U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.

Methods and results : voyages of discovery and exploration on the northwest coast of America from 1539 to 1603 : Appendix No. 7--Report for 1886 online

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St. George's Reef guarded the shore. Chetko anchorage
is but slightly protected even from the northwest swell
by the long rounding head of Cape Ferrelo, five or six
miles to the west-northwest. The shore line to the west-
ward is bound by rocks, and there are several sunken
rooks with breaks upon them in the anchorage. Weknow
from experience that it is not a comfortable anchorage;
and it may very well be accepted as tire anchoring place
of Drake in latitude 42°.

Trinidad Head, latitude 41° 03'.

Redding Eock, latitude 41° 22'.

The tender was then off Trinidad Head in latitude 41^
03', and supposing that they had observed the latitude
correctly, ho could havo found no protection anywhere
in the vicinity of Cape Mendocino in 40° 27', or of Trin-
idad Head.

In their demoralized condition they were auxious to
get shelter, and the first object they could find would be
the Redding Rock in latitude 41° 22', only five miles off
a nearly straight coast-line. It is only eigbty-three feet
high and of limited extent, but sufficient to give a lee
for sucb a small vessel ; moreover it is evident that the
storm was not very severe. This protection was his only
refuge, and his reference to Cape Mendocino was merely
to the. nearest known landfall.



even to the nineteentti of January, on the evening of
San Fahian and Sebastian, Martyrs. T^iis day the wind
came from the northwest and cleared the weather, and
observing the altitude the pilots found themselves in
forty and two degrees of latitude ; and the coast has a
Cabo Blanco, of white land, joined to some high snow
covered mountains, and it is called El Cdbo Blanco de
San Sebastian.

"The 5 day of June, wee were forced by contrary
windes to runne in with the shoare, which we then first
descried, and to cast anchor in a bad bay, the best roade
we could for the present meete with, where wee were
not without some danger by reason of the many extreme
gusts and flawes that beate vpou vs, which if they ceased
and were still at any time, immediately upon their inter-
mission their followed most nile thicke, and stinking
fogges, against which the sea preuailed nothing, till Ihe
gusts of wind againe remoued them, which brought with
them such extremity and violence when they came, that
'there was no dealing or resisting against them."

" In this place was no abiding for vs ; and to go further
north, the extremity of the cold (which had now vtterly
discouraged oar men) would not, permit -vs; and the
winds directly beat against vs, hauing once gotten vs
vnder sayle againe, commanded vs to the southward
whether we would or no."

" World Encompassed," p. 115.

"With this wind the sick sailors are reanimated to
assist those who are well, and with great labor they raise
the sails, and set them to the wind, with the desire to
come in sight of the land in search of the t^der, and for
recounoitering the line of the coast.

"The Fragata, as I have said before, found herself
without the ilag-ship ; believing she -wna going before,
went in her following, and on the lookout for her ; and
being in latitude forty and one degrees, the southeast
wind, which I mentioned, struck the flag-ship, and not
bein? able to withstand the sea on her beam, she ran
with the wind, so as to reach the shelter of the mainland ;
and very near to Cap'e Slendooino, under protection of a
large rocky islet, she remained at anchor until the wind
had passed ; and after the wind had lulled, they con-
tinued their navigation, being close to the land ;

H. Ex. 40-





Cabo Blanco, Vizcaino (Flores), 43°.

Cape Orford, or Cape Blanco, in latitude 42° 51'.

North of tliis latitude the coast does not run to the
northwest ; on the contrary it trends nearly north (mag-
netic). Yet we may suppose that in running along the
coast and making the cape with the northwest wind with
its dangerous reef before him he fell hack upon his in-
structions to return.

This cape has a water- worn face that shows whitish in
the afternoon sun, hat there is no river near it which he
would dare to enter. In May, 1886, the cliflfs around Cape
Orford were mostly covered with verdure, and only small
spaces showed whitish.

Taking his narrative as accurately descriptive, we may
assume that his Cabo Blanco was the white sand dune
line (just south of Cape Sebastian) in latitude 42° 14', and
already described. Hence the coast rnus to the west of
north to Cape Orford. After passing these bright dunes
and keeping the coast-line moderately close aboard he
would open the well marked valley of the Eogue Eiver
in latitude 42° 25'. This stream has a tolerably wide
mouth and has been entered by vessels ; but the current
is very strong and there is a short breaking bar off the
entrance; while outside of it there is a very dangerous
reef which he would certainly avoid.

The Chetko Eiver and Smith's Eiver are in the deep
bight of Pelican Bay under 42°, and he would hardly have
run in there from around the Dragon Eocks. The Chetko
mouth is closed by a gravel barrier in dry seasons.


