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The works of that learned and judicious divine Mr. Richard Hooker, containing eight books of the laws of ecclesiastical polity, and several other treatises : To which is prefixed the life of the author, by Isaac Walton. To this edition is subjoined a new index to the whole online

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Online LibraryUnknownThe works of that learned and judicious divine Mr. Richard Hooker, containing eight books of the laws of ecclesiastical polity, and several other treatises : To which is prefixed the life of the author, by Isaac Walton. To this edition is subjoined a new index to the whole → online text (page 3 of 41)
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fear poffeft him, that he would not be perfuaded two
days quietnefs, or any other means could be ufed to
make him able to preach his Sunday's Sermon ; but
a warm bed, and reft, and drink proper for a cold,
given him by Miftrefs Churchman, and her diligent
attendance added unto it, enabled him to perform
the office of the day, which was in or about the year
one thoufand five hundred and eighty one.

And in this firft publick appearance to the world,
he was not fo happy as to be free from exceptions
againft a point of doctrine delivered in his Sermon,
which was, 'That in God there were tzvo Wills : an an-
tecedent , and a confequent Will : bis firft Will, "That all
mankind ftoould be faved-, but his fecond Will was 9
That thqfe only Jhould be faved, that did live anfwerable
to that degree of Grace which he had offered or afforded
them. This feemed to crofs a late opinion of Mr.
Calvin's, and then taken for granted by many that
had not a capacity to examine it, as it had been by
him, and had been fince by Dr. Jackfon, Dr. Ham-
mand, and others of great learning, who believe that
a contrary opinion trenches upon the honour and
juftice of our merciful God. How he juftifled this,
I will not undertake to declare ; but it was not ex-
cepted againft (as Mr. Hooker declares in an occa-
fional aniwer to Mr. Travers) by John Elmer, then
Bifhop or London, at this time one of his auditors,
and at laft one of his advocates too, when Mr. Hooker
was ace ufed for it.

But the juftifying of this doctrine did not prove of

fo



32 THE LIFE OF

fo bad confequence, as the kindnefs of Mrs. Church-
man's curing him of his late diftemper and cold ; for
that was fo gratefully apprehended by Mr. Hooker,
that he thought himfelf bound in confcience to
believe all that fhe faid: fo that the good man came
to be perfuaded by her, 'That he was a man of a tender
conjlitution , and, that it was beft for him to have a
Wife, that might prove a nurfe to him ; fuch a one as
might both 'prolong his life, and make it more comfortable ;
and fuch a one, foe could and would provide for him y
if he thought fit to marry. And he not considering,
that the children of this world are wifer in their ge-
neration than the children of light-, but, like a true
Nathaniel, who feared no guile, becaufe he meant
none j did give her fuch power as Eleazer was trufted
with, when he was fent to chufe a Wife for lfaac ;
for even fo he trufted her to chufe for him, promifing
upon a fair fummons to return to London, and
accept of her choice ; and he did fo in that or the
year following. Now, the Wife provided for him,
was her daughter Joan, who brought him neither
beauty nor portion ; and for her conditions, they
were too like that Wife's, which is by Solomon com-
pared to a dripping houfe : fo that he had no reafon
to rejoice in the Wife of his youth, but rather to fay
with the holy Prophet, Wo is me that I am confer ained
to have my habitation in the tents of Kedar !

This choice of Mr. Hooker's (if it were his choice)
may be wondered at ; but let us confider that the
Prophet Ezekiel fays, There is a wheel within a wheel;
a fecret facred wheel of Providence (efpecially in
marriages) guided by his hand, that allows not
the race to the fwift, nor bread to the wife, nor good
wives to good men : And he that can bring good
out of evil, (for mortals are blind to fuch reafons)
only knows why this blefting was denied to patient
Job, and (as fome think) to meek Mofes, and to our
as meek and patient Mr. Hooker. But fo it was ;
and let ihe Reader ceafe to wonder, for Jffliftion is

a divine



Mr. RICHARD HOOKER.



