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_Sources_: These documents are obtained from MSS. in the Archivo
de Indias, Sevilla, except the royal decrees; these are taken from
the original MS. documents in the "Cedulario Indico" of the Archivo
Historico Nacional, Madrid.

_Translations_: The first and fourth documents are translated by
Alfonso de Salvio; the second and third, by James A. Robertson;
the last three, by José M. Asensio.

Royal Decree Regulating the Foundation of Monasteries

The King.

To our governor of the Filipinas islands:

Fray Domingo de Salazar, of the Dominican order, and bishop of
the said islands, has reported to us that he is going to reside
in these islands; and that he will take with him religious of his
order to found monasteries, and to take charge of the conversion and
instruction of the natives. He has petitioned us to issue commands
that whatever is done for the above order, as for those of St. Francis
and St. Augustine, be done at our expense and that of the Spaniards
and Indians (as has been done in other parts of our Indias), or as
suits our pleasure, and as it receives the approval of our Council
of the Indies.

Inasmuch as we have provided that monasteries be founded in Nueva
España wherever it is necessary, and have ordered that, if the chosen
places be villages belonging to the royal crown, the monasteries are to
be founded at our expense - the Indians of such villages contributing
their labor in the work and erection of the buildings; and that, when
the villages are in charge of encomenderos, the monasteries are to be
founded at our expense and that of the encomenderos, as well as with
the help of the Indians of such villages apportioned as encomiendas:
therefore it is our desire that the same orders be carried out in the
founding of monasteries in those islands. I order you immediately to
ascertain in what districts and places of those islands monasteries
are needed; after which you will take the necessary measures toward
their erection, being careful that the houses be modest, and that
they be not superfluously furnished. If the villages where they are
to be founded belong to our royal crown, you will give orders that
they be erected at our expense, and that the Indians of such villages
contribute their labor towards the work and building of them. And if
the villages are in the charge of private persons, the monasteries are
to be built at our expense and that of the encomenderos; with the aid
of the Indians of such villages apportioned as encomiendas, as above
mentioned. If in the villages live Spaniards holding no encomiendas of
Indians, you will assess them also according to their condition and
property, for they are in like manner under obligation to contribute
toward the building of churches. The sum paid by the said Spaniards
will be subtracted from the share demanded from the said Indians
and encomenderos; for since this is a good work, beneficial to all,
it is only right that all help toward its completion. Being thus a
matter of such importance, you will devote to it all the care that
it requires, remembering that no new monastery of a different order
is to be founded in the same village or its vicinity.

You will be careful always to inform us of what is being done in this
respect, and of the result of the labors of the religious.

_I, The King_

By order of his Majesty:

_Antonio de Heraso_

Aranjuez, May 13, 1579.

Letter from Francisco de Sande to Felipe II

Royal Catholic Majesty:

Last year, seventy-eight, in July, I wrote to your Majesty and advised
you of my expedition to the island of Borney, and its outcome. This
year I sent thither a fleet, which brought news that the city had been
rebuilt. The Moro king there detained the captain until he had placed
his clothing and wives in safety. The captain, in accordance with his
instructions, returned without doing them any damage. I am quite sure
that that king will quietly submit, if we effect a settlement there.

The king of Jolo rendered obedience to your Majesty and surrendered
his artillery. This year he gave as tribute a piece weighing fourteen
quintals that must have been hidden away.

This year of seventy-nine, I sent an expedition to pacify the river
of Mindanao. The king ruling there fled; but, as our people carried
orders not to do any harm there also, peace was made, and some of
the natives returned. If we plant a colony there, that king also
will submit - which cannot be effected in any other way, because of
our distance from there.

