U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.

Methods and results : voyages of discovery and exploration on the northwest coast of America from 1539 to 1603 : Appendix No. 7--Report for 1886 online

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hair very long and tied up with cords very long and
placed within J;he hair, and these strings have attached
many small daggers of flint and wood and bone. The
land is very excellent in appearance.

Wednesday, the eighteenth of the said month, they
went running along the coast until ten o'clock, and saw
all the coast populous, and because a fresh breeze sprung
up the canoes did not come.

They came to a point which forms a cape like a galley,
and they named it Cabo de Galera, and it is in a little
over thirty and ^x degrees,

and bechuse there vvas a fresh northwest wind they
stood off from the shore and discovered two islands, the
one large, which has eight leagues of coast running east
and west; the other has four leagues, and in this small
one there is a good port, and they are peopled ; they are
ten leagues from the continent ; they are called las Islas
de San Lucas. From the mainland towards Cabo de Ga-
lera the shore trends west by north, and from Pueblo de
las Canoas to Cabo de Galera there is a very populous
province, and they call it Xoxu ; it has many languages



and having sailed little in several days, on account of the
too fine weather, the Wednesday, of the eighteenth of
the said month, they arrived at a long point, which forms
a cape, and on account of its length like a galley, they
named it el Cabo de la Galera:"thi3 is in thirty and six
degrees and a half.

and because the wind wasnorthwtst fresh they were car-
ried to leeward by the sea and Ihey discovered two
islands, the one of eight leagnes of coast East West, and
the other of four; in this they discovered a port small,
very good ; they found them very populous ; and these
people, and all those of the coast passed bj', lived by
fishing, and mahe beads from 1 he Lonesof fishcp, to trade
with the other people of the mainland, and tbey are ten
leagues from the Cabo de Galera : running west quarter
to the northwest. iDuring the tight days tbcy remained




eight leagues. San Miguel is seven and a half miles long,
or two and a half leagues, whereas Cabrillo reckons it four
leagues. Santa Eosa is the Isla de Cleto of Vizcaino.

From San Buenaventura to Point Concepcion the trend
of the coast-line is a very little north of west, and the
distance is actually twenty leagues. I suppose they pro-
pose to give ouly the general direction of the coast.

La Isla de la Posesion, Cabrillo.

La Isla de Posesion, Ferrelo.

Una de las Islas de San Lucas, Ferrelo.

La Isla de Baxos, Vizcaino's chart.

Ciquimuymu, Indian, Ferrelo.

San Miguel Island ; the latitude of the anchorage is
34° 03' (see p. 226). Ferrelo named the island La Isla de
Juan Rodriguez after Cahrillo's death.

El Puerto de la Posesion, Cabrillo, Ferrelo.

Cuyler's Harbor. (See pp. 204, 226, 236.)

This is the largest and best harbor around the Island
of San Miguel. It is a moderately large bay on the north-
east face. Its extent is a little more than one mile be.
tween the eastern and the western heads, and about two-
thirds of a mile deep. It has bold shores and approaches,
and a large rocky islet half a mile north of the eastern
head. This isle,t is five hundred yards in extent and 303
feet high, with a precipitous face to the north-northwest.
Across the mouth of the harbor stretches a dense field of
kelp having six fathoms of water throughout the greater
part of it, but marked by two reefs and rooks near the
middle, and almost in line between the heads. There
are other rocky patches in the eastern part of the harbor.

Vessels coming into the harbor from the northwest pass
within half a mile of the western head, through the kelp,
at a distance of only three hundred yards from the cliffs,
and then haul towards the western bight of the bay,
where they anchor in five fathoms of water, over hard
bottom, but protected from all save the north and east
winds, which rarely blow. The heavy swell from the
strong northwest winds reaches well into the anchorage.
(See p. 236.)

Vessels cannot easily enter by the eastern passage un-
less familiar with the dangers and currents.

Water is found at one place on the steep southern hill
face, and during winter water drains down the gully at
the western part of the long beach southeast from the

The summit of the island lies only a mile southward
of the anchorage, and is about seven hundred feet above
the sea. It is in latitude 34° 02'. There is not much veg-
etation upon the island, and the south and western part
is swept by sand driving from the ocean beach.

The evidences are very strong of there having been a
very large Indian population on this island, and doubt-
less the fishing was good among the kelp-fields and rooky
patches off the west and nojthwest parts of the island.

