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The works of that learned and judicious divine Mr. Richard Hooker, containing eight books of the laws of ecclesiastical polity, and several other treatises : To which is prefixed the life of the author, by Isaac Walton. To this edition is subjoined a new index to the whole online

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Online LibraryUnknownThe works of that learned and judicious divine Mr. Richard Hooker, containing eight books of the laws of ecclesiastical polity, and several other treatises : To which is prefixed the life of the author, by Isaac Walton. To this edition is subjoined a new index to the whole → online text (page 16 of 41)
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moft perf 61 beauty, the countenance of that Wifdom
pro viii.22 which hath teftifled concerning herfelf, The Lord $ of-
fered



ECCLESIASTICAL POLITY. 201

feffed me in the beginning of his way y even before bis BOOK 1.
works of old, 1 was Jet up ; that Law which hath been"
the pattern to make, and is the card to guide the
World by ; that Law which hath been of God, and
with God everlaftingly ; that Law, the Author and
Obferver whereof is, one only God, to be blefTed for
ever ; how fhould either Men or Angels be able per-
fectly to behold? The Book of this Law we are
neither able nor worthy to open and look into.
That little thereof, which we darkly apprehend, we
admire ; the reft, with religious ignorance, we hum-
bly and meekly adore. Seeing therefore, that ac-
cording to this Law he worketh, Of whom, through Rom. ii.36.
whom, and for whom, are all things -, although there
fee m to us confufion and diforder in the affairs of this
prefent World. Tamen quoniam bonus Mundum Reffor Boet lib. 4 .
temper at ; refte fieri cun5la ne dubites. Let no rnanp^^" 1 '
doubt, but that every thing is well done, becaufe
the World is ruled by fo good a Guide, as tranfgref-
feth not his own Law : than which, nothing can be
more abfolute, perfect and juft. The Law whereby
he worketh, is eternal, and therefore can have no
iliew or colour of mutability. For which caufe, a
part of that Law being opened in the Promifes
which God hath made (becaufe his Promifes are
nothing elfe but declarations, what God will do for
the good of Men ) touching thofe Promifes the
Apoftle hath witneffed, that God may as poflibly deny
himfelf, and not be God, as fail to perform them.
And concerning the Counfel of God, he termeth it
likewife a thing unchangeable : the Counfel of God, aTim.ii.13.
and that Law of God, whereof now we fpeak, being
one. Nor is the freedom of the Will of God any
whit abated, let, or hindred, by means of this ;
becaufe the impofition of this Law upon himfelf, is
his own free and voluntary aft, This Law therefore,
we may name eternal, being that Order which God
before all ages hath fet down with himfelf, for him-
felf to do all things by.

2.1



202 ECCLESIASTICAL POLITY.

book. i. 2. I am not ignorant, that by Law eternal, the
The Law Learned for the moil part do understand the Order,
vhichnatu-not which God harii eternally purpofed himfelf in
have |iven a H h lS works to obferve, but rather that, which with
them to ob- himfelf he hath fet down as expedient to be kept by
thei? necef. all his Creatures, according to the feveral conditions
W mj . nB o er wherewith he hath endued them. They who thus
iu eepln are accuftomed to fpeak, apply the name of Law
unto that only rule of working, which fuperior Au-
thority impofeth ; whereas we fomewhat more en-
larging the fenfe thereof, term any kind of Rule or
Canon whereby actions are framed, a Law. Now
that Law, which as it is laid up in the bofom of
God, they call eternal, receiveth according unto the
different kind of things which are fubject unto it,
different and fundry kinds of names. That part of it
which ordereth natural Agents, we call ufually Na-
ture's Law $ that which Angels do clearly behold,
and without any fwerving obferve, is a Law celeftial
and heavenly; the Law of Reafon, that which bind-
eth Creatures reafonable in this World, and wkh
which by Reafon they moil plainly perceive them-
felves bound ; that which bindeth them, and is not
known but by fpecial Revelation from God, divine
Law. Human Law, that which out of the Law,
either of Reafon or of God, Men probably gathering
to be expedient, they make it a Law. All things
therefore, which are as they ought to be, are con-
formed unto this fecond Law eternal ; and even
thofe things, which to this eternal Law are not con-
formable, are notwith (landing in fome fort ordered
by the firfl eternal Law. For what good or evil is
there under the fun ; what action correfpondent or
repugnant unto the Law which God hath impofed
upon his creatures, but in, or upon it, God doth
work according to the Law which himfelf hath
eternally purpofed to keep ; that is to fay, the firft
eternal Law? So that a twofold Law eternal being
thus made, it is not hard to conceive how they both

