U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.

Methods and results : voyages of discovery and exploration on the northwest coast of America from 1539 to 1603 : Appendix No. 7--Report for 1886 online

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Online LibraryU.S. Coast and Geodetic SurveyMethods and results : voyages of discovery and exploration on the northwest coast of America from 1539 to 1603 : Appendix No. 7--Report for 1886 → online text (page 6 of 12)
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of sand, where they dug deep trenches, iii which, during
the flood the water was fresh and good ; but on the ebb
salt. * * * Most of the Indians painted of besmeared
with blaols and white ; and their heads were' loaded with
feathers. * » * They signified by signs that a certain
people up the country had beards and were clothed like'
the Spaniards (p. 88) ; and by their dress, complexions,
and customs seemed to be of the same country with the
visitors. * ' '

' ' In this harbor there is a great variety of fish, as oysters,
mussels, lobsters, soles, &c., and the cuunfery abounded
in game. » » * They were highly delighted with
the mildness of the climate, and the goodness of the
soil. * * *

"Everything being completed, * * » they left this
place on the twentieth of November (p. 89).

" They had no sooner left San Diego, than the northwest
xrind ooramenoed to blow (p. 89). Little by little, how-
ever, the ships advanced, and came in sight of a great
gulf, where the neighboring country presented a -very
pleasant appearance. And as they proceeded they saw
also the smoke of large fires which the Indians hadkin-
dled, to induce the ships to put in there. But on ap-
proaching the coast, found no shelter from the northwest
wind ; they therefore continued their course, and a few
leagues further discovered (p. 90) a great island about
twelve leagues from the mainland, and for the day of its
discovery, they called it the Isla de Santa Cathalina. On
the 28th of November the ships came close in with it,
and from thence had sight of a much larger one lying
to the southwest of Santa Cathalina. They, however,
thought proper not to survey it till their return (p. 90).
[Then follows a long description of the inhabitants, &c.]

(P. 94) " This island, like most of those adjacent, is very
populous. * * * Thisislandhasseveralgood harbors,
abundance of fine fish, especially large and good sar-




after the flag-ship, thoCapitaua, and the latter after the
tender, the Almiranta.

These two islands are lafge, very high, and visible far
out at sea. I have seen the former from the ridge of
Point Loma.

Santa Cataliua Island is eighteen miles long, with an
extreme breadth of seven miles, and an average breadth
of four miles. Its general direction is W. by N. f N.,
magnetic. It rises to 2,110 feet above the sea, and is visi-
ble at a distance of fifty-three miles. It is very rugged,
covered largely with dense chaparral, and is nearly di-
vided into two islands towards the western end.

San Clemente Island is also eighteen miles long, and
not over three and ahalf miles broad ; it rises to 1,964 feet
elevation, and is visible at a distance of fifty miles. It
lies nearly parallel with Cataliua, and directly south ; its
north point is only nineteen miles from the nearest part
of Catalina.

Neither island has been inhabited by Indians since the
country has been .settled by Americans, and the signs of
former populations are much less than on Santa Rosa and
Sau Miguel. For further descriptions see Davidson's
Coast Pilot.

Ferrelo evidently anchored off the north side of Santa
Catalina Island.

Vizcaino does not mention San Clemente by name, but
describes it as a larger island lying to the southwest, and
to be surveyed on the return of the expedition from the
north. He has not placed it on his chart.

On his plan of Catalina Island he clearly indicates the
locality of the great depression ; and a small circle de-
notes the position of the so-called Temple to the Sun, &c.

La Bahia de los Fumos, 35°, Ferrelo.

La Bahia de las Fuegos, Ferrelo.

La Bahia Onai a corruption of La Ballona, a rancho
bordering this bay.

Santa Monica Bay, namedfrom the Sierra Santa Monica.
Latitude of Point Dume on the northern shore of the bay
34° 00' ; correction to Ferrelo,— 1° 00'.

I feel sure that he made the land of this bay near Point
Dume, where there is shelter, and where there were large
rancherias of the Indians to a very late date.

Vizcaino does not mention this bay, but it is plainly
indicated on his chart, as well as the cape formed by San
Pedro Hill, 1,475 feet elevation.

Ferrelo does not mention San Pedro Bay, but Vizcaino
calls it an Eusenada, embracing Santa Catalina Island;
and his chart gives it great breadth, and notes the rooky
islet called Deadman's Island. This islet is the El Morro
of the later Spanish charts.

