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The Philippine Islands, 1493-1898 — Volume 09 of 55 1593-1597 online

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kings succeeding to me, and I order the infants, prelates, dukes,
marqueses, counts, and grandees; the masters, priors, commanders
and sub-commanders of the orders; the governors of castles, forts,
and open districts; the members of my council, and the president
and auditors of the same royal audiencias; the alcaldes, constables
of my house, court, and chanceries; all the councils, corregidors,
asistentes, governors, _veinte e cuatros,_ [31] regidors, and jurors;
and the knights, squires, officials, and freemen of all the cities,
towns, and villages of these my kingdoms and seigniories, and of my
said Indias, islands, and Tierra Firme of the Ocean Sea - both in the
present and future, and each and every one of them in his jurisdiction,
who shall be notified of this - that they observe and regard, and cause
to be observed and regarded the said grant of the said arms which I
thus bestow upon the said city of Manila in the Filipinas Islands, so
that they be allowed to place and possess them in the said city. And I
order that no obstruction or impediment be offered to this concession
or to any part of it, and that no one shall consent to place any
obstruction whatever thereto, under penalty of my displeasure, and of
a fine of ten thousand maravedis, to be paid to my exchequer, laid upon
any person who shall act contrary to this order. Given in Aranxuez, on
the twentieth day of March, one thousand five hundred and ninety-six.

_I The King_




Decree Regarding the Bishopric of Nueva Segovia


To the reverend father in Christ, the Bishop of Nueva Segovia in
the province of Cagayan, in the island of Luzon, and member of my
council: Inasmuch as his Holiness at my supplication did see fit to
elevate the cathedral church of Manila into a metropolitan see, and
to appoint three other bishops, one of them in that city, the purpose
thereof having been that there should be prelates who might care for
the instruction and teaching of the Indians, the administering of
the sacraments, the exercise of episcopal acts, and the visitation
of their districts, all which a single prelate could not easily do;
I have seen fit to inform you that, for the present, so long as
affairs are undeveloped, and until a better arrangement is made,
no cathedral church shall be erected in that city, nor dignities or
prebends provided for. You are to dwell privately in the monastery of
your order in that said city, and remain there as prelate for such time
as may please you. That bishopric shall be suffragan to the archbishop
of Manila, and you shall have the latter as your metropolitan bishop
and shall repair to that city for the synods and other matters arranged
by the canons and councils. It is my will that you shall have what is
necessary for your sustenance and the maintenance of your episcopal
dignities. The tithes in your district are at present to be gathered
into one amount, and you are to have all that pertains to the prelates
and to the prebendaries, dignitaries, and canons. In case this is not
sufficient, you will repair to the officials of my royal exchequer in
those islands, whom I command, upon establishment by evidence that
all the aforesaid does not reach five hundred thousand maravedis
yearly, that they shall grant and pay you such deficit from my royal
exchequer. And with the said testimony, and with a copy of this my
decree and your receipt, I order that what is thus granted and paid
you be received and audited. Done in Ateca, the fifteenth of May,
in the year one thousand five hundred and ninety-six.

_I The King_ [32]




Instructions for Governor Tello


What you, Don Francisco Tello, knight of the order of Santiago, whom
I have appointed as my governor and captain-general of the Philipinas
Islands, and president of my royal Audiencia, which I have ordered to
be reëstablished there, are to do in the service of God, and my own,
and for the good government of those islands, is as follows:

Infinite praises must be given to our Lord, and I accordingly
offer them to Him, for the great blessing that He has been pleased
to grant me, inasmuch as, during the time that I by His mercy and
will am king, He has chosen me as the instrument for the discovery
of islands so remote and unknown; and because, after those peoples
have lived for so many years in the blindness of their heathendom,
the gospel has recently been published in them, the Catholic faith
planted therein and received, and so many native Indians converted,
who enjoy the teaching of the gospel. And thanks are due to God also
for the natural expectation and hope that may and ought to exist that,
by the same mercy of God, He must be pleased that the preaching of
His gospel should be spread farther, and that all the other islands,
of that vast archipelago, which extends through more than nine hundred
leguas of latitude, and more than five hundred of longitude - exclusive
of the great surrounding kingdoms of the mainland, round about those
islands, namely China, Cochina, Cochinchina, Chanpa, Canboja, Sian,
Patan, Joor, and others - by receiving Him and the faith, may come
into the true knowledge of the faith.

