U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.

Methods and results : voyages of discovery and exploration on the northwest coast of America from 1539 to 1603 : Appendix No. 7--Report for 1886 online

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Online LibraryU.S. Coast and Geodetic SurveyMethods and results : voyages of discovery and exploration on the northwest coast of America from 1539 to 1603 : Appendix No. 7--Report for 1886 → online text (page 9 of 12)
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thanks to God, as they had considered her lost; and they
came up with her and joined her at evening. They of
the other ^ip endured more danger and risk than those
of the Captain's vessel, on account of its being small and
having no deck. This l,ind whore they were sailing is
to appearance very good, but they saw no Indians nor
smokes. There are grand Sierras covered with snow;
there .ire many trees. At night they lowered the sails
and lay to.

On the following Thursday, the sixteenth of the said
month of November, at daybreak, they were upon a large
gulf which was formed by a change of direction of the
shore, which appeared to have a port and a river, and they
went'beating about this dayandtho night and the Friday
following, until thoy saw that there was no river nor any
shelter; and to take possession they cast anchor in forty-
five fathoms. They did not dare to land on account of
the high sea. This gulf is in thirty and nine degrees and
n;ore, and it is all covered with pines to the sea. They
gave it the name of La Bahia de las Pinos. The follow-
ing night they lay to until the next day.



There is a Cape, projecting into the sea, very much
wooded, with very high pine trees, and they called it
Cabo de Pinos, and observing the Sun, they found them-
selves in forty degrees, and more, to the northwest,

from whence they recognized more than fifteen leagues
of coast, all the land high, and the coast running from
northwest southeast :

Aud Friday, the sixteenth, they arrived at a Great Gull^
that looked like a harbor, and tbey called it




El Cabo cle San Martin. (See pp. 210, 222, 223, 236.)
Tliis is either the northern limit of the Sierra Santa
Lucia near Point Carrael or the San Martin which they
made in the early part of the voyage when they were
storm struck and had to run before it. The former would
probably bo the more likely, because on the 18th they
were running from near Point Eeyes all day along the
coast, and passing the deep bight of Monterey Bay
would make the pine-covered mountain behind Point
Pinoa or the higher mountains beyond Point Carmel by

It is evident that Ferrelo runs ahead in his narrative
to describe in general terms the appearance of the coast
range of mountains from the Gulf of the Farallones to
Cap°e San Martin, and then returns to take up the details,
liis Sierras Nevadas form the mountain range of the Pen-
insula of San Francisco, in whose crest -line is Loma Prieta
reaching an elevation of nearly 3,000 feet, and which is
about thirteen miles inside of Point Alio Nuevo lying un-
der his Snowy Cape. Mount Baeho, in the same range, is
in latitude 37° 06*' and reaches 3,825 feet elevation. His
description is good, although it would apply with greater
force to the stupendous barrier of the seaward face of the
Sierra Santa Lucia ; ho may very probably have had both
mountain r.anges in his mind at the time of compiling
his narrative.

Las Sierras Nevadas, Ferrelo.

La Sierra de Santa Cruz.

The Peninsula of San Francisco.
. Cabo do Nieve, Ferrelo, 38|o.

Cabo de Nieve, CabriUo, 38J°.

Black Mountain, latitude 37° 09'.

This is the massive western spur or buttress ot the San
Francisco Peninsula Mountains immediately behind and
almost overhanging the low Point Ano Nuevo: The ships
were not close enough to the coast for CabriUo to note
the details of the shore-line, but ho took in the broad,
bold features, and graphically describes them under the
aspect of a heavy winter. I place this great shoulder of
the range in latitude 37° 09', whence the correction to
Ferrelo and CabriUo is,— 1° 31'.

Mount Bache, reaching 3,825 feet elevation, is in lati-
tude 37° Ofii'.

Ferrelo again runs ahead of events in his narrative in
mentioning his approach to the Santa Barbara Islands
and then returns and describes the coast from Calio de
Pinos (Northwest Cape at Fort Koss). (See pp. 210, 222,

By plotting his course as far as practicable during the
storm and his again making the coast, I fix his approach
thereto south of Point Arena, at the cape he describes,
but even then lie most have been twenty-five miles from
the coast-line.

He could not have followed the shore very closely or ho
would have seen the bays of Esteros, San Luis Obispo,
and Point Sal. Moreover the coast was thickly popu-
lated from the San Carpofero to Point Concepciou ; and
from Carmel Bay northward the coast was also thicklv


The following Saturday they were running along the
coast, and they found themselves at night off El Cabo de
San Martin.