take



ECCLESIASTICAL POLITY. 203

take place in in § all things. Wherefore to come to book i.
the Law of Nature, albeit thereby we fometimes
mean that manner of working which God hath
fet for each created thing to keep; yet forafmuch
as thofe things are termed moil properly natural
Agents, which keep the Law of their kind un-
wittingly, as the Heavens and Elements of the World,
which can do no otherwife than they do : and foraf-
much as we give unto intellectual Natures, the name
of voluntary Agents, that fo we may diftinguifh
them from the other, expedient it will be, that we
fever the Law of Nature obferved by the one, from
that which the other is tied unto. Touching the
former, their flricl keeping of one Tenure, Statute,
and Law is fpoken of by all, but hath in it more than
Men have as yet attained to know, or perhaps ever
fhall attain, feeing the travel of wading herein, is
given of God to the Sons of Men ; that perceiving
how much the leafl thing in the World hath in it,
more than the wifeft are able to reach unto, they
may by this means learn humility. Mofes, in de-
ferring the work of Creation, attributeth fpeech
unto God : God faid y let there be light : let there be a
firmament : let the waters under the heavens be gathered
together into one -place : let the earth bring forth : let

§ Id omne quod in rebus creatis fit, eft materia legis aeternae.
Th. 1. 1, 2. q. 93. art. 4, 5, 6. Nullo modo aliquid legibus
fummi Creatoris ordinationique mbtrahitur, a quo pax univerfita-
tis adminiftratur. Auguft. de Civit Dei, lib. 19. c. 22. Imrao
et peccatum, quatenus a Deo jufte permiiitur, cadit in legem
aeternam. Etiam legi aeternae fubjicitur peccatum ; quatenus vo-
luntaria legis tranfgreflio pcenale quoddam incommodum animas
jnferit, juxta illud Auguftini, Juffifti Domine, et fie eft, ut poena
fuafibi fit omnis animus inordinatus. Confef. lib. 1. cap. 12. Nee
male Scholaftici, Quemadmodum, inquiunt, videmus res naturales
ccntingentes, hoc ipfo quod a fine particulari fuo, atque adeo a
lege aeterna exorbitant, in eandem legem aeternam incidere,
quatenus confequuntar alium finem a lege etiam sterna ipfis in
cam particulari conftitutum : fie verifimile eft homines etiam cum
peccant et defcifcunt a lege asterna ut prscipiente, reincidere in
ordinem asternae legis ut punientis.

there



2C4 ECCLESIASTICAL POLITY.

rook i. there be lights in the firmament of heaven. Was this
only the intent of Mofes, to fignjfy the infinite great-
nefs of God's Power, by the eafinefs of his accom-
plishing fuch effects, without travel, pain, or labour?
Surely, it feemeth that Mofes had herein, befides
this, a further purpofe, namely, firft, to teach that
God did not work as a neceflary, but a voluntary
Agent, intending beforehand, and decreeing with
himfelf, that which did outwardly proceed from him.
Secondly, to mew that God did then inftitute a Law
natural to be obferved by Creatures -, and therefore
according to the manner of Laws, the inflitution
thereof is defcribed, as being eftablifhed by folemn
injunction. His commanding thofe things to be which
are, and to be in fuch fort as they are, to keep that
tenure and courfe which they do, importeth the ef-
tablifhment of Nature's Law. The World's firft
Creation, and the prefervation fince of things cre-
ated, what is it, but only fo far forth a manifefta-
tion by execution, what the eternal Law of God is
concerning things natural? And as it cometh to
pais in a Kingdom rightly ordered, that after a Law
is once publifhed, it prefently takes effect far and
wide, all ftates framing themfelves thereunto ; even
fo let us think it fareth in the natural courfe of the
World : fince the time that God did firft proclaim
the edicts of his Law upon it, Heaven and Earth
have hearkened unto his Voice, and their labour
hath been to do his Will : He made a Law for the
Rain; he gave his Decree unto the Sea, that the
Waters fhould not pafs his Commandment. Now, if
Nature fhould intermit her courfe, and leave alto-
gether, thought it were but for a while, the obfer-
vation of her own Laws ; if thofe principal and
mother-elements of the World, whereof all things
in this lower World are made, fhould lofe the qua-
lities which now they have ; if the frame of that
heavenly Arch erected over our heads, fhould
loofen and diiTolve itfelf ; if celeftial Spheres fhould
forget their wonted motions, and by irregular volu-
bility



