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and wine harvest) has aroused the desire to deal with the seasonal
incidence of the begetting of the feeble-minded on the basis of as
much material as possible. For this purpose the author's census of
feeble-minded school children, which took place in the year 1897, and
referred to the years 1886-90 inclusive, seemed specially suited.
Originally (in 1901) a curve was plotted in which all the 8,186
feeble-minded and idiotic children were included whose exact birthdays
were known, and this curve was compared with the total curve for that
period. (Schweiz. Statistik 112 Liefg.) The latter was constructed
in the following manner from the whole number of births (934,619)
which occurred in these eleven years: - The general daily average was
taken as 100, and the daily average for each month was expressed
proportionately. Thus numbers above 100 show a daily birth frequency
above the average, while for numbers below 100 the reverse is the
case. The curve for the 8,136 feeble-minded persons was constructed
in a similar way, and thus a comparison with the general population
producing them was made possible. Subsequently (1910-11), in order to
secure homogeneous material, the first and last years were left out,
since by including them, owing to the non-agreement of the school
year and the astronomical year, the earlier months (January-April)
were much weighted. By this restriction of the material dealt with
the number of feeble-minded is reduced to 7,759, but the material for
each separate year is more homogeneous. Distributed between 2,922 days
(eight years), the daily production of the feeble-minded is 2.648,
the corresponding total number of births of the years 1882-89 ls
677,083, or 231.7 per day. 1.14 per cent. of all births are included
in the figure for the feeble-minded. If one treats the total number of
births for each month as well as the number of births of feeble-minded
according to the method described above, and used by the Federal
Statistical Bureau, two curves are produced which diverge considerably
from each other in particular months. On the whole the curve for the
feeble-minded (thick line) is flatter than the curve for the total.
Especially striking are the drop in May and June (corresponding to
the procreation period from the 25th July to the 23rd September) and
two peaks rising above the "total" curve. One of these is slight,
yet distinct. It refers to the months of birth, July and August,
corresponding with the procreation period from the 24th September to
the 24th November. More conspicuous is the second peak of the curve
for the feeble-minded from October to December, otherwise a time poor
in births. The centre of the corresponding period of procreation
(25th December to 26th March) is in February (carnival). This seems
to confirm the suspicion that during the wine harvest and carnival
an increased procreation of feeble-minded occurs (procreation during
drunkenness?).

We cannot suppress the remark that the fluctuations of the curve for
the feeble-minded are much too small to admit of the drawing of an
ætiological conclusion, but the fluctuations of the intelligence curve
and the illegitimate curve partly exceed the limits of probable error.
The peaks of both birth curves in February, correspond to a peak in
the procreation curve in May. Perhaps one may attribute them to the
existence of a remnant of a period of "heat" (or a rutting season) in
man.

[Sidenote: C 98]

+Lead.+ Whereas the +germ cells+ are well protected against many
harmful influences from without which affect the soma of the mother,
they +and the foetus produced from them suffer considerably from+
some. Amongst their deadliest enemies are +certain poisons+, and
+notorious in this respect is lead+. Table C 98 gives two sets of
statistics on this point, they justify the law in Germany, and in other
States, forbidding female labour to deal with lead and lead-containing
materials. Paul's figures, showing that lead poisoning of the father
is also extremely adverse to the production of a healthy progeny, are
remarkable.

[Sidenote: C 99]

+Female Labour.+ A baneful influence on reproduction is brought
to bear by the growing quantity of professional female labour away from
home and by the economic emancipation of women. Evidence of this is
given in Table C 99 - "+female labour and child mortality+" - the
data of which are taken from Prinzing's work. Infant mortality is
higher the larger the percentage of females employed in factories
during the child-bearing period. This is partly due to interference
with breast-feeding and partly to the unfavourable influence on
pregnancy.

[Sidenote: C 100]

Dr. Agnes Bluhm has given in Figure C 100 "+Female Labour and
Reproductive Activity+," the statistics of Roger and Thiraux, as
well as the results of the investigation of the Imperial Statistical
Office on the "Relationship of illness and deaths in the Local
Invalidity Fund for Leipzig and surroundings." Dr. Bluhm gives the
following explanation: "The top figure on the left is based on material
of the Local Invalidity Fund for Leipzig and surroundings, dealing
with over a quarter of a million of women of child-bearing age. The
distinction between obligatory and voluntary members makes possible
the estimate of the +influence of work continued up to the time of
confinement+, because the voluntary members receive the same weekly
payments during confinement as the obligatory ones, and, consequently,
a woman has no object in joining the voluntary insurance scheme except
in order to secure rest before confinement, which they procure for
themselves at their own expense and with the loss of their wages. (At
that time the compulsory support during time of pregnancy did not
exist.) It is to be noted that the voluntary members show ten times as
many confinements as the obligatory ones."

