gave us his hand, and the letters which he had received from his
anti-bishop in testimony of his authority, having been in a manner
dragged from pitch and shoemaking to the ministry of the Word. These
all are now as true lovers of our Society as before they were bitter
adversaries of it. When on account of the scarcity of workers Father
Camara was sent to the Pintados Islands, these men went to the vicar
of the Holy Inquisition, and asked him that he would not suffer them
to be without some Jesuit, whose ministry they might enjoy - even
through an interpreter, if need be. For, they declared, they were
persuaded that Ours might differ in language, but not in character.

In fact, many others have been reconciled to us, or at least, if
friends have been made, more friendly. Distinguished among them is
he who governs these islands in the royal name, Don Juan de Silva;
for he has showed forth his love toward God and us in many ways. He
has especially done so by the restoration, at no small expense, of
the chapel in which the relics of the saints are kept, for which he
also provided that a lamp should be kept constantly burning. He has
also liberally assisted us with money and other things in a sickness
which afflicted us all for a short time. We have restored to not a
few persons their friends, from whom they had been torn by covert
grudges; but I wish to avoid unpleasant allusions; and I only praise
the greatness of soul of one woman in forgiving injuries. She sailed
all the way from Europe, first to Mexico, then to these Philippine
Islands, and finally to the Malucas, in search of her absent son. She
found him at last in the island of Ternate, where he held an official
position; but while she was rejoicing at finding her son, she was
deprived of this brief joy also. For soon after her coming her son,
pierced with many wounds, was slain in a quarrel; and she had again
lost him whom she had found with so great efforts and after so many
journeys. This misfortune the woman has borne in such a spirit that she
has not only freely forgiven the slayer, but, turning this grief to a
good use, has begun to give herself wholly to the praises of God and to
heavenly actions. Every day she devotes four hours to prayers; thrice
in the week she fasts; thrice she mortifies herself with a hair-shirt,
thrice with scourging; and partaking on the Lord's Day of the divine
feast, she continues to this day in this most beautiful mode of life.

Establishments at Silan and Antipolo, With the College of Cebu

IV. The town of Silan is accessibly and commodiously situated. Hence it
is easily and frequently visited by sojourners, the more so because
the inhabitants themselves are uncommonly humane and devoted to
Christian piety. It happened that some Indians turned aside from their
journey to visit one of the inhabitants; and as they were taking out
of a little chest some clothes that they were carrying with them,
packed up, it happened that they took out along with them a tiny
idol formed of a twisted mass of hair. The people of Silan who were
present were frightened when they saw this, and told one of Ours,
who was stationed there, of it. He went to the house as if on another
errand, and uncovered the deceit together with the idol. Then taking
advantage of the occasion, he made a serious address to the Indians,
warning them against such wickedness; and he inspired in the owner
of the idol (who was a woman) a better mind. With the help of God she
abjured the impious worship of hair, which she had before pursued, and
also abandoned and corrected another sin of no small heinousness. The
delights of a festival which had been announced were almost destroyed
by a great misfortune which accidentally befell this place. For while
all were looking forward to the day sacred to All Saints, when all
the inhabitants had prepared themselves for the proper reception of
the feast, behold, at the oncoming of night the fury of all the winds
arose. The rain and storm which followed did not cease to rage until
they had overthrown more than two hundred houses, to the incredible
alarm of the Indians, who left their own houses to take refuge as
quickly as possible in our church, where nearly the whole night was
spent in hearing their confessions. But not even here were they safe
enough, for the wind blew the boards off the walls and whirled them
away; so that the whole body of people took refuge in the sanctuary,
where they waited for death and the last hour.

V. At the proclamation of the same feast in the village of Antipolo
ninety persons received communion - sixty more than in that of
Taitai - which is a large number for new Christians. And among these
tribes, as has been elsewhere said, that cross is still much visited
to which in this year a woman brought a public attestation of the
recovery, on two occasions, of her health. The inhabitants of the
village have given a silver cup and other ornaments to the church.

VI. The women of Taitai, who formerly surpassed all other Indians in
their worship of idols, are now as completely devoted to the pursuit
of Christian rites and customs. Even those of high rank among them are
not ashamed to sweep the floor of our church, and to appear in public
with broom and water, in order that they may be able to command their
servants to do the like. This is the praise due to the women; the
men deserve another. A very old man dropped from his hands the slip
of paper given to him monthly, on which was written the name of the
saint whom he had received by lot. Grieved at his loss, the good old
man ran back to the village of Taitai, which is about a mile from his
own; and thence (as he did not find the father who used to distribute

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Online LibraryUnknownThe Philippine Islands, 1493-1898 — Volume 17 of 55 1609-1616 Explorations by Early Navigators, Descriptions of the Islands and Their Peoples, Their History and Records of the Catholic Missions, as Re → online text (page 3 of 21)