On the 28th of February, 1543, they were out of sight
of land, and probably in latitude 41^°, allowing a cor-
rection of one and a half degrees to his reported latitude.

"Yuo tenerpuente." In Spanish, puente does not mean
exactly "deck" when applied to a ship; it means the
place where the batteries of a ship are situated.

They were probably in latitude 42° 30' abreast of Eogue
Eiver and working their way back to El Cabo de Pinos;
but they must have been seventy miles broad off the
coast, which was therefore not visible. The logs were
brought down the flooded rivers of this part of the coast ;
and they always have been a feature off the coast north
of Mendocino.

The Wednesday following, the twenty-eighth day of
the said month, at daybreak, the wind shifted directly to
the southwest, and it did not blow hard. This day they
observed the latitude in forty-three degrees.- Towards
night the wind freshened and shifted to the south-south-
west. They ran this night to the west-northwest with
much difficulty, and Thursday at daybreak the wind
shifted to the southwest with great fury, and the seas
came from many parts, which harassed them much, and
broke over the ships, which, not having the decks [as in
a man-of-war], if God should not succor them, they could
not escape, and not being able to lay to, of necessity they
Bcudded northeast towards the land ; and now, holding
themselves for lost, they commended themselves to our
Lady of Guadalupe, and made their promises [or offer-
ings], and ran thus until three o'clock in the afternoon
with much fear and labor, for they saw they were going
to be lost, and already they perceived many signs of the
laud which was near, as small birds, and logs very fresh,
which had floated from some rivers, although from the
dark and cloudy weather the land did not appear. At
this hour the Mother of God succored them with the grace
of her Son, and there came a very violent rainstorm from
the north, which made them scud all that night and the
following day until sunset to the south, with the foresails





and on the nineteenth of January, the i)ilot Antonio
- Flores, who was in the tender, found himself in latitude
forty and three degrees, where the land makes a cape, or
point, which was named Cabo Blanco, and from which
the coast begins to run to the northwest, and very close
to it, he found a Eiver of large volume, and deep, that
upon its banks it had very large Ashes, Willows, Elders,
and other trees of Castile; .and wishing to enter it, the
currents would not permit him.''

[And thereupon Ensign Alferez Martin Aguilar, com-
mander of the tender, and the pilot Antonio Flores, find-
ing they were in a latitude beyond that mentioned in the
Instructions of the Viceroy, that there was no appearance
ol the flag-ship, and that the crew were very sickly, agreed
to return to Acapulco.]

from the twenty-seventn of February, until Thursday,
the first of March, they ran the greatest danger, and still
more on the night of the same day, and when it became
daylight, they gave thanks to Our Lady, and to Her
Blessed Son, for having saved them from so dark and ter-
rible a night, because the storm is not felt so much in the
daytime: and when the weather cleared up, on the first
of March, they observed the sun, in forty and four de-
grees, with so much cold that they were freezing,




On Saturday, March 3, 1543, they were approaching
the coast south of Point Arena, hut Ferrelo goes hack in
his narrative when he was north of Cape Mendocino.
The large fresh water streams breaking through the coast
line north of that Cape, and up to 42° are : Eel Kiver in
latitude 40° 38', Humboldt Bay in latitude 40° 46', Mad
Eiver in 40° 53', Pigeon Eiver in 41°, the Klamath Eiver
iu 41° 34', Crescent City in 41° 44', Smith's Eiver in 41°
54', the Winchuk in 41° 58', the Chetko Eiver in 42° 02',
■ Pistol Eiver in 42° 15', and the Eogue Elver In 42° 24'.
All of these bring down winter freshets of discolored
water abounding in the uprooted trees from their hanks.

El Cabo de Pinos, in latitude 38° 30'.

The mountain mass overhanging Fort Eoas, and al-
ready described (pp. 233, 224, 228). I should judge the
vessel to have been twenty five miles oif the land and
even somewhat to the southward of the cape. From the
highest point attained, in latitude 42|°, to this position
abreast Cabo de Pinos the vesseLran two hundred and
seventy-five miles between the morning of March 1
and the evening of March 3, giving about five miles per
hour. If they continued on their east-southeast course
they should have seen Point Eeyesand the Farallones off
the Golden Gate.


furled ; and because there was a high sea from the south.
It broke ove* them each time at the how, and swept over
them as if over a rook, and the wind shifted to the north-
west and the north-northwest with great fury, so that it
made them run until Saturday, the third of March to
the southeast, and to the east-southeast, with such a
high sea t7at it made them cry out without reserve that
if God and His blessed Mother did not miraculously save
them they could not escape. Saturday at noon the wind
moderated and remained at the northwest, for which they
gave many thanks to our Lord. They suffered also iu
provisions, as they had only biscuit, and that damaged.
It appeared to them thsjt there was a very large river,
of which they had much indication, between forty and
one degrees and forty and three, for they saw many signs
of it.