All the coast they passed by this day is very Dold, and
there is a grgat swell of the sea, and the land is very
lofty ; there are mountains which rise to the sky and the
sea beats upon them. While sailing near the land it ap-
pears as if they would fall upon the ships ; they are cov-
ered with snow to the summit.

■ They gave them the uame of las Sierras Nevadas, and
the principal one forms a cape which projects into the
sea, which they named Cabo de Nieve. The coast runs
north-northwest and south-southeast. It does not appear
that Indians inhabit this coast. This Cabo de Nieve is
in thirty and eight degrees and two- thirds, and always
when the wind blew from the northwest it made the
weatlier fair and clear.

Thursday, on the twenty-third day of the month, they
approached on a return course the islands of San Lucas,
and one'of them named la Posesion ; and they ran aloljg
all the coast, point by point, from el Cabo de Pinos to
them, and they found uo shelter, so that of necessity they
had to return to the, said island, on account of having
these diiya a very strong west-northwest wind, and the
swell of the seii, was very great. From Cabo de San Mar-
tin to Cabo'de Pinos we saw no Indians, because of the
coast being bold iiud without shelter and rugged ; and
on the southeast side of Cabo de Martin for fifteen leagues
they found the country inhabited, and many smokes, for
the laud is good ; but from el Cabo de Martin as far as to
forty degrees we saw no signs of Indians.



And on the eighteenth they were seeking for a port,

and discoTered some snow covered sierras, with a cape,
which projected therefrom, which they called Caho de
Nieve, in thirty and eight degrees and two-thirds, and the
whole land and coast, possesses this peculiarity, that,
whenever the wind hlows from the northwest, the weather
is all clear, without any scud or anything else ; and from
the thirty and seven degrees and a half, hence to the forty
degrees, this coast runs northwest southeast ;

H. Ex. 40 29




El Cabo de Sau Martin, Ferrelo, 37i°. (See pp. 210,

The present Cape San Martin is in latitude 35° 54', but
Moant Carmel, one of the high peaks of the Sierra Santa
Lucia (Ferrelo's Sierra San Martin) would probably be
the first mountain he would see when approaching from
the north across the Gulf of Monterey. In the clear sty
of northwest weather he would have seen it when he
was abreast of his Cabo de Nieve, or Point Ano Nuevo.
It is in latitude 36° 22', rises to an elevation of 4,417 feet,
and is visible at a distance of seventy-five miles. It is
only eight miles inside of Point Sur.

La Isla de la Posesion, Cabrillo.

Una de las Islas de San Lucas, Cabrillo.

Isla de Posesion, Ferrelo.

La Isla de Juan Rodriguez, Ferrelo.

Ciquimuymu, Indian, Ferrelo.

La Isla de Baxos, Vizcaino.

San Miguel Island. (See pp. 204, 206, 236.)

This is the westernmost of the Santa Barbara Islands.
(For a detailed description see Davidson's Coast Pilot
of California, &c.)

Bl Puerto de la Posesion, Cabrillo.

This is Cuyler's Harbor in latitude 34° 03', already de-
scribed. (See p. 236.)


El Cabo de San Martin is in thirty and seven degrees
and a half.

The "other islands of Sau Lucas" is San Salvador,
Ferrelo. (Seep. 204.)

Limun or Limu, Indian, Ferrelo.

Santa* Cruz Island, already described. (For a minute
description of the island see Davidson's Coast Pilot of
California, &o. )

He appjirently forgets that Cabrillo named Santa Cat-
iilina Island San Salvador, and ho slightly changes the
spelling of the Indian name.

While wintering in this Isla de Posesion, on the third
day of January, 1543, departed from this present life
Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, Captain of the said ships, from
a fall which he had on the same island at the former
time when they were there, by which he broke an arm
near .the shoulder. He left for Captain the Chief Pilot,
who was one Bartolomfe Ferrelo, a native of the Le-
vant ; and he charged them much at the time of his
death that they should not give up the discovery, as far
as possible, of all that coast. They named the island
La Isla de Juan Rodriguez. The Indians call this isl-
and Ciquimuymu, and another they call Nicalqne, and
the other they call Limu. In this island de la Posesion,
there are two villages; the one is called Zaco(lO) and the
other Nimollollo. On one of the other islands there are
three villages; one they call Niohochi, and another Coy-
coy, and the other Estocoloco. On the other island there
are eight villages, which are, Miquesesquelua, Poele,
Pisqueno, Pualnacatup, Patiquiu, Patiquilid, Ninumu,
Muoc, Pilidquay, Lilibeque.