33



a divine diet ; which though it be unpleafing to man-
kind, yet Almighty God hath often, very often im-
pofed it as good, though bitter phyfick to thofe
children whole fouls are deareft to him.

And by this means the good man was drawn from
the tranquility of his College: from that garden
of piety, of pleafure, of peace, and a fv/eet con-
verfation, into the thorny wildernefs of a bufy
world ; into thofe corroding cares that attend a
married prieft, and a country parfonage ; which was
Draiton Beuchamp in Buckinghamshire, (not far
from Ailfbury, and in the Diocefe of Lincoln ;) to
which he was prefented by John Cheney Efquire,
(then Patron of it) the ninth of December 1584,
where he behaved himfelf fo, as to give no occafion
of evil, but (as St. Paul advifeth a Minifter of God)
in much patience, in affliclions> in anguijhes, in necejji-
ties, in poverty , and no doubt in kng-fuffering -, yet
troubling no man with his difcontents and wants.

And in this mean condition he continued about a
year ; in which time his two Pupils, Edwin Sandys
and George Cranmer, were returned from travel, and
took a journey to Draiton to fee their Tutor ; where
they found him with a book in his hand (it was the
Odes of Horace) he being then tending his fmall al-
lotment of fheep in a common field ; which he told
his Pupils he was forced to do, for that his fervant was
then gone home to dine, and afiift his Wife to do fome
neceflary houfhold bufinefs. When his fervant re-
turned and releafed him, his two Pupils attended him
unto his houfe, where their beft entertainment was
quiet company, which was prefently denied them ;
for Richard was called to rock the cradle ; and
their welcome was fo like this, that they (laid but
next morning, which was time enough to difcover
and pity their Tutor's condition : and having in that
time remembered and paraphrafed on many of the
innocent recreations of their younger days, and
by other fuch like diverfions, given him as much

VOL. I. D prefent



34



THE LIFE OF



prefent pleafure as their acceptable company and
difcourfe could afford him, they were forced to
leave him to the company of his Wife, and feek
themielves a quieter lodging. Btit at their parting
from him, Mr. Cranmer faid, Good Tutor, I am forry
your lot is fallen in no better ground, as to your Par/on-
age : And more forry your Wife proves not a more com-
fortable companion after you have wearied your thoughts
in your reftlefs Jludies, To whom the good man re-
plied, My dear George, if Saints have ufually a double
Jhare in the miferies of this life, I that am none, ought
not to repine at what my wife Creator hath appointed
for me ; but labour, as indeed I do daily, to fubmit to
his will, and pojfefs my foul in patience and peace.
Made Maf. At their return to London, Edwin Sandys acquaints
Tem P Je. c his Father, (then Bifhop of London, and after Arch-
bilhop of York) with his Tutor's fad condition, and
follicits for his removal to fome Benefice that might
give him a more comfortable fubfiftence •, which his
Father did moll willingly grant him, when it fhould
next fall into his power. And not long after this
time, which was in the year 1585, *Mr. Alvy (Maf-
ter of the Temple) died, who was a man of a ftri<5t life,
of great learning, and of fo venerable behaviour, as to
gain fuch a degree of love and reverence from all men
that knew him, that he was generally known by the
name of Father Alvy. At the Temple Reading, next
after the death of this Father Alvy, the Archbifhop
of York being then at dinner with the Judges, the
Reader and Benchers of that fociety, he met there
with a condolement for the death of Father Alvy,
an high commendation of his faint-like life, and of
his great merit both to God and man 5 and as they
bewailed his death, fo they wifhed for a like pattern
of virtue and learning to fucceed him. And here
came in a fair occafion for the Archbiiliop to com*

* He was dead, and the place void in the month of Auguft,
Anno 1584. J. S.

mend



Mr. RICHARD HOOKER. 35

mend Mr. Hooker to Father Alvy's place, which he
did with fo effectual an earneftnefs, and that feconded
with fo many other teftimonies of his worth, that
Mr. Hooker was fent for from Draiton Beauchamp
to London, and there the Maflerfhip of the Temple
propofed unto him by the Bifhop, as a greater free-
dom from his country cares, the advantage of a bet-
ter fociety, and a more liberal penfion than his parfon-
age did afford him. But thefe reafons were not
powerful enough to incline him to a willing accept-
ance of it : his wifh was rather to gain a better
country Living, where he might be free from noife,
(fo he expreft the defire of his heart) and eat that
bread which he might more properly call his own, in
privacy and quietnefs. But, notwithflanding this
averfenefs, he was at lad perfuaded to accept of the
Bifhop's propofal ; and was by * Patent for life made
Mailer of the Temple the 17th of March, 1585,
he being then in the 34th year of his age.