This day, in the evening, they recognized the Cabo de
Pinos, and on account of the high sea which prevailed
they could do no less than run along the coast on the re-
turn course in search of a shelter. They experienced
much cold.

La Tsla de Juan Eodriguez, Ferrelo.

San Miguel Island and Cuyler's Harbor. (See pp. 206,

It broke on the reef which is in the middle of the har-
bor, and he was unacquainted with the dangers of Wil-
son's Eeef off the approaches and with the best place to
anchor under the western shore of the harbor. (See de-
scription under Isla de San Sebastian).

Puerto de la Isla de San Salvador, Ferrelo.
Smugglers' Cove.
Santa Cruz Island. (Seep. 204.)

Ferrelo's port is the Smugglers' Cove on the short south-
east side of Santa Cruz Island.

Isla de San Sebastian, Ferrelo's consort.

Santa Eosa Island. (See p. 206.)

This is the first time the Cahrillo narrative has men-
tioned the Island of San Sebastian. It specifiesthe south-
southeast side of the island where he sought shelter. As
the Fragata was off Cuyler's Harbor in the evening
(about twelve hours after the Capitana had passed it)
with a heavy blow from the northwest, he very naturally
was afraid to approach the old anchorage because he evi-
dently passed through the breakers and dangers of Wilson's
Eeef, over one mile in extent, that lie three miles off the

Monday, on the fifth day of the said month of March,
1543, at dawn, they found themselves off the Island of
Juan Eodriguez, and they did not dare to enter the port
on account of the' great storm which prevailed, which
broke the sea at the entrance of the harbor in fifteen
fathoms; the wind was north-northwest; the entrance

is narrow ; they ran under the protection of the Isla de
San Salvador on the southeast side ;



and Saturday, on the third, they again turned round to
examine el Cabo de Pinos, but owing to the strong wind
they were forced to go

to la Isla de la Posesion, where they arrived on the flftii,
and on account of the heavy breakers at the mouth of
the harbor

they sought protection under the Isla do San Sebastian,
under the side presented to the south-southeast,




northwest point of the island of San Miguel ; and
probably continued through the San Miguel Passage
seeking a lee under the shores of Santa Eosa Island ; and
found protection and anchorage between South Point and
East Point under the shore facing to the south-southeast.
The summit of Santa Rosa Island is in latitude 33° 57',
and rises to 1,500 feet elevation.

He must have remained here fourteen days while the
other vessel was three days in Smugglers' Cove under
Santa Cruz, and then searched for her consort at the
Puerto de las Canoas, again at Smugglers' Cove, at San
Diego, Port Quentin, and finally at the Island of Cerros.

There are four open anchorages on the south side of
Santa Cruz Island and Smugglers' Cove at the short
southeast side. To reach this anchorage he must have
sailed along the north shore of San Miguel Island, Sauta
Rosa Island, and Santa Cruz Island, and rounded the,
easternmost point of the latter to find shelter, from the
northwest wind, at Smugglers' Cove.

He previously says he observed the sun in forty-four
degrees, i, e., in 42i° latitude, after applying the proba-
ble correctiou .

San Buenaventura (El Pueblo de las Canoas) is only
nineteen miles north-northeast from Smugglers' Cove.
(See p. 204.)


Puerto de San Miguel.

San Diego Bay. (See pp. 192, 194.)

■La Bahia de San Mateo.

Todos Santos Bay. (See p. 190.)

EI Puerto de la Posesion.

Port San Quentin, Lower California.

(See p. 184.)

La Isla de Cedros.

Cerros Island. (See p. 174.)

This ship, the Fragata, did not enter the port on Juan
Rodriguez Island (Cuyler Harbor on San Miguel), but
sought shelter under the south-southeast side of the Island
of San Sebastian (Santa Rosa Island). (See p. 236 for

and the night before coming with a violent tempest, with
only two small foresails, the other ship disappeared, so
that they suspected that the sea had swallowed it up,
and they could not discover it any more, even after day-
break ;

they believe they must have been in forty-four degrees
when the last storm overtook them and compelled them
to run to leeward.