Therefore, notwithstanding that all my will and desire is that, by the
aid of the good spiritual and temporal government in what is explored
of the said islands, and the care that must be had in the reduction
of the rest, the end be attained to which the grace that God has shown
me and is now showing me, constrains me so straitly; still, until He,
in His infinite providence, shall dispose it, the most advisable thing
is to watch carefully over the sure preservation and increase of what
has been reduced and pacified at so great expense. I charge you that
you strive for this end, considering the condition in which you find
affairs and the great importance and advisability of bringing them to
perfection and placing foundations so firm and secure that not only
will there be naught to fear from the many enemies surrounding that
part explored, but that it shall be preserved and increased.

Since there is nothing which will have so much influence over all
affairs as the care that you are to exercise, I charge you with rigor
that those new plants be instructed in the teachings of the gospel and
of Christianity by the ecclesiastics whom I have sent, and am sending,
for that purpose, with so great trouble and expense; and in civil and
moral matters, by the temporal ministers, protecting them so that they
may receive good treatment, and maintaining them in peace and justice,
so that their labors may be satisfied. Therefore a most important means
will be the care that you and the prelates are to observe in having
divine worship celebrated with the greatest devotion and solemnity
possible, at least on Easter and the holy days that the church is
accustomed to solemnize and observe. You shall have especial care that
the places of worship are kept in order and well served, and all this
with due propriety, especially the cathedral church, inasmuch as it is
the principal and archiepiscopal church, whose example must induce the
same results in the other churches. Inasmuch as I was informed that
things were quite to the contrary; and that the said church, besides
being poorly roofed with wood and straw, was not properly served; and
that it needed and lacked what it should have - a thing to which the
former governors should not have consented - I charged your predecessor,
Gomez Perez Dasmariñas, strictly that, immediately upon his arrival
at the islands, he should have the said church rebuilt. I assigned
for this work the sum of twelve thousand ducados in three parts: one
from my royal exchequer, another from the encomenderos, and the third
from the Indians. These said twelve thousand ducados were to be spent
on the said building within four years, at the rate of three thousand
ducados annually. In order that it might be done more easily, I gave
an anticipatory order for two thousand ducados on the account of my
third, on the treasury of Nueva España, whence the said Gomez Perez
took them. Notwithstanding that he wrote to me in his last letters
that the work was nearing completion, and although I think it ought to
be finished now, yet, because it is in the gaze of so many enemies,
idolaters, and Mahometans, it is advisable that they should see, not
only that there is no lack in this matter, but also that the church
shall be an example of the solemnity of the divine ecclesiastical
ceremonies, that should arouse and persuade them to enter the fold of
the church. As soon as you shall have arrived at that country, you
shall inspect the said church, and find out whether the building is
finished. If there is anything wanting, you shall finish it. Likewise
you shall see that it is provided with ornaments, chalices, crosses,
and other things pertaining to its service, so that it may be fully
provided with the articles for the celebration of divine worship,
with the authority, pomp, and propriety suitable to the edification
of the faithful, and the conversion of those who are unconverted. For
this you shall make use of an additional two thousand ducados, which
I ordered assigned by thirds after the completion of what pertains
to the building, in accordance with the terms of the decree which
shall be given you in duplicate. Besides this, you shall endeavor
to furnish what is most necessary, and what you think needful and
advisable, by the methods and means which appear most suitable, so
that in any event this matter shall be well attended to. You shall
keep me informed of the progress of the matter; and you shall send
me a minute and specific report of the condition in which you find
the building and edifice of the church, its service of ornaments,
and everything needful for it, so that, by knowing this thoroughly,
I may learn how well it is improved and placed in the condition which
is fitting, and which I so much desire, in your term of office. And
I charge you that you do all this with the knowledge and advice of
the archbishop, since this care rests on him. In this, and in all
the rest, you shall maintain good relations with the latter.