[But before any mention was made of Mr. Hooker Endeavour*
for this place, two other Divines were nominated J^^SS^
to fucceed Alvey •, whereof Mr. Walter Travers, aoftheTem.
difciplinarian in his judgment and practice, and ple ' J "
Preacher here in the afternoons, was chief, and re-
commended by Alvey himfelf on his death-bed, to be
Mafter after him : and no marvel, for Alvey' s and
and Travers's principles did fomewhat correfpond.
And many gentlemen of the houfe defired him ;
which defire the Lord Treafurer Burghley was privy
to, and by their requefl, and his own inclination to-
wards him, being a good preacher, he moved the
Queen to allow of him -, for the difpofal of the place

* This you may find in the Temple Records. Will. Erm-
ftead was Mafter of the Temple at the diffolution of the Priory,
and died 2 Eliz. Richard Alvy, Bat. Divinity, Pat. 13 Feb.
2 Eliz. Magifter five Cuftos Domus et Ecclefiae novi Templi ;
died 27 Eliz. — Richard Hooker fucceeded that year by Patent,
in terminis, as Alvy had it, and he left it 33 Eliz. — That year
Dr. Belgey fucceeded Rich. Hooker.

D 2 was



36 THE LIFE OF

was in her. But Archbifhop Whitgift knew the man,
and his hot temper and principles, from the time he
was Fellow of Trinity College, and had oblerved his
Heps ever after : he knew how turbulently he had
carried himfelf at the College, how he had difowned
the Englifh eftablifhed Church and Epifcopacy, and
went to Geneva, and afterwards to Antwerp, to be
ordained Minifter, as he was by Villers and Cart-
wright, and others the Heads of a Congregation there 5
and fo came back again more confirmed for the difci-
pline. And knowing how much the doctrine and
converfe of the Matter to be placed here, would
influence the gentlemen, and their influence and au-
thority prevail in all parts of the realm, where their
habitations and eflates were, that careful Prelate

o oM by mac ^ e ft his endeavour to flop Traver's coming in;

the Archb. and had a learned man in his view, and of principles
more conformable and agreeable to the Church,
namely, one Dr. Bond the Queen's Chaplain, and
well known to her. She well understanding the im-
portance of this place, and knowing by the Arch-
bifhop what Travers was, by a letter he timely writ
to her Majefty upon the vacancy, give particular
order to the Treafurer to difcourfe with the Arch-
bifhop about it.

The Lord Treafurer, hereupon, in a letter, con-
fulted with the faid Archbifhop, and mentioned
Travers to him, as one defired by many of the
houfe. But the Archbifhop, in his anfwer, plainly
fignified to his Lordfhip, that he judged him alto-
gether unfit, for the reafons mentioned before ; and
that he had recommended to the Queen Dr. Bond,
as a very fit peribn. But, however, fhe declined
him, fearing his bodily flrength to perform the duty
of the place, as fhe did Travers for other caufes.
And by laying both aiide, fhe avoided giving dif-
guft to either of thofe great men. This Dr. Bond,
feems to be that Dr. Nicolas Bond that afterwards

was



Mr. RICHARD HOOKER. 37

was Prefident of Magdalen College, Oxon, and that
was much abufed by Martin Mar- Prelate.

Thefe particulars I have collected from a letter
of the Archbifhop to the Queen, and other letters
that parTed between the Archbifhop and the Lord
Treasurer about this affair, while the Mafterfhip was
vacant The paflages whereof taken verbatim out of
their faid Letters, may deferve here to be fpecified
for the fatisfaction of the Readers.