Thursday, the eighth of the said month, they departed
from the island of San Salvador, to stand in for the main-
land in search of the other ship, and they proceeded to
Pueblo de las Canoas and did not obtain news of the
other ship; and here they took four Indians.

The Friday following, on the ninth of the said month,
they departed from Pueblo de las Canoas and proceeded
to the island of San Salvador and found no signs of their

Sunday, the eleventh of the said month, they came
near the Puerto de San Miguel, neither did they find hero
their consort nor any news of her ; here they waited six
days ; here they took two boys to carry to New Spain for
interpreters, and left certain signals in case the other
ship should approach.

Saturday, the seventeenth of the said month, they de-
parted from the said Puerto de San Miguel ; the follow-
ing Sunday they arrived off the Bahia de San Mateo and
found no signs of the other ship.

Sunday, the eighteenth of the said month, in the even-
ing, they departed from this bay of San Mateo, and the
Wednesday following, on the twenty-first of the said
month, they arrived at Puerto de la Posesion, and still
obtainedno news of their consort ; they waited two days
without entering the harbor, for they did not dare to
enter it on account of the heavy northwest wind which
blew, and, as they parted their cable, of necessity they
got under way.

Friday, on the twenty-third of the said month, they
departed from Puerto do la Posesion, and the following
Saturday at midnight they arrived oflf Isla de Cedros,
and being there the following Monday, the twenty-sixth
of the said month, arrived the other ship off Isla do Ce-
dros, at which they rejoiced much and gave many thanks
to God ;

this ship passed by La Isla de Juan Rodriguez, at night,
passing through some breakers so that they thought they
must be lost, and the mariners promised to go in proces-
sion naked to her church and our Lady delivered them.



and that night [of the great stormj the flag-ship disap-
peared ; and in five days they ran two hundred leagues,
with reefed foresail, and there was nothing more to eat,
but rotten biscuit, and they dealt out one pound per

Thursday, on the eighth of the said month, they de-
parted from El Puerto de San Sebastian, iu search of the
other vessel, and the whole crew ma,de their demands
that they should return to New Spain, as we had noth-
ing that we could eat ; and because this was in reason,
they ordered the return, searching for their consort.

and they found her by chance at the Isla de Cedros, on
the twenty-sixth of said month :




mention of tlie dangers oflf the northwest sbore of San
Miguel Island. )

The ships arriveat El Puerto de Navidad, in New Spain,
April 14, 1543.

"de letra del tiempo," ». e., in an old manuscript of tbat


On Monday, the second day of the month of April, they
departed from the Isla de Cedros on their return to New
Spain, because they did not have a supply of provisions
to renew their attempt to discover the coast. They
arrived in El Puerto de Nividad Saturday, the fourteenth
day the said month of April [1543].

Came as Captain of the ships, Bartolomfe Fei-relo, Chief
Pilot of the said ships, in default of Juan Rodriguez
Cabrillo, who died in Isla do la Posesion. The men came
in the said ships.

(') So in the originalj without doubt by equivocation.

(*) He speaks of the port where they anchored in.
twenty-eight degrees.

(') An equal blank in the original.

Found without the name of the author, in the general
archives of the Indias of Seville, in the writing of the
time, among the papers brought from Simancas. File
nine of Descriptions and Populations.

Examined and approved.


There is another copy of this narrative in the collection
of Munoz, Vol. XXXVI, in wbioh he inserts after his cer-
tificate of approval: "At the head and on the cover of
this narrative occurs three times, De Juan Paez."

The differences which aro noticed between the present
narrative and that one are : ('') 3° and f ; (°) Nor nordeste
sudueste; (^) The last two names are united thus, Qnan-
mngua; (') Anaooao; (s) Caacao; (") Xuca; ('") Caco.



and Saturday, on the fourteenth of April, they arrived at
the Puerto de Navidad, of the return voyage, sadness,
because to have died in it their Oaptain Juan Rodriguez
Cabrillo, of infirmity, a good man, and very well versed
in navigation ; and for that of this coast these sailors said
that large ships of two hundred tons are necessary, very
fast, and well provided with sails, rigging, and cables,
and that the sails he from Castile, because those from
this country, split every moment, and that they should
take a large supply of provisiofls : and that no Indians
should go, because in the voyage they are of no use, and
eat the provisions ; and finally these vessels went as far
as the forty-four degrees.



IJie landfalls of Cabrillo (C) and Ferrelo [F.), with their names by TJlloa ( U.),


1542, 1543.

Name of place by Cabrillo and

Latitude by Cabrillo
and Ferrelo.

Names by Ulloa, Drake, or Vizcaino,

( June27,1542..
\ Apr. 14, 1543..
June 29, 1542...