They may have been in the broad bight between Point
Concepcion and Point Arguello.


different from each other; they have many great wars
with each other; it is from El Pueblo de las Canoas to
El Cabo de Galera thirty leagues; they were in these
islands until the following Wednesday, because it was
very stormy.

Wednesday, the twenty-fifth of the said month, they
departed from the said islands, from "the one which was
more to the windward; it has a very good port, so that
from all the storms of the sea no damage will be suffered
by those within its shelter ; they called it La Posesion.

This day they advanced little, as the wind was not fa-
vorable; and in the middle of the following night they
had a \?ind, south-southwest and west-southwest, with
rain, so that they saw themselves in difficulty, for it was
an on-shore wind and they were near the land, and they
could not double the cape on one tack or the other ; and
the following Thursday at vespers the wind veered to'the
south, and they proceeded on their course ten leagues to a



they were well treated by the Indians, every one going
naked, and they have their faces painted in the manner
of a chess hoard ; to tJiis port they gave the name de la

Wednesday, on the twenty-fifth, they sailed with fine
weather from this Puerto de la Posesion, with wind south-
west, and the following day they had it south, and south-
west, with rain showers, and fog, and they had a rough
time, the wind blowing on shore, being near the coast
and a heavy swell running.




The coast north of Point Arguello to San Luis Obispo
Bay has a general trend north and south (true) for a dis-
tance of thirty-six miles.

Point Sal is eleven leagues from Point Coucepcion, fol-
lowing the grand trend of the coast, and they ■were prob-
ably between Point Purisima and Point Sal.

Point Purisima is in latitude 34° 47'.

Point Sal is in latitude 34° 54'.

The Purisima Eiver is in latitude 34° 42', just north of
the bold Point Arguello. (See p. 210.)

This river was certainly the Purisima, emptying just
north of Point Arguello and linown on the State map as
the Santa Ynez. It comes through large valleys north
of the Santa Ynez range, and from seaward the country
has the appearance of needing a large river for drainage.
Vancouver in sailing past it recorded that it seemed to
give t"Ue indications of Oi greater river than any since he
had left the Columbia.

The town of Xexo, Ferrelo.

This was at the opening of the valley lying upon the
Coxo anchorage. There is water in the valley at all sea-
sons, and some oak trees, but wood was not plenty in
18£0 when we were encamped here for more than three


coast running north-northwest and south-southeast; all
this coast is inhabited and in appearance good land;
this night they kept out to sea, for they had an on-shore
wind, and the Friday and Saturday following they were
beating about on one tack or the other with foul winds,
and could gain nothing, and they were in thirty and six
degrees and a half, ten leagues from Cabo de Galera; and
in the same manner they held on during Monday arid
Tuesday to the thirty-first of the said month, the eve of
All Saints' Day, beating about on one tack and the. other ;
and they wished to approach the mainland in search of
a great river of which they had notice, which was on the
other side of the Cabo de Galera, and because there were
on land many indications of rivers, and yet they found
no river. Nor did they anchor here for the coast vras
very bold. They found during this month on this coast
the weather as in Spain,,from thirty-four degrees and uj)-
wards, and with much cold mornings and evenings and
with storms, dark and cloudy weather, and the air heavy.
Wednesday, at midnight, on the first day of Novem-
ber, standing off, a strong wind from the north-north-
west struck them, which did not let them carry a palm
of sail, and by the dawn of day freshened so much that
they cquld do no less than seek shelter, and they took
refuge under Cabo de Galera and anchored there and
went on shore, and because there was a large town which
they called Xexo, and wood did not appear to be much
at hand, they decided to go to Pueblo de las Sardinas,
because there water and wood were very near and aooes-

El Puerto de Todos Santos, Ferrelo.

El Coxo anchorage in latitude 34° 28'.

There can be no doubt about this port and anchorage
being the same ; and although Kohl says this anchorage
was east of Cape Coucepoion, yet he confounds it with
San Luis Obispo, which is thirty-six miles to the north-

sible. yrhey called this shelter under Galera Puerto de
Todos Santos.

El Pueblo de las Sardinas, Cabrillo.

Los Pueblos de las Sardinas, Ferrelo.

El Puerto de las Sardinas, 35J°, Ferrelo. (See pp. 210,

Cioacut, the Indian name, Ferrelo.

The Gaviota Anchorage off the Gaviota Pass ; latitude
34° 27' ; correction to Ferrelo,— 1° 13'. It was at this an-
chorage where they got so many fresh sardines on the
17th of the month. It should be noted that it was their
last anchorage before reaching Point Concepcion.