And firft, in the month of Auguft, upon the death
of the former Matter, the Archbifhop wrote this
letter unto the Queen.

J T may pleafe your Majefty to be advertifed, that The Archb.
the Mafterfhip of the Temple 'is vacant by the death of^^™
Mr. Alvey. The Living is not great, yet doth it re- the vacancy
quire a learned, dijcreet, and wife man, in refpecl of the > le ' eTem *
company there : who being well diretled and taught may
do much good elfewhere in the Commonwealth, as other-
wife alio they may do much harm. And becaufe I hear
there is fust made to your Highnefs for one Mr. Tr avers ^
I thought it my duty to fignify unto your Majefty, that
the faid Tr avers hath been, and is one of the chief and
principal authors of diffention in this Church, a con-
temner of the Bock of Prayers, and of other Orders by Au-
thority eftablifhed', an earneft feeker of innovation ; and
either in no degree of the Miniftry at all, or elfe ordered
beyond the feas; not according to the form in this Church
of England ufed. Whofe placing in that room, efpe daily
by your Majefty, would greatly animate the reft of that
Faclion, and do very much harm in fundry refpefts.

Tour Majefty hath a Chaplain of your own, Br*
Bond, a man in my opinion very fit for that office, and
willing alfo to take pains therein, if it fhall pleafe your
Highnefs to beftow it upon him. Which I refer to your
own moft gracious difpofttion : befeeching Almighty God

lorn



3 8 THE LIFE OF

long to blejs, profper, and preferve your Majejly to his
glory, and all our comforts.

Tour Majeftfs moft faithful

Servant and Chaplain,

JO. CANTUAL"
From Croyden, the of
Auguil, 1584.

Next, in a letter of the Archbifliop to the Lord
Treafurer, dated from Lambeth, Sept. 14, 1584,
he hath thefe words :

TheArchb. / befeech your Lordfhip to help fuch an one to the
Treasurer!"* Majierjhip of the 'Temple as is known to be conformable
to the laws and orders s eft ablijhed \ and a defender \
not a depraver of the prefent ftate and government.
He that now readeth there is nothing lefs, as I of mine
own knowledge and experience can teftify. Dr. Bond is
defirous of it, and I know not a fitter man.

The Lord Treafurer in a letter to the Arch-
bifliop, dated from Oatlands, (where the Queen now
was) Sept. 17, 1584, thus wrote:

The Lord THE g>ueen hath ajked me what I thought of

ttaArchb. Tr avers to be Mafter of the Temple. W hereunto I
anfwered) That at the requeft of Dr. Alvey in his fick-
nefs, and a number of honeft gentlemen of the Temple, I
had yielded my allowance of him to the place, fo as he
would Jhew himfelf conformable to the Orders of the
Church. Whereunto I was informed, that he would fo
be. But her Majejly told me, that your Grace did not
fo allow of him. Which, I faid, might be for fome
things fuppofed to be written by him (in a book) inti-
tuled) De Difiplina Ecclefiaftica. Whereupon her
Majejly commanded me to write to your Grace, to know
your opinion, which I pray your Grace to fignify unto
her, as God pall move you. Surely it were great pity \

that



Mr. RICHARD HOOKER. 39

that any impediment fhould be occafion to the contrary ;
for he is well learned, vety honejl, and well allowed, and
loved of the generality of that houfe. Mr. Bond told
me, that your Grace liked well of him -, and fo do I
alfoy as of one well learned and honeft j hut, as I told
him, if he came not to the place with fome applaufe of
the company, he /hall be weary thereof. And yet I com-
mended him unto her Majejly, if Tr avers jhould not
have it. But her Majejly thinks him not fit for that
place, becaufe of his infirmities. Thus wijhing your
Grace affijlance of God's Spirit, to govern your charge
unb lame able.

Tour Grace's to command,

WILL. BURGHLEY.

From the Court at Oatlands,
the 27th. Sept. 1584.