ECCLESIASTICAL POLITY. 205

bility turn themfelves any way as it might hap- book. r.
pen j if the Prince of the Lights of Heaven, which ~ v(t xlx , '
now as a Giant doth run his unwearied courie, mould,
as it were, through a languiming faintnefs, begin to
{land, and to reft htmfelf j if the Moon fhould wan-
der from her beaten way, the Times and Seafons of
the Year blend themfelves, by difordered and con-
fufed mixture, the Winds breathe out their lail gafp,
the Clouds yield no rain, the Earth be defeated of
heavenly influence, the Fruits of the earth pine
away, as Children at the breads of their Mother, no
longer able to yield them relief; what would be-
come of Man himfelf, whom thefe things do now
all ferve ? See we not plainly, that obedience of
Creatures unto the Law of Nature, is the flay of
the whole World ? Notwithstanding, with Nature it
cometh fometimes to pafs as with Art. Let Phidias
have rude and obftinate fluff to carve, though his
art do that it fhould, his work will lack that beauty
which otherwife in fitter matter it might have had.
He that ftriketh an inftrument with fkill, may caufe
notwithstanding a very unpleafant found, if the
firing whereon he ftriketh chance to be uncapable
of harmony. In the matter, whereof things natu-
ral confifl, that of Theophraftus takes place, JJoKv

to 2p£ w&ayusQV « $\ S-yJsy.ivov ro iv. Much of it is often- Thcophraft.

times fucb> as will by no means yield to receive that im- in M «aph.
prejjion which were befi and moft perfeel. Which de-
fed: in the matter of things natural, they who gave
themfelves unto the contemplation of Nature amongfl
the Heathen, obferved often : But the true original
caufe thereof, divine Malediction, laid for the fin of
Man upon thefe Creatures, which God had made
for the ufe of Man, this being; an article of that
faving Truth which God hath revealed unto his
Church, was above the reach of their merely natu-
ral capacity and underflanding. But howfoever,
thefe fwervings are now and then incident into the
courfe of Nature ; nevertheless fo conflantly the
Laws of Nature are by natural Agents obferved, that

no



206 ECCLESIASTICAL POLITY.

BO0K T ; no man denieth, but thofe things which Nature
worketh, are wrought either always, or for the mod
Arift.Rhet. part, after one and the fame manner. If here it be
i. cap. 39 . ( j ernan( j ec j 5 w hat this is which keepeth Nature in
obedience to her own Law, we muft have recourfe
to that higher Law, whereof we have already fpo-
ken ; and becaufe all other Laws do thereon depend,
from thence we mud borrow fo much as (hall need
for brief refolution in this point. Although we are
not of opinion therefore, as fome are, that Nature
in working, hath before her certain exemplary
draughts or patterns, which fubfifting in the bofom
of the Highelt, and being thence difcovered, fhe
fixeth her eye upon them, as travellers by fea,
upon the Pole-ftar of the World, and that accord-
ing thereunto fhe guideth her hand to work by imi-
tation : although we rather embrace the oracle of
Hippocrates,* 'That each thing, both in fmall and in
great, fulfill eth the tafk which Leftiny hath fet down.
And concerning the manner of executing and ful-
filling the fame, What they do, they know not, yet is
it in JJjew and appearance, as though they did know
what they do \ and the truth is, they do not difcern
the things which they look on : Neverthelefs, for as
much as the works of Nature are no lefs exact, than
if me did both behold and fludy how to exprefs
fome abfolute fhape or mirror always prefent before
her •, yea, fuch her dexterity and fkill appeareth,
that no intellectual Creature in the World were able
by capacity, to do that which Nature doth without
capacity and knowledge; it cannot be, but Nature
hath fome Director of infinite knowledge to guide
her in all her ways. Who is the Guide of Nature,