The city of Manila has two hospitals, one for Spaniards, and the
other for Indians. As I was informed that both were in want, and that
it was desirable to preserve them, I ordered the said Gomez Perez
to apply to the Spanish hospital, from the first repartimientos
that should fall vacant in the said islands, enough to furnish an
annual income of one thousand pesos; and to the Indian hospital,
five hundred ducados, taken from the increase in the tributes of the
same Indians - so that both should enjoy the said incomes as long as
I should determine. Inasmuch as this is a work of so great charity,
and to the service of our Lord, I charge you, immediately upon your
arrival at the said city, to inspect the hospitals. You shall examine
there the care and attention given to the sick; you shall endeavor to
have the accounts kept with due care. You shall audit the accounts of
the possessions of each hospital, by virtue of and in accordance with
the decree that was sent, of which a duplicate will be given you. If
the said Gomez Perez did not endow them with the above named incomes,
you shall do it as soon as possible. First, you shall provide that
all the necessary buildings be erected, so that the sick may have a
place wherein to be sheltered and to avoid the inclemencies of the
weather. I have been informed that this is especially necessary. At
times when other business gives room for it, you shall attend to the
inspection of the hospitals, both yourself and the auditors of the
Audiencia which is about to be reëstablished. You shall do this in
turn, so that when those at the head of the hospitals see the care
that you take, they will fulfil their duties without any lack or
neglect, or any possibility of the like. And in order that it may be
known that no such lack or neglect occurs during your term of office,
you shall advise me immediately of the condition in which you find
the buildings of the said hospitals; the arrangements made in them
in respect to administration, hospitality, treatment, and reception
of the poor; and the new ordinances that you shall enact.

As I was informed that those islands were in great need of ministers
of instruction, and that some Indians were dying without baptism;
that, because of the same need, other islands were not being conquered
and converted; and that to cause this condition to cease, it would
be advisable to send religious of the orders established there - I
designated and ordered one hundred and fifty-four religious to
go there last year, one thousand five hundred and ninety-four,
and they actually went. Although one hundred and ten others,
chosen from all the said orders are going this year, nevertheless,
in order that religious may be sent continually, until there is
no lack of them, but a sufficient force to attend to the ministry
of the preaching of the gospel, and the conversion of those heathen
(which I so much desire), and so that those recently converted may be
taught and instructed, I charge you to confer over this matter with
the archbishop and Audiencia. You shall advise me of the number of
religious, their convents, and their orders, their manner of living,
and the number whom it would be advisable to send now, the districts
to which they should especially be sent, and the orders to which they
should belong. In the meantime, you shall come to an understanding
with all the superiors, so that all the religious there at present,
and those who shall be sent in the future, shall be so distributed
that adequate instruction may be given in all necessary districts,
as doubtless can be done if all engage in the ministry for which
chiefly they are sent. They are likewise sent for the conversion and
instruction of the natives who are pacified and have acknowledged my
service and obedience; and they shall not go elsewhere without your
permission and that of the said superiors. Through the latter, you
shall ascertain the results obtained in their respective districts,
and their lack of instruction, in order that, having this certain
knowledge, you may be able to advise me more clearly and precisely. And
so that everything may be done better and with greater quietness,
I charge you to maintain good relations with the superiors, so that,
taking example from your harmony, those who are subordinate may also
be in accord among themselves, and produce the result that I desire.