This gives us seventeen villages, including that at the
Coxo, in a distance of eleven miles, exactly oue village
to each streamlet from the Gaviota Pass to the Coxo.

Xucu : elsewhere Ferrelo says this province of Xucn
extends from San Buenaventura to Point Concepcion.

The following Thursday they went to Pueblos de las
Sardinas, where they were taking in water and wood
three days, and the natives of the country aided them
and brought wood and water to the ships. This village
of the Puerto de las Sardinas is called Cicacut, and the
others, which are from this place to Cabo de Galera, are
Ciuout, Anacot, (') Maquinanoa, Paltatre, Anacoat, Ole-
smo, Coaacat, (») Paltocac, Tocane, Opia, Opistopia,

Nocos, Yutum, Quiman, Miooma, Garomisopona. An old
Indian woman is princess of these villages, who came to
the ships and slept two nights in the Captain's ship, and
the same did many Indians. The village of -Ciucut ap-
peared to be the capital of the other villages, as they came
therefrom other villages at the call of the princess ; the
village which is at the cape is called Xexo. From this
port to Pueblo de las Canoas there is another province
which they call Xucu (s) ; they have their houses round,
and covered very well down to the ground ; they go cov-



Friday, Saturday, and Suuday on the twenty-ninth,
they kept under way, with the wind from all quarters,
with much difficulty.

Monday and Tuesday, of the thirty-first, they had show-
ers and cloudy weather.

Wednesday, the first of November, at midnight, head-
ing towards the shore they had much wind northwest,
which did not allow them to carry a palm of sail, and
they returned around the Cabo de la Galera, which af-
fords good protection from this wind. >

And Thursday, on the second of the same mouth, they
were at the Pueblo de Sardinas, having sailed along forty
leagues of laud very well populated, and with good peo-
ple ; aud from one village, near this port, there came the
priucip.al peoijle aboard the ship, and they dauced to the
sound of a drum, and a iiute of the Castiiians, and they
slept on board, and during these festivities they took in
water, and wood, and their houses were large, with dou-
ble sloping roofs, like those of New Spain, and their bury-
ing grounds were surrounded with boards: they give
the name Sejo to this province : they ate acorns, hazel
nuts, and fish : they said that farther ou there were peo-
ple with clothes on.

H.Bx. 40 27




Cabrillo says this province is named Sejo. Tlio name
Coxo, or Cojo, is evidently derived from these words.
(See tlie Coxo anchorage.)

"Tamales," a well-kno.wn Spanish article of food, pre-
pared by boiling some kind of flesh, rolled in thin sheets
of dough, and wrapped in the husks of the maize. It is
sold in San Francisco under the same name.

El Puerto do las Sardiuas, 35f °, Ferrelo.

The Gaviota Anchorage is in latitude 34° 27' ; correc-
tion to Ferrelo,— 1° 13'. (See p. 208. )

Kohl says this harbor is to the eastward of Cape Cou-
eopcion, and yet ho adds, in clear contradiction, that it
" is perhaps the place now known as San Simeon," which
is to thQ northward of Point Conoepeion.

Compare with Vizcaino's description of the religious (?)
eeremonies at the Great Depression of Santa Catalina
Island (pp. 90-94) of the Noticia, etc.

lil Eio de Nuestra Senorq,, Cabrillo. (See p. 208.)

The Purisima River, in latitude 34° 42'. (See David-
son's Coast Pilot for description and for the variety of
names it has had.)

At the iirst attempt Ferrelo said ten leagues, and he was
then between Point Purisima and Point Sal.

Twenty leagues beyond this position, at six leagues
from the coast which they would appear to be gradually
avoiding, as the southeaster was coming up.

Estei-osSay: The latitude of the haystack shaped EI
Morro, which is in the middle of this bay, is 35° 22'; its
elevation is 573 feet, and it forms a notable landmark
abreast the entrance to Morro Bay.

There is no harbor for shelter on this part of the coast
from the southerly gales of winter; but there is protec-
tion from the summer winds under the northern shores of
Esteros Bay, San Luis Obispo Bay, and San Simeon Bay.
Vizcaino appears to have been closer in shore and to have
recognized those bights.

Las Sierras de Sau Martin, 37|°, Cabrillo, 37 -Jo, Ferrelo.

La Sierra do Santa Lucia, Vizcaino.

Cape San Martin, lal^itnde 35° 54'; correction to Cii-
brillo and Ferrelo, — 1° 36'. (See pp. 212, 224, 226.)