This part of the coast is sharply backed on the north
by the almost inaccessible mountains of the Sieri-a Santa
Monica. To this day they may be said to have no trails
through them.


running away, and from the boats they made signs that
they should have no fear, and immediately they assumed
confidence and laid on the ground their bows and arrows,
and they launched a good canoB in the water, which held
eight or ten Indians, and 'they came to the ships. They
gave them beads and little presents, with which they
were delighted, and they presently went away. The
Spaniards afterwards went ashore and were very secure,
they and the Indian women and all. Here an old Indian
made signs to them that on the mainland men were jour-
neying, clothed and with beards like the Spaniards.
They were in this island only until noon.

The following Sunday, on the eighth of the said mouth,
they caine near the mainland in a great bay which they
named la Bahia delos Fumos ; on account of the numer-
ous smokes wh ich they saw around it. Here they h eld in-
tercourse with some Indians, whom they took in a canoe,
who made signs that towards the north were Spaniards
like them. This bay is in thirty-five degrees, and is a
good harbor, and the country is good, with many valleys
and plains, and trees.

Laguna Mugu, latitude 34<: 05'.

This is a moderately large estero under the northwest-
erly coast termination of the Sierra Santa Monica, where
it crowds over the broad low plains of the Santa Clara
Valley. There is a good anchorage off the mouth of the

estero. See 'Davidson'sCoastPilotof California, Oregon,
aud Washington.'

The following Monday, on the ninth day of the said
month of October, they departed from la Bahia de los
luegos, and proceeded this day about six leagues, and
anchored at a large inlet.



(llneei. » * » xiie sea wolves serve the ludiaus botli
for food and clothing. * » » After taking a survey of
several parts of this Island, the squadron left it on the
third of Dtoember, 1602.




It is fifteen miles west of Point Duuio, From Mugu to
San Buenaventura the coast-line^ is, nineteen miles, and
the last eight miles runs northwest. This is the only
coast-line in this section with this direction -and with
such a well-marked valley.

Los Pueblos de las Cauoas, 3,")^°, Cabrillo.

El Pueblo de las Cfanoas, 35i°, Ferrelo. ("Which is
called Xucu.") Ferrelo, page 84.

San Buenaventura, in latitude 34° 17' ; correction to
Ferrelo,— 1° 03'.

San Buenaventura lies under the seaward face of the
mountains, at the extreme western edge of the broad,
low, flat valley of Santa Clara. The Santa Clara River
empties into the ocean four or five miles eastwardly of
San Buenaventura, while ou the immediate west empties
the San Buenaventura River, after coming through a
smaller and narrow valley among the mountains. The
wood, fresh water, open bay, i^laius ou one side and river
on the other would make this a favorable location for a
large village. Ferrolo's description is very satisfaototy,
aud it will not suit any other locality in this immediate

Vizcaino sailed past this part of the coast with favor-
able winds, and did not anchor anywhere in the archi-
pelago, except at Santa Catalina ; but he notes the pro-
jecting shore-line at Point Hueuome, and to the west of
it lays down on his chart a large "fresh-water river,"
which may be either the Santa Clara or the San^Buena-
ventura, more likely the former. He held short commu-
nication with the chief of the Indians.

The founding of the Mission of San Buenaventura
w uld indicate that large numbers of Indians were in
the vicinity, and that the place had superior inducements
for sustaining the establishment aud recruiting prose-
lytes. •

The name Taq^uimine seems to be the original of the
present Hueneme, and is locally referred to the name of
a celebrated chief.

Mugu (Point Mugu) is quite likely the original name of
one of their villages, although it may be from the Span-
ish muga, which really designates the character of the

We may here premise that hence to Point Coucepcion
Ferrelo gives the dislance at thirty leagues, whereas it
is only between twenty and twenty-one leagues, and we
may reasonably be. guided in the adoption of this scale
through tho Santa Barbara Channel, becausehehad pleas-
ant weather and light variable winds throughout.

But pending that examination along the main shore I
refer to the other two islands not seen by Cabrillo and

La Isla de Santa Barbara, Vizcaino's chart.

SantaTBarbara Island.

lie has not mentioned it individually in his narrative.
It is laid down as a small island in a relatively correct
position. His name is retained., This island is in lati-
tude 33° 30', and rises 547 feet above the sea ; it can be
seen a distance of twenty-seven miles.

La Isla de San Nicolas, Vizcaino.

San Nicolas Island.