The Indians of these islands are very poor. They are
fishermen ; they eat nothing but fish ; they sleep on the
ground ; all their business and employment is to fish. In
each house they say there are fifty souls. They live very
swinishly; they go naked. They were in these islands
from the twenty-third of November to the nineteenth of
January. "In all this time, which was almost two months,
there were very hard wintry storms on the land and tho
sea. The winds which prevailed most wore west-south-
west and Bonth-southwost and west-northwest. The
weather was very tempestuous.

Friday, the nineteenth day of the mouth of January,
1543, they set sail from the island of Juan Rodiiguez,
which is called Ciquimuymu by the natives, to go to tho
mainland in search of some supplies of provisions for
their voyage, and in leaving the port a heavy storm from
the west-northwest struck them, which made them put
into the other islands of San Lucas, and they anchored
off the island of Limun, to which they gave the name of
San Salvador, and they found it necessary to weigh an-
chor again because it had no port more under the shelter
of the islands, and the wind veered around from all
points, and they sailed around these islands eight days
with the wind very foul, sheltering themselves under the
islands from the bad weather ; and on tho twenty-seventh
of the said month they entered the same port of the isl-
and of Juan Rodriguez where they were before. The
greatest hindrance they had was because the winds were
not steady, but went veering about from one point to an-
other. Those which are the more constant are from tho
west-northwest and from the west-southwest.



and because they did not find any port, they had to go to
la Isla de la Posesion, which is one of the Islands of San
Lucas, and they entered there Thursday, on the twenty-
third of November, and because it is a good port, they
repaired the small vessel, and made her staunch, as she
was going to sink.

lu the aforesaid port they remained, until the end of
December, on account of the bad weather, with great
cold and snow, even to the sea level, rain from heaven,
and heavy clouds ; and as the southeast storm was con-
tinuing, thisre was so great a surf, although in a land-
locked harbor, that sometimes for three and four days, it
was not possible to go on shore. Finally, Friday, on the
nineteenth of January of the following year, one thou-
sand five hundred and forty-three, with great labor they
arrived at the Puerto de Sardinas,




La Isla do Sau Seliastiau, Ferrelo's consort. (See pp.
204,236.) •

La Isla de San Lucas, Ferrelo.

La Isla de Cleto, Viztfaino's chart.

Nioalque, Indian, Ferrelo.

Santa Eosa Island, lying between San Miguel Island
and Santa Cruz Island.

He probably lost bis anchor in Becher's Bay ou the
northeast face of the island, -where he could have watered
his vessel.

For minute description of the island see Davidson's
Coast Pilot.

El Puerto do las Sardinas, Ferrelo.

Cicaout, Indian, Ferrelo.

The Gaviota anchorage. (See pp. 208, 210.)

In the Gaviota Pass there are evidences of large Indian
Eaucherias, where the Indians couldretire from the coast-
line in winter and thus avoid the full effects of the
storms, and at the same time engage in hunting or cul-
tivate the ground.

La Isla do San Salvador, Ferrelo.

Santa Cruz Island. (See pp. 204, 236, 238.)

If we suppose that he ran nearly south, and half way
between Santa Cruz and San Nicolas, he would probably
have seen the islands of San Miguel, Santa Eosa, Santa
Cruz, Anacapa, Santa Catalina (with Santa Barbara in
line and not distinguishable), and San Nicolas. He could
not have seen San Clemente Island ; Anacapa is small ; and
Santa Catalina would, at that distance, appear smaU.
Sau Nicolas would be seen moderately small, because he
would make it endwise.

When the unusual northeast wiud changed and the
west-northwest wind came up with the large sea always
accompanying it, it is very unlikely that he was even two
hundred miles to the windward of the islands. And yet
we find Kohl making the unaccountable blunder of sup-
posing that the six islands which Ferrelo saw "were
doubtless the Sandwich Islands '.' !

El Cabo de Pinos, Ferrelo.

Already described as the mountain mass behind Fort
Eoss Cove. (See pp. 210, 222, 224, 236. )

This is the Punta de Arena in latitude 38° 57', but he
does not name it ; the land trends to the northwestward
from Bodega to this point, then the shore changes its di-
rection to north-northwest.