In August of seventy-eight a galleon and a large galley with five
hundred men, and other necessary supplies for Maluco, passed Borney. It
is said that one hundred were Portuguese and Spaniards, and the rest
_mestizos_ [19] and people from Yndia. According to a Cafre [heathen],
their hulks were in very poor condition. He says they were going to
Maluco to collect the tribute which was lost three years ago. I am
sending the investigations and accounts of this and of everything to
your Majesty's royal Council, and am writing more in detail. I beg your
Majesty to be so good as to favor this other world by examining this
letter. Because of your Majesty's stringent orders not to go to Maluco,
we have not gone thither. However, the compact, as I have advised your
Majesty is not well considered; and Maluco is not comprehended in it,
and is in your Majesty's demarcation. [20] Thirty vessels leaving and
returning to Sevilla could load cargoes of spices - pepper, camphor,
and other drugs and spices. In these vessels, people could be brought
from España, and a few fleets would populate this land, and clearly
we could take possession of all of China; for by way of Nueva España
the despatch of vessels will always be a trifling matter, and by way
of the strait of Magallanes I do not believe that we can hope for so
good a result. I am writing in detail regarding this to your Majesty's
royal Council. I am writing also of the method which I think we should
employ - namely, to settle in greater Java, whence we should despatch
a vessel to Sevilla to give information of the route, although I
believe that that made by the ship "Victoria" is not forgotten.

I have built a vessel here of six hundred toneladas, which can
make the said voyage, if your Majesty will so order; and I am now
building another. There is an excellent fleet of galleys; and with
what was captured from the Borneans, and in Jolo and Vindanao, and
with that taken from the Portuguese galley which I said was lost,
we have more than two hundred pieces of artillery. From the useless
pieces I am casting others. Certain Indians in this land have founded
for me one piece weighing ninety quintals; and there is not in the
castle of Milan a piece so well made. Another mold has been made,
and the Indian says that he will make as many as are ordered. From
Nueva España no favorable message, in regard to this or other things,
is sent. Therefore if your Majesty wishes that China be yours in
your days-please God, may they be many, as we your Majesty's servants
need - it is necessary for the execution thereof that ships be sent here
from Nueva España, since now we have some knowledge of this region,
and the vessels have here a good port, and we know how to proceed.

This archipelago is secure from enemies, blessed be God. We have begun
settlements - one in the province called Cagayan, in the northern part
of this island, and sixty leagues from China.

In other letters I have begged your Majesty to be so kind as to favor
me. Once more I bring this to your memory. I beg your Majesty to
grant me a habit and an encomienda for myself, and another for one of
my brothers. All of my brothers are serving your Majesty in the war,
and I am sure that they deserve the most that I beg and entreat. I am
writing to the royal council. I beg your Majesty to order that my case
be examined, and to honor this office in which I serve you, and bestow
favor upon one who has served you for so many years as I. May our Lord
preserve your Majesty's Catholic and royal person, and increase you
for many years as we, your servants and vassals, desire. Manila, in the
island of Luçon, in Philipinas, May 30, 1579. Royal Catholic Majesty,
your Majesty's loyal vassal and servant, who kisses your royal hands,

_Doctor Francisco de Sande_

[_Endorsed_: "Doctor Francisco de Sande. June four, 1581. He requests
a habit and an encomienda. To the Council of the Indies." "Seen,
and no answer is required."]

Expeditions to Borneo, Jolo, and Mindanao

In the galley named "Santiago," on the nineteenth of the month
of April, one thousand five hundred and seventy-eight, the very
illustrious Doctor Francisco de Sande, governor and captain-general
for his Majesty of the Western Islands declared: that, inasmuch as
his Lordship is going with a fleet of galleys to the island of Borney,
both to teach the natives there the Christian law, and to reduce them
to the dominion of his Majesty - as well as to ascertain and inform
himself about the customs, past and present, of the said natives,
what law and ceremonies they observe, and the mode of life among
the natives thereabout and in other parts, who are vassals of his
Majesty - in order to attain this he ordered to be conducted, and did
conduct, the following inquiries and procedures:

For the investigation of the above-named matters, the aforesaid
governor summoned to his presence an Indian who, through the medium
and speech of Juan Ochoa Ttabudo, an interpreter, declared his name to
be Magad-china, and himself an inhabitant of Balayan. Without taking
the oath, he promised to tell the truth; and, being interrogated
according to the tenor of this declaration, said that he knows that
the king of Borney is wont to detain many Indians who resort to
Borney for trade and intercourse, and that he does not permit them
to leave the country, especially those Indians whom he knows to be
rich. The witness knows that the king forces them to marry in that
country, so that at their death he may obtain their possessions. In
this way he has seen detained against their will, Indians of Çubu,
the island of Lucon, Balayan, Bonbon, and other districts of
these islands - all rich and influential men. In especial was he
acquainted with an Indian of Manila, a messenger of Raxa Soliman,
by name Simalinquidlan; another named Siparan, a native of Manila;
and a chief named Siganbal, a native of Balayan, whom he (the present
witness) knows to have been detained by the king of Borney, in his
country, and he does not allow them to leave it. The said chief of
Balayan has been detained six years, and some eighty or ninety tacs
of gold were taken from him, besides slaves, and all these were kept
by the king. At the end of the said six years, the said chief fled
returning to Balayan, his native village. In like manner, the present
witness knows that the king of Borney is detaining many Indian chiefs
and _timaguas_ [freemen], and that he will not allow them to leave
his country. Likewise this witness, upon going to Borney to trade,
was detained in the island against his will for eight or nine years,
until the said king of Borney sent him to Balayan to sell a trifle
of _camanguian_ and other articles - whereupon he remained in the
said town, and would not return to Borney. He has seen this done and
practiced by the king of Borney against many persons, both chiefs and
timaguas, of the region about Manila, who are vassals of his Majesty.

Being asked where he learned the worship of Mahoma, and who declared
it to him, he said that the ancestors of the Borneans were natives
of Meca, as he, the present witness, had heard; for the natives
of Balayan, Manila, Mindoro, Bonbon, and that region did not have
knowledge of the said worship until the Borneans had explained it
to them; they have done so with the natives of these islands, and
therefore all these are Moros now, because their ancestors learned
it from the said Moros of Borney. [21] Their language, both spoken
and written, is derived from Meca; and the said Borneans and natives
of Sian and Patan possess and observe their Alcorans - the law and
worship of Mahoma. He said that in the book of the Alcoran, which the
present witness has seen and has heard preached, they say and assert
that they are the enemies of the Christians. Likewise in other books
they say that the Borneans have always desired to make Moros of the
Christians - a thing that he has also heard declared by the _catip_
[caliph?] whom the said Borneans regard as a priest, and who preaches
the said doctrine of Mahoma. This said catip, and others, with like
expressions preach the said doctrine of Mahoma, so that the said
natives observe it. They declare and publish that the law of the
Christians is evil; and their own, good. The witness knows that,
in the former year, seventy-four, the king of Borney undertook to
attack Manila, and to plunder and kill the Spaniards, launching for
the purpose a fleet of one hundred galleys and one hundred small
vessels. In each large vessel were about fifty, and in the smaller
about thirty men - all together, in the judgment of this witness,
making about seven or eight thousand men. All were of one mind, to
kill the Spaniards at Manila. The said fleet left the river of Borney
to begin the said expedition, but, after sailing about twenty leagues,
immediately returned, because the son of the king of Borney was taking
part in the said expedition; and, in order that the Spaniards might
not land at Borney in another part, and kill his father, he did not
continue the said expedition, but returned with the whole fleet,
without his enterprise having any effect. The witness has heard
that the king of Borney wrote letters to Raxa Soliman and Lacandora,
chiefs of Manila, so that they might revolt against the Spaniards,
and saying that all would be protected. Likewise he has heard his
relatives and other Moros tell how in former times the king of Borney
has sent preachers of the sect of Mahoma to Cebu, Oton, Manila,
and other districts, so that the people there might be instructed
in it as were those of Borney. And this witness, in his own time,
has heard the said doctrine preached in Balayan, by a Moro regarded
among them as a priest, by name Siat Saen. Also it is well known that
the said Borneans are wont to plunder the Calamianes, and enslave the
people and take them to Borney. They do the same in other districts
thereabout. The witness has heard that the said king of Borney holds
captive a Spaniard, named Diego Felipe, and two Christian Visayans,
whose names he does not know. This is what he knows, or is currently
reported, and what he has seen. He certified as to its truth, ratified
it, and signed it, in his own language, as did the said interpreter. He
was about thirty-one years old.