The southeast point is in latitude 33° 16'. It is not


and they passed on thence the following day, Tuesday,
and proceeded about eight leagues on a coast northwest
and southeast, and they saw on the land a village of In-
dians near the sea, and the houses large, in the manner
of those of New Spain ; and they anchored in front of a
very large valley on the coast. Here came to the ships
many very good canoes, which held in each one twelve
or thirteen Indians, and they gave them information oi
Christians who were journeying in the interior. The
coast is from northwest to southeast. Here they gave
them some presents, with which they were very much

They made signs that in seven days they could go where
the Spaniards were travelling, and Juan Rodriguez was
determined to send two Spaniards to the interior. They
also made signs that there was a great river. With these
Indians they sent a letter at a venture to the Christians.
They gave the name to this village of el Pueblo de las
Canoas. They go covered with some skins of animals ;
they are fishermen, and eat the fish raw ; they also eat
agaves. This village is in thirty-five and one-third de-
grees. The country within is a very beautiful valley,
and they made signs that there was in that valley much
maize and much food. There appear within this valley
some mountains very high, and the land is very rugged.
They call Christians Taquimine. Here they took posses-
sion : here they remained until Friday, the thirteenth of
the said month.



Tuesday, on the tenth of Ootoher, they discovered some
villages of peaceable Indians, with whom they traded,
which they named los Pueblos de las Canoas, because
they had a great many canoes, and they are in thirty and
five degrees and a third;




mentioned in Ms narrative, but is on his chart, where it
is placed close alongside and to the westward of Santa
Barbara Islaild, and even smaller. He has either com-
mitted the error that Tebenkoff has done in his atlas
(1848) of laying down Santa Barbara as two islets, or he
saw only the highest point of San Nicolas Island, which
is 890 feet above the sea and visible at a distance of thirty-
four miles. Supposing that he sailed from the north har-
bor of Santa Catalina Island to the throat of the Santa
Barbara Channel (reckoned as lying between Anacapa
Island and Point Hueneme), he passed not nearer than
fifteen miles to Santa Barbara Island and forty-two miles
to San Nicolas Island. The former is visible in clear
weather with a sharp lookout ; the latter is not visible
unless by extraordinary refraction.

As Vizcaino gives a graphic description of his passage
through the Santa Barbara Channel, we interrupt Fer-
relo's narrative to condense it.

Th§ Islands of the Santa Barbara Channel.

To the broad passage between the mainland from Point
Hueneme to Point Concepcion and the islands from Ana-
papa to San Miguel, Vizcaino (p. 95) gives the name El
Canal de Santa Barbara. He is the first to call attention
to the parallelism of these islands with the continental

This channel is sixty-five miles long nearly east and
west, and ranges from eleven to twenty-six miles in
breadth. His statement that there are six islands in
this channel must include the islands which he named
San Nicolas and Santa Barbara, and which are laid down
by hini half way between Santa Catalina Island and
Anacapa. His chart gives a very fair representation ^of
the archipelago and its relation to the mainland. This
archipelago is now known as the Santa Barbara Islands, ■
and embraces all of them from San Miguel to San Nico-
las and San Clemente.


Cabrillo's vessels left Buenaventura and reached the
"Eincon," latitude 34° 22', four leagues west of San
Buenaventura. This coast is bordered by high and steep
mountains, the water is alkali, and it was doubtless but
sparsely inhabited.

Friday, the thirteenth of the said month of October,
they departed from the Pueblo de las Canoas on their
voyage, and proceeded this day six or seven leagues, and
passed two large islands which extend four leagues each
one, and are four leagues from the continent. They are
uniuhabitecl, because there is no water on them ; and they
have good ports.