EI Cabo de Fortunas, Cabrillo, 41°.
They saw the great mountain inass which reaches a
height of nearly 4,300 feet a little to the northward of

Tuesday, the twenty-ninth of the said month of Janu-
ary, they departed from the island of Juan Eodriguez for
th6 island of San Lucas, which is in the middle of the
others, to take up certain, anchors which they had left in
a storm, not being able to raise them ; and which they
recovered, and took in water.

They departed from this island of San Lucas Monday,
the twelfth day of the month of February, which they
could not do sooner on account of the bad weather, which
gave tliem winds and much snow. It is inhabited, and
the people are like those of the other island. The In-
dians call it Nioalque. There are three villages on it,
which are called Nicochi, Coycoy, Coloco.

This day they went to Puerto de las Sardinas, to take
in wood and other things necessary for their voyage, as
they were not to be obtained on those islands.

Wednesday, on the fourteenth of tho said month, they
departed from El Puerto de Sardinas, having taken a
boat-load of wood, and they did not dare to remain longer
there on account of the great s well of the ocean ; they
did not find so many Indians as before, nor any fishing
on account of the winter ; the natives eat oak acorns and
other seeds and herbs of the field without cooking.
From this place they proceeded to the island of San Sal-
vador, because they were there more secure from the
storms, that they might be able to make sail and run out
to sea.

Sunday, the eighteen th day of the said month of Feb-
ruary, they departed from the island of San Salvador
' with a moderate wind from northeast, and they ran along
to the southwest, because they had been told that there
were other islands toward the southwest ; they were at
dusk this day about twelve leagues from the island of
San Salvador, and they saw six islands, some large and
others small.

This day a sailor died, and the following Monday, at
daybreak, they were at sea about ten leagues to the wind-
ward of the islands, and with the wind west-northwest
they were standing off five days to the southwest, and
after they had proceeded about one hundred leagues they
found the wind more violent and the sea high ;

and Thursday, the twenty-second of the said month of
February, they again stood in shore to endeavor to reach
Cabo de Pinos, with the wind south-southeast, which
continued three days, and was increasing each day ; and
the Sunday following, at daybreak, they gained sight of
Cabo de Pinos, and they were this day at dusk twenty
leagues to windward on a coast running northwest and
southeast, and it is bold and without shelter ; there was
no smoke seen on the land, aud they saw a point which
formed the extremity of the land, which changed the
coast to the northwest; in the middle of the night the
wind suddenly shifted to the south-southwest, and they
ran to the west-northwest until day, and in the morning
the wind shifted to the west-southwest with great vio-
lence, which held ou until tJie following Tuesday; they'
ran to the northwest.



whence they left on the fourteenth of February.

And Monday, on the twenty-sixth ot sam montn, tney
were at a point which makes a cape, which they called
Cabo de Fortunas, on account of the many dangers which
they had experienced in those days, and it is in forty and
one degress :




Point. Delgada at Shelter Cove; and continues as a bold
range to the north of Cape Mendocino. They could not
have seen Point Delgada because it is low and projected
on the base of the coast mountains. If he saw King
Peak, or the mountain behind Cape Gorda, or Mount
Pierce behind Cape Mendocino, then his latitude must be
assumed to have been derived from dead reckoning.
Cape Mendocino is in 40° 27', Cape Gorda in 40° 13', but
the high crest-line of the mountains runs to the south ot
40°. This course from Point Arena is nearly north-north-
west, true.

Vizcaino's two ships had been separated in a storm,
and the crews were in a terribly bad condition from

These are the high mountains lying eastwardly from
Point Delgada, and culminating in King Peak in latitude
40° 09', at an elevation of 4,265 feet.

Cabo Mendocino, Vizcaino's pilots, 41°, without ob-

Cape Mendocino, latitude 40° 27'.

The description and' the position of the cape in rela-
tion to the foregoing mountains are good for Cape Men-
docino, but I think the latitude ho gives is merely a
report, for they do not appear to have observed the sun,
and his chart places it in 41° 40'. The high mountains,
rising to an elevation of 3,400 feet behind the cape, might
well be covered with snow if the winter was severe, as
we may assume it was from the narrative.

They could not have been in 41° 30', because after
being driven northward by the violent southeaster for
six days (to January 20) they were then only in 42°.
Vizcaino's chart lays down a prominent headland in lati-
tude 40i° (obtained by bringing up the scale of degrees
from Point Pinos to Point Eeyes) and a iharked headland
in 41°. Between these two capes he has a deep receding
of the shore-line to the east and northeast, with a large
river emptying into the northeast part of this great

I am satisfied that this appiirent eastern recession Oi
the shore-line was the low country around Humboldt Bay
and Eel and Mad Eivers. The large river which he has
drawn was a supposition of its existence on account oi
the low lying valley in that direction giving passage way
-to the discolored waters of Mad River and Pigeon River

— Cabo Mendocino, Vizcaino's chart, 41° 40'.
^Point St. George, in latitude 41° 46'.