_Joan Ochoa Ttabudo_

Before me:

_Alonso Beltran_, his Majesty's notary

[Following this are depositions taken from four other men, two of them
natives of Borneo. The testimonies of all are very similar to the
foregoing, and show the policy of the king of Borneo. One testimony
declares that the king was wont to make the rich and influential
men who might land at his island captains, in order to retain their
wealth. The document continues:]

[_Letter to the king of Borneo_.]

I, Doctor Francisco de Sande, governor and captain-general for his
Majesty in these islands and districts of the West, by order of his
Majesty, the king of Castilla and Leon, my sovereign, Don Ffelipe,
the greatest king and most powerful sovereign in the world, send
this letter by these messengers to you, Outardo Soltan Lixar, king
of Borney, so that you may know my will, and what I require.

You know already how I, with the other captains and soldiers of the
Castilians live, by order of the king, our sovereign, in Manila, in
the island of Luçon, in Çubu, and in other districts. There in Manila,
Çubu, and other districts it has been rumored that you have tried and
are trying to do us harm, and to make war upon us; that you have tried
to induce and have solicited the natives of Luçon and other districts
to rebel and revolt against us; that you have sent spies to Çubu and
other districts; that you have left your residence for this purpose
of warring against us with a fleet of ships. All these things are
without any reason, and I know not what is the cause therefor; for my
will is good and I desire to show naught but good to all, and ill to
none. Since I am proceeding to confer with you openly and publicly, I
notify you that I am not coming to plunder or to harm you, but to prove
of use to you; for the king, my sovereign, orders thus, and accordingly
I gladly notify you that I am going to you. My sovereign, the king of
Castilla, spends his money through us, the Castilians, and sends us
into all parts of the world, in order that we might proclaim the law
of the true God. For this purpose I came hither; and now I am going
to confer with you, chiefly that you may know your God and Creator,
and to teach you the true law. I wish to do you no ill, nor to seize
your possessions; on the contrary, if you are our friend, I will aid
and defend you, according to the orders of the king, my sovereign. To
this end I offer you peace and friendship on our part, in such wise,
that there may be mutual security, on both sides, to go and to come,
to see one another, to trade and traffic, as is usual among friends.

What you are to do is to admit preachers of the holy gospel, who may
preach the law of the Christians in your lands in all security; and
likewise that any person whatever of your country may have entire
liberty and permission to attend the preaching of the law of the
Christians, and that he who wishes to become a Christian may do so
without any ill befalling him.

Further, I desire that you shall send no preachers of the
sect of Mahoma to any part of these islands, nor to the heathen
among the Tingues [hill-people], nor into other parts of your own
island - inasmuch as the doctrine of Mahoma is a false and evil law,
and the religion of the Christians alone is true, holy, and good.

Further, I desire that you send me a Christian Spaniard, called
Diego Felipe, whom I am told you have there, as well as others if
you have them; and two Visayans, natives of Çubu, Christians whom
we know that you have, and who were captured from their own country;
likewise whomever else you have in your power. You must give to the
heirs of Raxa Soliman and Lacandora, natives of Luçon - vassals of the
king, my sovereign, and his subjects, in his royal name the slaves and
property that you have retained there belonging to them; and whatever
belongs to any other vassals of the king, my sovereign. This I would
do myself, if I had anything of yours or of your people, and would pay
and return it, and would do justice to them in that regard very openly.

_Item_: You must allow those persons whom you have detained, because
they are rich, to go about freely, and give them leave to return to
their own lands, since they are natives of these islands of the king,
my sovereign. They went to trade with you, and you have no right to
constrain them; but you must allow them to go freely with their wives,
children, and possessions.

Likewise, you must forbid your people from asking tribute in these
islands, inasmuch as I collect tribute in them, as it is the right of
our king, my sovereign. I write this letter that you may be advised
of my wishes. You must answer it immediately, and not detain the
messengers, even if they should say that they wish to remain in Borney
with you; for if they are detained, I shall understand that there is
some mischief and deceit on your part against our people. As we are
coming by way of the sea, and have need of food, you must send food
to us, in accordance with what is asked by my messengers, in return
for our money. This shall be paid you, as you wish; and for the same,
we are bringing silver and gold. I shall be glad to receive your
reply and to talk with you. Advise me with all haste. May God grant
you the true light and health.