I"hey were nearly abreast Las Piedras Blancas and Sau
Simeon Bay, behind which rise the massive peaks of
Rocky Butte, in latitude 35° 41', 3,400 feet above the sea
and visible at sixty-iive miles; and Pine Mountain, in
latitude. 35° 42', 3,500 feet above the sea and visible at
sixty-six miles ; they are only three miles apart. These
form the southern part of the bold, compact, aud un-
broken line of high mountains hence to Point Pinos. It
is the highest and the boldest range of coast mountains
along this Pacific seaboard, reaching 6,200 feet elevation
at Santa Lucia Mountain and 5,100 feet at Cone Mount-
ain or the Twin Peaks. The former is only ten miles
from the coast-line and the latter only four or Jive miles.

From his description he was distant about twenty -five
miles, nearly south, of the presentCape San Martin, which


ered with the skins of many kinds of animals; they eat
oak acorns, and a grain which is as large as mai^e, and

is white, of which they make tamales ; it is good food.
They say that inland there is much maize, and that men
- like us are travelling there : this port is in thirty and
five degrees and two-thii'ds. ^

Monday, the sixth of the said month of November, they
departed from the said port of Sardinas, and that day
they made hardly,any progress, and until the following
Friday they held on with littlo wind. This day they
reached Cabo de Galera ; through all this course they
could not make use of the Indians who came to board
them with water and fish and showed much good dispo-
sition; they have in their villages their large public
commons, aud they have an inclosure like a circle, aud
around the inclosure they have many blocks of stone
fastened in the ground, which project about three palms,
and in the middle of the inclosares they have sticks of
timber driven into the ground like masts, and very thick ;
and they have many pictures on these same posts, and
we believe that they worship them, for when they dance
they go dancing around the inclosure.

The Saturday following, the day of San Martin, on the
eleventh of the said month of November, they proceeded,
sailing along the land and they found themselves this
morning twelve leagues from the cape, in the same place
where they arrived first; and all this day they had a
good wind so that thoy sailed along a coast, running
northwest aud sontheast full twenty leagues; all this
coast which they passed this day is a bold coast without
any shelter whatever,

and there extends a Cordillera of sierra along the wliole
of it, very lofty, and it is as high by the sea as on the
land within ; the sea boats upon it ; they saw no popula-
tion nor smokes, and all the coast, which has no shelter
on the north, is uninhabited ; they named the mountain
las Sierras de San Martin ; they are in thirty and seven
degrees and a half;



Chapter IV.

Which continues tlw disooveriea of the two vessels of Dan An-
tonio die Mendofa in the South Sea.
Saturday, on the eleventb, they were coasting, ■with a
sontheast wind and continually they were looliing for el
Bio de Nuestra Sefiora, and did not find it,

" This fair weather enahled the ships to get away from
the islands ; and standing in for the continent to take a
draught of the coast, they found it extremely high and

hut with some well sheltered hays, from one of which'
came four rush canoes." » » *

[0n his chart he lays down the large bight forming
Esteros Bay with the notable Morro in the middle of its
length, and the entrance to Morro Bay, but he gives no
name.] "Here they had a formidable gale which lasted
until the 14th of December;

but a great range of mountains very high, with many
trees, to which they gave thename Las Sierrasde San Mar-
tin, and they are in thirty and seven degrees and a half.

■and the weather clearing up a little in the daytime, the
ships found themselves near a wry high and white ridge
of mountains ; but reddish towards the base, and covered
with woods. This range thsy call the Sierra de Santa Lu-
cia ; it'is the usual landfall for the China ships (p. 100)."




is the great flanking spur or buttress for this luouutain
range. He was sixty miles south by east from the termi-
nation of the range at Carmel Bay, and the mountains
are so high and so near the coast-lino that he could have
seen them if the weather permitted ; but it is almost cer-
tain that he estimated his latitude and did uot observe
it. Even Mount Carmel, north of the Sur, is 4,417 feet
above the sea and visible at a distance of seventy-five
miles. It is in latitude 33° 22' and is only eight miles in-
side of Point Sur. The latitude of the Twin Peaks over-
looking Cape Martin is 3(5° 03'. The highest peak is 5,100
feet above the sea and is visible at a distance of eighty
miles,, and only four or five miles inshore.

We applied the name to Cape Sah Martin some years
since to commemorate this landfall of Gabrillo.