One of the things that have given rise to uneasiness among some
of the religious, who have been divided among different opinions,
and that have caused great doubts among the Spaniards, is the fact
that the religious instruction of the newly-explored places was not
looked after as it should have been; for in this regard the plan to
be followed among them was explained specifically and explicitly,
so that if it were observed, there could be no ground for doubt in
regard to the justification of the beginning and continuing of the
exploration in accord with my intention, will, and desire. Again
I declare this to be that the said religious instruction must be
looked after in every place pacified during your term; and that
you shall not consent that it be transgressed, in whole or in part,
or that any pacification be made by any other means or method, so
that in regard to this there may be the peace and harmony among all
which I desire. Putting an end to all past scruples, those already
converted must receive good treatment; and those not converted must
be converted with the mildness with which it is advisable that the
gospel be preached and received, and the Catholic faith believed and
confessed, from which the desired happiness and gain will result.

Bishop Don Fray Domingo de Salazar complained that the governors
did not allow him to exercise his jurisdiction. This, he said, was
one of the things that made him come here. And because it is not
proper that those going now should do this, or that in the future
the governors should meddle with ecclesiastical matters, as such
is contrary to my will and desire, I charge you that you shall not
meddle with the jurisdiction of the prelates. On the contrary you
shall aid and protect them, so that they may occupy themselves with
the matters which, in accordance with my ordinances and decrees,
can and ought to occupy their time and attention, provided this does
not oppose my royal jurisdiction. This latter it is proper that you
and they preserve and respect, as well as what concerns the right of
my patronage, which you shall cause to be observed according to the
concession granted to the Castilian sovereigns by apostolic authority,
and declared in the instruction which you will find there, which I
am writing in like terms to the said prelates. Once more I charge
you to maintain thoroughly good relations with the latter.

The bishop petitioned also that, in the appraisement of the revenues
that were to be given to the curates of Indian villages, it should
be considered that the said Indians were not accustomed to pay fees
for burials, marriages, or other ecclesiastical ministrations; and
that it should be ordered that all the religious, in charge of and
entrusted with instruction, should not collect the said fees, and
that this extend also to the secular ecclesiastics. Inasmuch as he
had ordered the same, under penalty of spiritual censure, and as it
seemed quite proper to me, I declared and ordered that this custom
be kept inviolate by both the seculars and regulars throughout that
entire district, as you will see by the decree that was despatched
in accordance with this. You shall cause this to be observed and
fulfilled. You shall advise me specifically of the fulfilment of this
decree and its results.

It seems an inhuman thing, and contrary to all Christian charity, to
have left the Indians of the Ladrone Islands without instruction, since
all who go to the Philipinas make port in their lands; and since after
receiving help from them, and no resistance or injuries, the governors
and prelates have passed by those people without furnishing them any
instruction. This is a great cause of grief, and a bad example. In
order that it may be rectified, since you and the archbishop are
going together, you shall examine the disposition of the land,
and you shall leave there, from the religious who are sailing now,
those who seem suitable for the conversion and instruction of those
natives. If it seems advisable, you shall also leave with them some
soldiers for their protection, and as a defense from the dangers
of those barbarians, in accordance with the ordinance regarding new
discoveries. You shall advise me of what is done in this.

The bishop and some of the religious were of opinion that tributes
could not be collected from the heathen Indians, and that the Indians
could not be compelled to pay them until they were Christians. When
the bishop came here, one of the matters, together with instruction,
petitioned for by him was, that it should be ordered that no tributes
be levied on the said heathen Indians. After conference and discussion
regarding this in my Council of the Indias, in presence of the said
bishop and other religious, it was resolved that tributes should be
collected throughout, without any exceptions, from all the Indians who
were pacified, even though they were not Christians; and that among
those Indians who should not have any instruction, the portion to be
applied to that purpose should upon collection be kept in a separate
account for some hospitals as a means of benefit for the said Indians,
and so that they may also be furnished instruction therefrom. A
decree was sent in accordance with this, and its duplicate will be
given you, so that after you shall have examined and understood it you
shall cause its contents to be observed to the letter. And with that
prudence which I expect from you, you shall see that the religious
orders and the religious observe this matter. If, notwithstanding,
they think that the ordinance is inadvisable and requires revision,
they shall suspend revision until they have informed me thereof. They
should be assured that my will in this, as in all other matters, is
that all things be carried on with the most complete justification. You
shall request this from them, and charge them with it in my name,
in order that no disputes may arise among them for this cause or any
other. Inasmuch as they all have the same aim, it is but just and
necessary that they aid one another, for by so doing will their end
be more certainly attained.