(Pp. 94,95.) Beyond Santa Catalina there is a irgn-
]ar row of islands from four to six leagues distant from
eacli other. Some are large and others small, hut all arc
populous, and the inhabitants trade with each other and
with those of the continent. These islands take up from
the first one to the last oue, nearly a distance of one
hundred leagues ; and they follow each in the same di-
rection as the mainland; and their number, largeness,
and proximity often occasion the Philipine ships in their
return to New Spain, to mistake them for the Continent ;
and thus to keep at a distance from them. They are, how-
ever, very populous, and have a safe passage betwixt
them and the mainland, in some parts twelve, in others
ten, and the narrowest eight leagues broad, called el
Canal de Santa Barbara, and which lies Eagt and West.
The ships being arrived near the continent, at the mouth
of this Canal, a boat came off with four paddles, bringing
an Indian, who was the King of the Coast on the mainland.
* ' ' Within an hour after the Indian was gone, a south-
east wind sprang up, and was the only gale from that
quarter they had felt during their voyage. And it being
directly fair, the General thought proper to defer his visit
to the Indian King till his return. " ' * Accordingly
they set all their sails, and as the gale lasted from seven
in the evening of the 3rd of December till eight o'clock
the day following (p. 98), the ships had nearly reached
the last cluster of islands in the Canal, which are six in
number, and distant two leagues from each other. The
Canal is about twenty-four leagues in length, and the
coast of the continent very pleasantly interspersed with
woods, and has a great number of Indian Villages. In
the night following the day of Santa Barbara the wind
shifted to the northwest, which caused great consterna-
tion, it being dark, and the ships among islands and in
the channel where the sea ran very high. This gale
lasted all night and the following two days ; on the third
it abated; but they had lost sight of their consort among
the islands. on the day of San Nicolas. With fair weather
the ships sailed out of this archipelago. * * *

H. Ex. 40 -26




La Isla cle geute Barbada, Vizcaino's chart.
•Aiiacapa Island, latitude 34° 01'.

This island is distinctly visible from San Buenaventura,
and is distant seventeen miles, although not nearly so
' large as mentioned by Ferrelo. It is four and a half miles
long but very narrow, and presents its broad side to the
northern shore west of San Buenaventura. In approach-
ing it from the east, from under Point Dume, it is seen
projected on the Island of Santa Cruz, and cannot be dis-
tinguished from it if the atmosphere is very clear. In
this case the whole mass of the two islands, and even a
part of Santa Eosa to the south, will show as one very
large island, and when seen from San Buenaventura it
might be supposed that only the end was visible towards
the observer, and thus a stranger would be misled in hia
estimate of the size, &c.

The island is merely a great ridge of coarse sandstone
rock reaching 9£0 feet elevation, barren, desolate, without
water and without a harbor. When Vizcaino was ap-
proaching it he must have supposed it was a great island,
and ho even lays it down on his chart with its greater
length to the southwest.

The second island seen by Cabrillo "is La Isla de San
Ambrosio of Vizcaino's chart, with a rocky islet laid
down oif its eastern point. This- is the Island of Santa
Cruz, of which the eastern point is in latitude 34° 02'.

Ferrelo has evidently confused the characteristics of
the two islands, because he visited neither, saw them
under changing aspects, and got his Information frpin the
Indians by signs. ....

The name Anacapa is a corruption of Vancouver's In-
dian name of the island. In his text he names it Euneea-
pah, but the engraver has spelled it Eneoapah on the
chart, and subseque.ut compilers have endeavored to give
it a Spanish form. The Indian deep guttural pronnncia-
iion is En-ui-ah-pagh'.


The yessels left the Eincon where the low lands of the
Carpiuteria begin and stretch westwardly for ten miles
to Santa Barbara Point. He anchored oflf the Carpiute-
ria, latitude 34° 524', about a mile west of Sand Point.
Ferrclo's description is satisfactory.

From the Carpiuteria the vessels continued- past Santa
Barbara (at-six and a half miles from bis starting point)
with its protecting hill, La Vigia, and the rocky cliffs of
the mesa for five miles to the westward of the anchor-
age ; past the low shore and treeless mesa cut by the
lagoons behind. Point Goleta ; and anchored about four
or five miles west of the latter place, probably inside the
great field of kelp skirting the coast ; latitude 34° 25'.

The coast of the mainland runs west-northwest; the
country is level, with many cabins and trees ; and the fol-
lowing Saturday they continued on their course, and pro-
ceeded two leagues, no more, and they anchored opposite
a valley very beautiful and very populous, the land being
level with many trees. Here came canoes with fish to
barter ; they remained great friends.

And the Sunday following, the fifteenth day of the said
month, they held on their voyage along the coast about
ten leagues, and there were always many canoes, for all
this coast is very populous, and many Indians were con-
tinually coming aboard the ships, and they pointed out
to us the villages and named them by their names, which
are Xuon, Bis, Sopono, Alloc, Xabaagua, Xotococ, Potol-
tuc, Nacbuc, Quelqueme, Misinagua, C°) Misesopano, El-
quis, Coloc, Mugu, Xagua, Anaobuo, Partooao, Susuquey,
■Quanmu, Gua, Asimu, Again, Casalio, Tucumu, Incpnpu.
All these villages extend from the first, Pueblo de las
Canoas, which is called Xuou, as far as this place ; they
are in a very good country, with very good plains and
many trees and cabins ; they go clothed with skins; they
said that inland there were many towns, and much maizo
at three days' distance ; they call the maize Oep ; and
also that there were many cows. They call the cows Cae ;
they also gave us uocice of some people with beards, and






La Isla tie San Lucas, Ferrelo.