July 2, 1542.

El Puerto de Navidad. .
El Cabo de Corrientes ,

July 6, 1542..
July 8, 1542 .

La Punta de California

El Puerto del Marques del Valle.

El Puerto de la Cruz

El Puerto de San Lucas









Julys, 1542....
Julys, 1542....
July 13, 1542 ...

July— ,1542 ...

July 19, 1542.
July— ,1542.

July 25, 1542..
July— .1542..
July— ,1542..
July— ,1542

July 27, 1542..,

El Puerto de la Trinidad.

La Punta de la Trinidad.

El Puerto de San Pedro..
La Bahia de San Martin . .
Una Gran Ensenada .

C, F...
201°, C.

El Puerto de la Navidad, V.
El Cabo de Corrientes, V. ..

24° "and more," C.




25°, F.

25°, C, F L.


25i°, F.

26°, P. .

El Puerto de la Magdalena. .
La Punta de Santa Catalina.

July 31, 1542.
Aug. 1,1542.
Aug. 2, 1542..

Aug. 2, 1542.

I Aug. 5, 1542... )
[ Mar. 26,1543.. 5

Aug. 11, 1542.
Aug. 15, 1542.
Aug. 19, 1542.

27 Aug. 20, 1542.

El Puerto de Santiago

Habre Ojo ,

Punta y Puerto de Santa Ana . .
Una Isleta obra de una legua de

El Puerto Fondo


El Puerto de San Pedro Vincula.
La Isla de San Esteban

Una Ensenada Grande .

27°, C, P.

27*0, p.
274°, F.
28°, F..
28°, F..


La B'abla de Santa Cruz, U...
La Bahia de San Bernab^, V.

La Bahia de San Abad, U.; La Bahia
de Santa Marina, Y.

El Puerto de la Magdalena, "V.
La Bahia de Santa Matta, Y . .

La Bahia de las.Balleuas, Y
Abreojos, V.'s chart

La Isla de San Eoque, U., Y .


28 J°, "and more," F

La Isla de Zedros.

2g I (Aug. 21, 1542..
i< Mar. 21, 1543..

El Puerto de Santa Clara .
La Punta del Mai Abrijo .
La Isla de San Bernardo . .

El Cabo del EngaHo

La Punta del EngaBo

El Puerto de la Posesion .

29°, F.

30°, "scant, "P.

304°, F




El Puerto de San Bartolomfe, Y

La Isla de Natividad do Nuestra
SeSora,, Y.

La Isla do los Cedros, U. ; Lalsla
de CerrosjY.

La Bahia de San Hipolito, Y

34°, F,

La Isla de San Geiiinymo, V.
El Cabo del EngaBo, 30°, U .

La Bahia deJas Yirgines.V.

BraJce {D.), and Vizcaino {V.), and the ^present names and latitudes.


Present name of the place.


Correction to C.,F.,




Cape Corrientes

Cape Pulmo

Anchorage under Cape Pulmo.

San Lucas Bay

Santa Marina Bay

Cape Tosco

Santa Margarita Island.

Magdalena Bay

Santa Maria Bay

Pequefia Bay and Point .

o '

19 13

20 25

23 23

23 23

22 52

24 20

24 17
24 17
24 32
24 44

— 05',

-37' "and more," C
-37' "and more "C

San Domingo Point and Anchor-

Ballenas Bay

Abreojos Rocks -

Asuncion Point and Anchorage.
Island of Sin Roque

Table-Head Cove, or San Pablo

Bay of San Cristoval

Port SaaBartolomfe

Natividad Island

Sebastian Vizcaino Bay .

26 14
26 19

26 45

26 46

27 07
27 09

27 11

-40', F

-43', C, F

-46' C, F.

Cerros Island -

La Playa Maria Bay.

Point Canoas

San Gerdnimo Island.

Point Baja


Port San Quentin.

27 39
27 53

27 45

28 35

28 02

28 55

29 25
29 48
29 56

29 56

30 24

— 45'F.

— 44'F.

— 53'F.

— 51'F.

It is more than probable that Cabrillo
assumed the latitude as given by previous

Cabrillo did not observe the latitude.
' " They say it is in latitude 23°," F.

The SE. point of Santa Margarita Island.
The island is 22 miles long

There is no gulf; but the lowland north of
Cape Lazaro slightly recedes, and would

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Online LibraryU.S. Coast and Geodetic SurveyMethods and results : voyages of discovery and exploration on the northwest coast of America from 1539 to 1603 : Appendix No. 7--Report for 1886 → online text (page 10 of 12)