Great annoyances and troubles have resulted from the expressed opinions
of the religious, which have been uttered in the pulpit and spoken
in public. As is notorious, this has been the cause of disturbing
and offending the town, and the Spaniards have become confused with
doubts; and some have died without any hope, and without receiving
from the religious any consolation to satisfy their consciences. For
the religious demand nothing less from them than the restoration of
everything acquired in the discovery and pacification - an impossibility
for them. Then too, the religious impose difficulties in the collection
of the tributes in the encomiendas, saying that some of the encomiendas
do not have the adequate instruction, and assigning other reasons for
other encomiendas. Thus the religious meddle in nearly everything,
just as they did in opposing the _pancada_ [33] and the assessment
that was levied for the walls and fortifications of Manila. The
bishop took part in some of these matters by declaring the governor
excommunicated. This has caused all to live, and they still live, with
no hope. Inasmuch as great moderation and consideration must be shown
in all actions, without allowing the people to live in so great anxiety
and embarrassment, you shall confer with the secular and regular
superiors, so that they may advise their subordinates - the preachers
and confessors - not to offend the people with such propositions; and
that whenever the latter think it advisable to make any reform, they
shall confer with the same superiors, as these are men of learning, who
by right should discuss and procure the reform. They shall communicate
this matter to you, in order that you may enact whatever reform is
advisable and possible. You shall advise me of what is most suitable
for reform, in order that the matter may be examined and determined
here. If any of the said preachers or confessors shall not observe
this order, or shall offend people by any new proposition of doubts,
or in matters of government, you shall advise their superior thereof,
in order that he may correct and reform it. Should the latter not
attend to this, then you shall enact what you think advisable for
the welfare and tranquillity of the country. You shall discuss such
matters with the archbishop and Audiencia, in order that success,
as is so important, may be more surely obtained. You shall advise me
of whatever is done.

Gomez Perez was also ordered to enact and provide that the encomenderos
pay tithes according to the method, habit, and custom in Mexico; for,
inasmuch as the church did not have any bishop, curate, or organized
government before that time, the tithes were not paid. Inasmuch as it
is proper that this be determined, executed, and observed according
to the precepts of the church, you shall order all the Spaniards to
pay tithes on their farm and stock products. You shall proceed rather
with care and prudence than with rigor, and also with the knowledge and
opinion of the archbishop and Audiencia. As I have been petitioned, in
the name of the said city of Manila, to order that the three per cent
duty imposed by Don Gonzalo Rronquillo be not paid in the city, because
the country is very poor and needy, and the citizens have many other
expenses for the city, I answered that I should be very glad to relieve
them of it, but that, on account of the very heavy expenses that were
requisite for the preservation of those islands, I was forced to avail
myself of what could be reasonably obtained therefrom. Accordingly I
charged the said Gomez Perez to order the collection of the said three
per cent, and directed that the proceeds therefrom be kept separate,
for the purpose of paying the military forces. You shall exercise
the same care, and shall attend to the matter with the mildness and
efficient means that I expect from you. While en route through Nueva
Spaña, you shall request the viceroy to order that the speedy and
efficient collection of the duties at Acapulco be attended to, and


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Online LibraryUnknownThe Philippine Islands, 1493-1898 — Volume 09 of 55 1593-1597 → online text (page 13 of 20)