and are. Thofe things which Nature is faid to do,

* Tr,V *KSVCU[/.Z)>r t V fAOlfiV}V exarOP SKTTAriCOL Kj tTTi TO (J.H CfV Jtj ETTt TO [/*BiO>'

are



ECCLESIASTICAL POLITY. 207

are by divine Art performed, ufing Nature as an book i.
inftrument •, nor is there any fuch art or knowledge
divine in Nature her felf working, but in the Guide
of Nature's work. Whereas therefore things natu-
ral, which are not in the number of voluntary Agents
(for of fuch only we now fpeak, and of no other)
do lb neceiTarily obferve their certain Laws, that as
long as they keep thole f Forms which give them
their being, they cannot poflibly be apt or inclin-
able to do otherwife than they do ; feeing the kinds
of their operations are both conftantly and exactly
framed, according to the feveral ends for which they
ferve, they themfdves in the mean while, though
doing that which is fit, yet knowing neither what
they do, nor whys it followeth, that all which they do
in this fort, proceedeth originally from fome fuch
Agent, as knoweth, appointeth, holdeth up, and
even actually frameth the fame. The manner of
of this divine Efficiency being far above us, we are
no more able to conceive by our Reafon, than Crea-
tures unreafonable by their Senfe, are able to appre-
hend after what manner we difpofe and order the
courfe of our affairs. Only thus much is difcerned,
that the natural Generation and Procefs of all things,
receiveth order of proceeding from the fettled liabi-
lity of divine Underftanding. This appointeth unto
them their kinds of working j the difpolition whereof,
in the purity of God's own Knowledge and Will, is
rightly termed by the name of Providence. The
fame being referred unto the things themfelves, here
difpofed by it, was wont by the Ancients to be cal-
led Natural Deftiny. That Law, the performance
whereof we behold in things natural, is as it were
an authentical, or an original draught, written in

f Form in other Creatures is a thing proportionable unto the
Soul in living Creatures. Senfible it is not, nor otherwife dis-
cernible than only by effecls. According to the diversity of in-
ward Forms, things of the World are diitinguifhed into their
kinds.

the



208 ECCLESIASTICAL POLITY.

book i. the bofom of God himfelf; whofe Spirit being to
■ execute the fame, ufeth every particular nature, every

mere natural agent, only as an inftrument created at
the beginning, and ever fince the beginning, ufed to
work his own Will and Pleafure withal.* Nature
therefore, is nothing elfe but God's inftrument. In
the courfe whereof, Dionyfius perceiving fome fud-
den difturbance, is faid to have cried out, Aut Deus
natura patitur, aut Mundi machina dijfolvilur ; either
God doth luffer impediment, and is by a greater
than himfelf hindered ; or if that be impoftible, then
hath he determined to make a prefent difTolution of
the World ; the execution of that Law beginning
now to Hand ftill, without which the World cannot
Hand. This Workman, whofe fervitor Nature is,
being in truth but only one, the Heathens imagin-
ing to be more, gave him in the fky, the name of
Jupiter ; in the air, the name of Juno 5 in the water,
the name of Neptune ; in the earth, the name of
Vefta, and fometimes of Ceres - 5 the name of Apollo
in the fun ; in the moon, the name of Diana -, the
name of iEolus,' and divers other in the winds ; and
to conclude, even fo many guides of Nature they
dreamed of as they faw there were kinds of things
natural in the World. Thefe they honoured, as hav-
ing power to work or ceafe accordingly as Men de-
ferved of them : but unto us, there is one only
Guide of all agents natural, and he both the Crea-
tor and the Worker of all in all, alone to be blef-
fed, adored, and honoured by all for ever. That
which hitherto hath been fpoken, concerned! natural
Agents, confidered in themfelves : but we muft fur-
ther remember alfo (which thing to touch, in a
word, fhall fuffice,) that as in this refpect they have
their Law, which Law direcleth them in the means