_Doctor Francisco de Sande_

(On the thirteenth day of April of the above year, I delivered two
copies of this letter, one in the Bornean language, and the other
in that of Manila, to chiefs Magat and Magachina, so that they might
give them to the king of Borney.

I hereby certify to the same:

_Alonso Beltran_, his Majesty's notary) [22]

(On this day, the very illustrious Doctor Francisco de Sande, governor
and captain-general for his Majesty in these islands, showed this
letter to father Fray Martin de Rada, religious of the order of
St. Augustine, whom he is taking with him in the said expedition,
so that he might examine it, as a matter resolved on by both. He,
having read it, pronounced it good and said that it could be sent to
the said king of Borney.

I herewith certify to the same:

_Alonso Beltran_, his Majesty's notary

In the chief galley, named "Santiago," while at sea near the island
of Borney, one of the Filipinas islands belonging to his Majesty, on
Sunday, the thirteenth day of the month of April, one thousand five
hundred and seventy-eight, the very illustrious Doctor Francisco de
Sande, governor and captain-general for his Majesty, declared that,
as is well known, his Lordship going with the galleys and ships of
the fleet here amid these islands at this present time - and sailing
with every mark of peace to the port of Borney, and as a token of the
same, with a white flag at the bow of the flagship, in which the said
governor is sailing - it was discovered by the said galley, and by
the _fragata_ [23] sailing in advance of the fleet as a scout-boat,
that the mouth of the river-harbor called Borney was occupied and
blockaded with a great number of vessels. And because it was learned
from other Indians of the said river of Borney that they desired war
instead of peace; and as he did not desire to war upon them, or do
them any damage - to the offense of God, our Lord, or in disobedience
to his Majesty's orders - the said governor ordered the said flagship,
and all the said fleet, to cast anchor, and sent a message by two
Moros of Balayan, his Majesty's vassals in the island of Luçon. These
men were ordered to tell the Borneans, in order that they might know,
that his intentions were peaceful; that, as a token thereof, he was
flying the white flag; and that they should not trouble themselves to
fire any of their artillery upon the Spaniards, for, if the Borneans
did any damage, they would be punished. The said ambassadors took also
two letters, one in the Bornean language, and the other in the Moro
tongue, which they understand. In these letters was affirmed security
of peace, and other matters. And - inasmuch as military affairs cannot
maintain the moderation that may be desired, because of the emergencies
that usually arise - in order that the above might be evident, and
also in anticipation of whatever might happen, the governor ordered
this set down in writing, making therein the present declaration;
that I, the said notary, might certify thereto _in toto_, and file
with these records the original of the said letter, which he ordered
to be written to the said Indians, so that all may be kept together
and serve as evidence of the above matters. Thus Doctor Francisco de
Sande ordered, and he signed it in my presence.

_Alonso Beltran_, his Majesty's notary

On the said day, month, and year, aforesaid, in obedience to the
order of the said governor, the oath was taken and received before
God and the Blessed Mary, and on a sign of the cross, in due form
of law, from Pedro Lucas, a soldier; under which obligation, when
questioned, he declared what he knows, and that present occurrences
are as follows. On this day, Sunday, about four in the afternoon or so,
when the flagship named "Santiago" (wherein were the said governor and
other soldiers and troops) and also the other galleys and war vessels
of his Majesty were sailing toward the port of the said island of
Borney, this witness saw that the said flagship flew a white flag of
peace on the bow of the said flagship. And at the mouth of the said
port he saw a number of ships - in his opinion, some twenty-five or
thirty in all. When the said governor saw the said fleet, and that
war was about to ensue, in order not to have war with them, but that
all might be peace, he ordered the said flagship and also the other
ships and vessels of the said fleet to anchor. They anchored at a
good distance from the said port, in order to give the natives of the

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Online LibraryUnknownThe Philippine Islands, 1493-1803 — Volume 04 of 55 1576-1582 Explorations by Early Navigators, Descriptions of the Islands and Their Peoples, Their History and Records of the Catholic Missions, as Re → online text (page 9 of 20)