South of Cape Mendocino Vizcaino notes the coast line
as rugged, butno name appears until "Cabo Mendocino"
stands abreast a cape of white cliffs in latitude 41° 40'
with mountains to the southward covered with snow.
The shore-line from Trinidad to this capo is laid down
straight, but for twenty miles it is continued to the
northeast. He could not have been near the coast, on
account of the heavy weather, or he would not have
missed Redding Rock north of Trinidad, nor the notable
cliffs of Gold Bluff in 41° 25'. And especially does he
omit any sign of the rocky islets of the Dragon Rocks
forming St. George's Reef iu 41° 50'. As there is a
marked recession of the high land behind Point St.
George on account of large lakes and several streams
making in from the distant mountains, he may have


Tuesday, the twenty-seventh of the said mouth, the
wind veered to the south-southwest, which held on all
day ; they ran to the west-northwest with the foresails
lowered, for it blew violently; at the approach of night
the wind shifted to the west; they ran all night to the
south with but little sail ; there was a high sea which
broke over them.



"The ship progressed very slowly, but little by little,
on Sunday the twelfth day of January [1603] the flag-
ship came iu sight of some very higji mountains of a
reddish color, and fourteen league's farther to the north-
west a chopped off cape came upon the sea, and near to
it some snowy mountains; and the pilots judged that
this should be the Cape Mendocino, which is [reported to
be] in forty and one degrees of latitude.

"The day following, which reckons itself the thirteenth
of January, a southeast wind came up with the greatest
fury, and with it a fine sleet that appeared like snow.
This wind raised such a tremendous sea, that every mo-
ment it appeared as if the ship must founder and all be
lost: and to avoid its fury, and not to reach a higher
latitude, because they feared the excessive cold and the >
increased violence of the storms in the higher latitudes,
and it being the depth of winter, it was deemed the best
to lay to until the wind was favorable and then make
sail for Acapulco. * » »

"With this decision came a little strength to mitigate
the sufferings of the people, for they now thought they
■Bould be able to hold out some days longer than if thev
went farther north.

"And on the fourteenth of the said month the weather
cleared a little that day and the sun shone out, so that the
pilots were able to observe, and they found themselves
near to this Cabo Mendocino, and the currents had car-
ried them even this far in two days. Almost immediately
the sky was obscured that day with a thick fog, and dark,
and a cold drizzle which they had not expected ; and
as the wind was still at southeast the ship lay to the
sea with the wind abeam



supposed the shore receded more to the Bortheast than
it really does.

EI Caho Blanco de San Sebastian.

Vizcaino does not state positively that this cape is in
his observed latitude of 42°, which, by the way, is the
only latitude he mentioiis in his narrative. His chart
lays down a cape of white cliffs in 41° 40', where he places
Cape Mendocino. There are the white cliffs of the Gold
Blaffs in 41° 25', and the notable white sand dunes just
nor oh of Mack's Arch. These sand dunes a,re three miles
in length and rise to 170 feet elevation and are a marked
feature in the shore line. They lie in latitude 42° 14' and
tbo verdure-clad mountains behind them rise to 1,500 feet
aud are pine covered on the upper slopes and crest line.

In latitude 42° 05' the Coast Survey has named a bold
headland, seen from Pelican Bay, Cape Ferrelo, and in
latitude 42° 18' a second notable head has been nam^d
Cape Sebastian, but without other intention than com-
memorating these names.

"A Bad bay," Drake 42°.

Chetko. Bay, latitude 42° 01'.

This is an open^roadstead exposed to the full force of
the southerly swell. It is at the southern termination of
fifty miles of high rugged coast coming from Port Or-
ford to the Chetko Eiver. In striking the coast Drake
could find no anchorage between Point Orford and this
place, and none other near this except Crescent City
Harbor, seventeen miles southward, and which he would
hardly approach when the dangerous Dragon Rocks or

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Online LibraryU.S. Coast and Geodetic SurveyMethods and results : voyages of discovery and exploration on the northwest coast of America from 1539 to 1603 : Appendix No. 7--Report for 1886 → online text (page 9 of 12)