Point Sur, or The Sur: This is a remarkable rooky
looking head, rising 358 feet above the sea, and is con-
nected with the mainland by a narrow low neck of sand
dunes. See Davidson's Coast Pilot.

On his chart Vizcaino has, in this position, a slightly
projecting point and the legend "Point appearing as an

Vancouver thought it was an island. It is in latitude
35° 18'.


El Rio del Carmelo, Vizcaino.

Carmel Bay and River, in latitude 36° 34'.

The bay of Carmel is twelve miles northwestward of
the island-like point known as " The Sur." The river is
a stream of minor importance, and in 1770 a mission was
founded on its banks and overlooking the bay.

El Cabo do Martin, 38°, Cabrillo, Ferrelo.

El Cabo de San Martin, 37^°, Ferrelo.

La Punta de Pinos, Vizcaino (p. 101).

La Punta de los Pinos, recent charts.

Point Pinos, in latitude 36° 38'. (See pp. 210, Hii, 2ii6,

I think their Cabo de Martin, when they wore driven
oft' the coast near las Piedras Blancas, was the termina-
tion of the mountain range at or near Carmel Bay, in
latitude 36° 30'. They could not have seen the pine-clad
hill behind Point Pinos at the distauce of sixty miles-
But on the return of the expedition they explicitly state
that the Cabo de San Martin which they made was in
thirty-seven and a half degrees.

If we assume this later determination of his positiou
to be the better one, the correction to Ferrelo's latitude
is, — 1°00'.

On his voyage northward Cabrillo was forced by the
southeast storm to leave the coast before he sighted Point
Pinos, and afterwards he made the land near Fort Ross,
in latitude 38° 35'.

Vizcaino's description cannot be mistaken. Except
that he gives no idea of the height of the pine-covered
hill lying between Carmel Bay and Monterey Bay, it de-
scribes the point and applies to no other.'

EI Puerto de Monte-Roy, Vizcaino.

Monterey Harbor, in latitude 36° 31'.

This harbor is well protected from the southeast storms
which wore those most destructive to the early naviga-
tors, and therefore Vizcaino extolled it far beyond its
real merits and thus misled Constanzo and others in 1769.

the spurs of these and of the sierras on tho northwest
form a cape which projects into the sea in thirty and eight
degrees ; they named it Cabo de Martin.



and at the termination of them, at the north west, it forms
a cape ■which is in thirty and eight degrees, and they
named it Cape Martin,

(P. 100. ) " Four leagues farther a river enters into the
sea between some rocks, after a precipitate course from
some high and white mountains ; the banks of this stream
are covered with black and white poplars, willows, and
other trees and brambles known in Spain. This river
is called del Carmelo.

"Two leagues farther northward of the river Carmelo
there is a famous port, and between this and the river
there is a forest of pine trees t'tro leagues in extent, and
there is a point of land at the entrance to the harbor that
is called Punta de Pinos (p. 100).

(P. 101. ) "On the 16th of December the squadron i)ut
into this port which was called de Monte-Eey (iu houor
of Don Antonio de Mendoza, the Count of MonteRey,
Viceroy of New Spain ; by whom they had been sent on
this Discovery, in the name of his Majesty). « * «

(P. ]07,) "This is a very good harbor, and affords good




Although open to the northwest winils they do not blow
home with great forcei >

Vizcaino applied the name only to the southeast angle
of the bay where the town of Monterey is situated. This
is evident from his outline chart, although ho has the
general features to the north and nortliTvestward. For
a detailed description of the harbor and .bay ^ee David-
son's Coast Pilot.

Point Alio Nuovo, latitude 37° 06'.

Vizcaino has no reference to this low point or to the
massive spur behind it in his narative; and no name on
his chart, although there is a point faintly indicated in
this locality. (See p. 224 ; Black Mountain.)

Half Moon Bay, latitude 37° 30'.

The indication of this bay is very clear on the chart of
Vizcaino, but there is no name given to it, and no refer-
ence made to it in the narrative. The general trend of
the coast is good. North of Half Moon Bay, Vizcaino's
chart says, "the coast is wooded," which is one of its
characteristics for a very short distance.

La Baia de Pinos, Cabrillo.

La Bahia de los Pinos, Ferrelo ; latitude 39° and a
"little more.''

La Ensenada de los Farallones, later Spanish authority

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Online LibraryU.S. Coast and Geodetic SurveyMethods and results : voyages of discovery and exploration on the northwest coast of America from 1539 to 1603 : Appendix No. 7--Report for 1886 → online text (page 7 of 12)