Part of the Archbifhop's letter in anfwer to this,
was to this tenor :

Mr. Tr avers, whom your Lordjhip names in your The Archb.
letter, is to no man better known, I think, than to my- J^mer S
felf : I did eleel him Fellow of Trinity College, being the Lord
before rejecled by Dr. Beaumont for his intolerable ft omach , reafurer *
whereof I had alfo afterwards fuch experience, that I was
forced by due punijhment fo to weary him, till he was
fain to travel, and depart from the College to Geneva^
otherwife he foouid have been expelled for want of con-
formity towards the orders of the houfe, and for his per-
tinacy. Neither was there ever any under our govern-
ment, in whom I found lefs fubmiffion and humility than
in him. Never thelefs if time and years have now altered
that difpofition, (which 1 cannot believe, feeing yet no
token thereof, but rather the contrary) I will be as ready
to do him good as any friend he hath. Otherwife I can-
not in duty but do my endeavour to keep him from that
place, where he may do fo much harm, and do little or no
good at all. For howfoever fome commend him to your

D 4 Lordfhif



40 THE LIFE OF

Lordfhip and others, yet I think that the greater and
better number of both the Temples have not fo good an
opinion of him. Sure I am, that divers grave, and of the
beft affecled of them, have fhewed their mifliking of him
to me ; not only out of refpetl of his dif order line fs in the
manner of the Communion* and contempt of the 'Prayers*
but alfo of his negligence in reading. Whoje Leclures, by
their report, are fo barren of matter, that his hearers
take no commodity thereby.

The book De Difciplina Ecclefiaftica, by common
opinion, hath been reputed of his penning, fince the jirft
publifhing of it. And by divers arguments I am moved
to make no doubt thereof. The drift of which book is
wholly againft the State and Government. IVhere-
in alfo, among other things, he condemneth the taking
and paying of Firft-fruits, Tenths* &c. And there-
fore, unlefs he will teftify his conformity by fubfcription*
as all others do, which now enter into Ecclejiaftical Liv-
ings ; and make proof unto me, that he is a Minifter
ordered according to the laws of this Church of England*
as I verily believe he is not, becaufe he forfook his place
in the College upon that account, I can by no means yield
my confent to the placing him there, or e If e where, in any
funclion of this Church.]

And here I fhall make a ftop ; and, that the
Reader may the better judge of what follows, give
him a character of the times, and temper of the
people of this nation, when Mr. Hooker had his
admiflion into this place: a place which he ac-
cepted, rather than defired ; and yet here he pro-
mifed himfelf a virtuous quietnefs : that blefled
tranquility which he always prayed and laboured for ;
that fo he might in peace bring forth the fruits of
peace, and glorify God by uninterrupted prayers
and praifes ; for this he always thirfted ; and yet this
was denied him. For his admiflion into this place
was the very beginning of thofe oppofitions and
anxieties, which till then this good man was a

ftranger



Mr. RICHARD HOOKER. 4 t

ftranger to, and of which the Reader may guefs by
what follows.

In this character of the times, I fhall, by the
Reader's favour, and for his information, look fo far
back as to the beginning of the reign of Queen Eli-
zabeth ; a time in which the many pretended titles to
the crown, the frequent treafons, the doubts of her fuc-
ceflbr, the late civil war, and the Iharp perfecution that
had raged to the effufion of fo much blood in the reign
of Queen Mary, were frefh in the memory of all men ;
and thefe begot fears in the mod pious and wifeft of
this nation, left the like days mould return again to
them or their prefent poflerity. The apprehenfion
of which dangers begot an earneft defire of a fettle-
ment in the Church and State; believing there was no
other way to make them fit quietly under their own
Vines and Fig-trees, and enjoy the defired fruit of
their labours. But time, and peace, and plenty, begot
felf-ends; andthofe begot animofities, envy, oppofition,
and unthankfulnefs for thofe blefiings for which they
lately thirfted, being then the very utmoft of their
deCues, and even beyond their hopes.