* Vide Tho. in Compend. Theol. cap. 3. Omne quod mo-
vetur ab aliquo, ell quafi inrtrumentum quoddam primi moven-
tis. Ridiculum eft autem etiam apud indo&os ponere initrumen-
tum moveri non ab aliquo principali agente.

whereby



ECCLESIASTICAL POLITY. 209

whereby they tend to their own perfection; fo like- book i.

wife another Law there is, which toucheth them as ' '

they are fociable parts united into one body : a Law
which bindeth them each to ferve unto others good,
and all to prefer the good of the whole, before
whatsoever their own particular, as we plainly fee
they do, when things natural in that regard, forget
their ordinary natural wont : that which is heavy,
mounting fometime upwards of its own accord, and
forfaking the center of the earth, which to itfelf is
moft natural, even as if it did hear itfelf command-
ed to let go the good it privately wifheth, and to re-
lieve the prefent diftrefs of Nature in common.

4. *But now that we may lift up our eyes (as it
were) from the Foot-ftool to the Throne of God,
and leaving thefe natural, confider a little the ftate
of heavenly and divine Creatures : touching Angels,
which are Spirits immaterial and intellectual, the
glorious Inhabitants of thofe facred Palaces, where
nothing but Light and bleiTed Immortality, no fha-
dow of matter for tears, difcontentments, griefs, and
uncomfortable pafiions to work upon, but all joy,
tranquillity, and peace, even for ever and ever doth
dwell. As in number and order they are huge,
mighty, and royal Armies, fo likewife in perfection
of obedience unto that Law, which the Higheft,
whom they adore, love and imitate, hath impofed
upon them. Such obfervants they are thereof, that
our Saviour himfelf being to fet down the perfect
idea of that which we are to pray and wifh for on
Earth did not teach to pray or wim for more, than

* The Law which Angels do work by. Pfal. civ. 4. Hcb.
i. 7. Eph. iii. 10. Dan. vii. 10. Matth. xxvi. 53. Hcb.
xii. 22. Luke ii. 13. Matth. vi. 10. and xviii. 10. Pfal.
xci, 1 j, 12. Luke xv. 7. Heb. i. 14. 'Act. x. 3. Dan. ix.
23, Dan. iv. IO. Tw ^e £povi> Gtvposuri 'srafxa-ruav lyoAf^o'^Sot
"AyftXci, olcrt y.£fA.7,XiGi r M'j7z us laudx rihiTra*. Arift. Metaph. xii. cap.
7. Job xxxviii. 7. Pfal. ex lv iii. 2. Hjb. i. 6. liai. vi. 3.

VOL. I. P only



aio ECCLESIASTICAL POLITY.

B00K L only that here it might be with us, as with them k
is in Heaven. God which moveth meer natural
Agents as an efficient only, doth otherwife move in-
tellectual Creatures, and efpecially his holy Angels :
for beholding the face of God, in admiration of fo
great excellency, they all adore him ; and being rapt
with the love of his beauty, they cleave infeparably
for ever unto him. Defire to refemble him in good-
nefs, maketh them unweariable and even unfatiable
in their longing, to do by all means, all manner of
good unto all the Creatures of God, but efpecially
unto the Children of Men. In the countenance of
whofe nature looking downward, they behold them-
felves beneath themfelves, even as upward in God,
beneath whom themfelves are, they fee that character
which is no where but in themfelves and us, refem-
bled. Thus far even the Painims have approached ;
thus far they have feen into the doings of the Angels
of God , Orpheus conferring, that the fiery throne of
God is attended on by thole mod induftrious An-
gels, careful how all things are performed amongit
Men ; and the mirror of human Wifdom plainly
teaching, that God moveth Angels, even as that
thing doth ftir Man's heart, which is thereunto pre-
fented amiable. Angelical actions may therefore be
reduced unto thefe three general kinds.* Firft, moil
delectable Love arifing from the vifible apprehenfion
of the Purity, Glory and Beauty of God invifible,
faving only unto Spirits that are pure : Secondly,
Adoration, grounded upon the evidence of the great-
nefs of God, on whom they fee how all things de-
pend : Thirdly, Imitation, bred by the prefence of
his exemplary goodnefs, who ceafeth not before them
daily to fill Heaven and Earth with the rich treafures
of mod free and undeferved grace. Of Angels, we