Las Islas de San Lucas, Ferrelo. (See pp. 205, 226, 228.)

They supposed tbat Santa Cfnz Island and Santa Eosa
Itiland were one, liecause ihej saw them overlapped.
They afterwards discovered them to he two islands, refer-
ring in January, lC;4o, to Santa Cruz Island as "the other
islands of San Lucas," which the Indians called Limu or
Limun, and to which the discoverers gave the name of San
Salvador, forgetting that Santa Catalina had already re-
ceived that name irom them. It is the present Santa
Cruz Island. The highest peak is Mt. Diahlo (Devil's
Peak), which is 2,410 feet ahove the sea, and is visible at a
distance of fifty-five miles. The six villages which Fer-
relo here names have not a single correspondent in the
names of the thirteen villages which he subsequently
learned to be on the three western islands.

On the 16th of October they sailed from the anchorage
(four or five miles west of Goleta Point or eleven miles west
of Santa Barbara Light-house) to an anchorage twenty or
twenty-one miles west of the same light-house, and very
likely abreast the opening of the Canada del Eefngio, in
latitude 34° S7'. On the 17th they got as far as abreast
the GaviotaPass, latitude 34° 28', where Ferrelo mentions
getting large quantities of fresh sardines. If anchored
just inside the kelp-field they would be in a fairly good

During these two days and the next Ferrelo does not
mention seeing the Santa Barbara Islands; they may
have been obscured by fog, for in a few days they dis-
cover San Miguel and Santa Rosa Islands. Gaviota an-
chorage is twelve miles east of Point Concepcion.

Vizcaino sailed through the Santa Barbara Channel
without stopping, but on the main shore, two-thirds of
the distance from San Buenaventura to Point Concepcion,
ho has made a drawing on his chart to represent "a large
Indian town, adding "all this coast is wooded and free
from shoals."

El Cabo de la Galera, 36i°, Cabrillo.

El Cabo de Galera, 36° " and more," Ferrelo.

La Punta de la Concepcion.

Point Concepcion, or Conception, in latitude 34° 27';
correction to Ferrelo, — 1° 33' "and more;" to Cabrillo,
— 2° 03'.

Cabrillo's description of the cape is good. It cannot
be mistaken for Point Arguello, eleven miles to the north-
westward. For a detailed description of this cape, and
of Point Arguello, see Davidson's Coast Pilot.

Very curiously Vizcaino does not mention this remark-
able headland, although he has it on his chart, but not

La Isla de San Lucas, Ferrelo. (See pp. 206, 226, 228. )

Las Islas de San Lucas, Ferrelo.

They had already seen the Island of Santa Rosa, as
part of the Island of Santa Cruz when they overlapped
and were named San Lucas. Now they discover San
Miguel separated from the Island of Santa Rosa, which
was supposed to be the western part of San Lucas.

Santa Cruz is twenty miles long, Santa Rosa fifteen
miles, and thetwo, with the intervening passages, thirty-
seven miles, or twelve leagues, which Cabrillo reckoned


clothed. They passed this day parallel with the shore of
a large island which is fifteen leagues in length, and they
said that it was very populous, and that it contained th6
following villages: Niquipos,Maxnl,Xugua,Nitel,Ma-
camo, Nimitopai. They named the island San Lnoas ; i";
is from this place to Pueblos de las Canoaa eighteen
leagues; the island is from the continent six leagues.

Monday, the sixteenth of the said month, sailing along
the coast they proceeded four leagues, and anchored in
the evening opposite two villages; and also this day
canoes were continually coming to the ships, and they
made signs that further on there were canoes much larger.

The Tuesday following, the seventeenth day of the said
month, they proceeded three leagues with fair weather,
and there were with the ship from daybreak many canoes,'
and the Captain continually gave them many presents;
and all this coast where they have passed is very popu-
lous; they brought with them a large quantity of fresh
sardines very good; they say that inland there are many
villages and ;nuoh food; these people did not eat any
maize; they went clothed with skins, and wear their

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Online LibraryU.S. Coast and Geodetic SurveyMethods and results : voyages of discovery and exploration on the northwest coast of America from 1539 to 1603 : Appendix No. 7--Report for 1886 → online text (page 6 of 12)