This was the temper of the times in the beginning
and progrefs of her reign; and thus it continued too
long: for thofe very people that had enjoyed the
defires of their hearts in a Reformation from the
Church of Rome, became at laft fo like the grave, as
never to be fatisfied ; but were ftill thirfting for more
and more : neglecting to pay that obedience to
government, and perform thofe vows to God, which
they made in their days of adverfities and fears : fo
that in fhort time there appeared three feveral
interefts, each of them fearlefs and reftlefs in the
profecution of their defigns; they may for diftinction
be called, The active Romanifts, the reftlefs Noncon-
forming (of which there were many forts) and, the
paffive peaceable Proteftant. The counfels of the firft
confidered and refolved on in Rome : the fecond in
Scotland, in Geneva^ and in divers felected, fecret,

dangerous



42 THE LIFE OF

dangerous conventicles, both there, and within the
bofom of our own nation : the third pleaded and
defended their caufe by eftablifhed laws, both eccle-
fiaflical and civil : and if they were active, it was to
prevent the other two from deftroying what was by
thofe known laws happily eftabliihed to them and
their pofterity.

I mall forbear to mention the very many and
dangerous plots of the Romanifts againft the Church
and State ; becaufe, what is principally intended in
this digreflion, is an account of the opinions and
activity of the Nonconforming againft whofe judg-
ment and practice Mr. Hooker became at laft, but
moil unwillingly, to be engaged in a book-war ; a
war which he maintained not as againft an enemy,
but with the fpirit of meeknefs and reafon.
Nonconform In which number of Nonconforming, though fome
Sntedr^rmglu be fincere and well-meaning men, whofe in-
difcreet zeal might be fo like charity, as thereby to
cover a multitude of errors, yet of this party there
were many that were poffeft of an high degree of
fpiritual wickednefs ; I mean with an innate reftlefs
radical pride and malice; I mean not thofe leffer
fins which are more vifible and more properly carnal,
and fins againft a man's felf, as gluttony and drunk-
ennefs, and the Hke (from which good Lord deliver
us s) but fins of an higher nature ; becaufe more un-
like to the nature of God, which is love, and mercy,
and peace ; and more like the Devil, (who is not a
glutton, nor can be drunk; and yet is a Devil:)
thofe wickednefTes of malice and revenge, and oppo-
fition, and a complacence in working and beholding
confufion (which are more properly his work, who
is the enemy and difturber of mankind ; and
greater fins, though many will not believe it) men
whom a furious zeal and prejudice had blinded, and
made incapable of hearing reafon, or adhering to the
ways of peace; men whom pride and felf-conceit had
made to overvalue their own wifdom, and become

pertinacious,



Mr. RICHARD HOOKER. 43

pertinacious, and to hold foolifh and unmannerly
difputes againft thofe men which they ought to
reverence, and thofe laws which they ought to obey;
men that laboured and joyed to /peak evil of govern-
menty and then to be the authors of confufion (of
confufion as it is confufion :) whom company, and
converfation, and cuftom had blinded, and made
infenfible that thefe were errors ; and at laft became
fo reftlefs, and fo hardened in their opinions, that
like thofe which perifhed in the gain-faying of Core,
fo thefe died without repenting thefe fpiritual wicked-
nefTes, of which Coppinger and Hacket, and their
adherents, are too fad teflimonies.

And in thefe times, which tended thus to confu-
fion, there were alfo many others that pretended to
tendernefs of confcience, refufing to fubmit to cere-
monies, or to take an oath before a lawful magif-
trate : and yet thefe very men did in their fecret
conventicles, covenant and fwear to each other, to
be afliduous and faithful in ufing their beft endea-
vours to fet up a Church-government that they had
not agreed on. To which end, there were many
felect parties that wandered up and down, and were
active in fowing difcontents and fedition, by venem-
ous and fecret murmurings, and a difperfion of fcur-
rilous pamphlets and libels againft the Church and
State i but efpecially againft the Bifhops ; by which
means, together with very bold, and as indifcreet Ser-



Online LibraryUnknownThe works of that learned and judicious divine Mr. Richard Hooker, containing eight books of the laws of ecclesiastical polity, and several other treatises : To which is prefixed the life of the author, by Isaac Walton. To this edition is subjoined a new index to the whole → online text (page 3 of 41)