* This is intimated wherefoever we find them termed the
Sons of God, as job i. 6. and xxxviii. 7. 2 Pet. ii. 4. Jude verf. 6.
Pfal. cxlviii. 2. Luke ii. 13. Mat. xjcvi. 53. Heb. xii. 22.
Apoc. xxii. 9.

arc



ECCLESIASTICAL POLITY. 211

are not to confider only what they are and do, in re- bo ok i.
gard of their own being, but that alfo which concern-
eth them as they are linked into a kind of corpo-
ration amongft themfelves, and of fociety or fellow-
fhip with Men. Confider Angels, each of them fe-
verally in himfelf, and their Law is that which the
Prophet David mentioned!, All ye his Angels praife him.
Confider the Angels of God afibciated, and their Law
is that which difpofeth them as an Army, one in order
and degree above another. Confider finally the Angels,
as having with us that communion which the Apof-
tle to the Hebrews noteth ; and in regard whereof,
Angels have not difdained to profefs themfelves our
fellow-fervants. From hence there fpringeth up a
third Law, which bindeth them to works of minifte-
rial employment. Every of which their feveral func-
tions, are by them performed with joy. A part of
the Angels of God notwithstanding (we know)
have fallen, and that their fall hath been through the
voluntary breach of that Law, which did require at
1 heir hands continuance in the exercife of their high
and admirable virtue. Jmpoflible it was, that ever
their will mould change or incline to remit any part
of their duty, without fome object having force to
avert their conceit from God, and to draw it another
way ,• and that before they attained that high perfec-
tion of blifs, wherein now the Elect Angels are
without poflibility of falling. Of any thing more than
of God, they could not by any means like, as long
as whatfoever they knew befides God, they appre-
hended it not in itfelf, without dependency upon
God , becaufe fo long, God muft needs item infi-
nitely better than any thing which they fo could
apprehend. Things beneath them, could not in
fuch fort be prefented ,unto their eyes, but that
therein they muft needs fee always, how thofe tilings
did depend on God. It feemeth therefore, that there
was no other way for Angels to fin, but by reflex
of their under (landing upon themfelves; when being

V 2 held



212 ECCLESIASTICAL POLITY.

book i. held with admiration of their own fublimity and
honour, the memory of their fubordination unto God.,
and their dependency on him was drowned in this
conceit ; whereupon their adoration, love and imita-
joh.viii.44. tion of God, could not chufe but be alfo inter-
im pet. v. 8. rupted. The fall of Angels therefore, was Pride;
Gen. iii. 15. Since their fall, their practices have been the clean
r^' xxi ' i contrary unto thofe before mentioned; for being
ii.2.' difperfed, fome in the air, fome on the earth,

'fcisT 27, ^ ome m t ^ ie water j fome among the minerals, dens

Apoc. xx.8. and caves that are under the earth; they have, by

all means, laboured to effect an univerfal rebellion

againft the Laws, and, as far as in them lieth, utter

deitruction of the Works of God. Thefe wicked

Spirits the Heathens honoured inftead of Gods both

generally under the name of Dii inferi, Gods infernal ;

and particularly, fome in Oracles, fome in Idols,

fome as houfhold Gods, fome as Nymphs : In a

word, no foul and wicked Spirit which was not one

way or other honoured of Men as God, till fuch time

as Light appeared in the World, and diffolved the

works of the Devil. Thus much therefore may

fufiice for Angels, the next unto whom in degree

are Men.

The Law 5. God alone excepted, who actually and ever-

M^sm l a fti n gly is, whatfoever he may be, and which cannot

his anions hereafter be, that which now he is not ; all other

direaed to tn ings befides, are fomewhat in poffibility, which as

the lmita- O J i /* 1 • r \



Online LibraryUnknownThe works of that learned and judicious divine Mr. Richard Hooker, containing eight books of the laws of ecclesiastical polity, and several other treatises : To which is prefixed the life of the author, by Isaac Walton. To this edition is subjoined a new index to the whole → online text (page 16 of 41)