"The left hand figure at the top shows that the women who work up to
the time of confinement fall ill during their pregnancy twice as often,
and have six or seven times as many miscarriages and premature births
and 1.28 times as many cases of death in child-bed, as those who stop
work for a more or less extended period previous to their delivery."

"The frequency of illness after childbirth is in both categories of
women almost the same; but the duration of the illness beyond the
period for which the legal subvention provides (13, 26, or 34 weeks
respectively) is much greater in the case of the obligatory members who
do not spare themselves before their delivery."

"Left hand figure at the bottom - the researches were made by Roger and
Thiraux in a maternity home. A comparison is made between the women
who entered the home only at the beginning of childbirth and those who
entered during the last month of pregnancy or sooner. Premature birth
occurs in nearly one-third of the cases among the former, but among the
latter only one-eighth.

"Right hand figure at the bottom - dealing with the same material as
the left hand figure below compares the weight at birth of the first,
second and later born. The average weight of the former is 300 g.
and that of the latter 341 g. higher with mothers who cease work two
or three months before delivery, than with those who worked up to
the last. Possibly this expresses in the main the different duration
of pregnancy. The importance of the birth weight of a child for its
further development is not to be underrated."

"The top figure on the right shows that the importance of the adverse
influence of female labour on the race, shown in the above figures, is
growing, because there is an increase of employment amongst married
women. Simon's figures show that the manufacturing industries, which
in 1907 employed by themselves two million female hands, the number of
married women has increased by almost 200,000 during the last twelve
years. In agriculture, in which four and a half million females find
their main occupation, the share of the married women is much greater
still."

"The increase of married female labour being intimately connected with
the development of our economic life, which cannot be deliberately
influenced, the demand for a Motherhood Insurance for all female
labourers of any kind, and for the extension of the legal time of
stoppage of work before childbirth to at least four weeks, follows as a
practical result of the facts stated above."

Dr. Bluhm's repeated assertion, which is regarded by many as a
dogma, that economic conditions cannot be deliberately influenced
(+i.e.+, that they are of the character of a law of nature) must
not remain uncontradicted as a principal. It is absolutely unproved,
though the difficulty of influencing our economic life cannot be
denied; the economic order has been created by man and +must+ be
altered if it proves harmful for the race.

[Sidenote: C 101]

The adverse influence of female labour on the progeny is shown from
a somewhat different point of view in Table C 101 - "+premature
births and abortions in different callings+." The most serious
fact shown here is that a low birth rate may frequently be found in
conjunction with a high rate for miscarriage and premature birth;
as the compiler of these statistics points out, this conjunction is
most apparent in those callings which demand frequent intercourse
with the public, such as domestic service, that is to say in cases
where pregnancy is particularly inconvenient. Probably in these cases
artificial prevention of pregnancy goes hand in hand with the procuring
of abortion!

Race-hygiene does not aim at an indiscriminate motherhood insurance of
married and unmarried mothers, but it aims at the economic subvention
and encouragement of legitimate fertility of healthy and able parents,
connected with, and rendered possible by, a reduction of female labour
away from the home. Marriage is one of the most important hygienic
institutions for the individual as well as for the race, and it is
folly to allow its decay and to replace it by substitutes.

[Sidenote: C 102]

+The importance of marriage for the health to married persons+
is shown by figure C 102 - "+condition with regard to marriage and
mortality in Prussia, 1894-97+," as given in Prinzing's book. That
we have to deal here with an actual favourable influence of marriage,
and not with a selection of the healthy at the time of marriage, is
proved by the fact that the low death rate of the married is maintained
through all age classes and that the widowed and divorced show
throughout the highest death rate.

[Sidenote: C 103]

"+Condition with regard to marriage and mortality, cases of death
from tuberculosis+," after Weinberg, also confirms with regard to
tuberculosis the favourable influence of marriage on the health of
men. With women the mortality from tuberculosis up to the age of 60 is
lowest among the unmarried. Pregnancy and suckling act here adversely,
but by far the worst position is also held here by widows and divorced
women.

[Sidenote: C 104-105]

The advantage of marriage for the progeny is made evident in Figure
C 104 - "+mortality of illegitimate children in different European
states+", and in Figure C 105 dealing with the "+survival of the
legitimate and illegitimate children in Berlin in 1885+." After
five years there are still alive more than 60% of the legitimate,
but only 40% of the illegitimate children. The higher mortality of
the latter is by no means a purifying process of weeding, but the
expression of greater sickliness which permanently harms the surviving
also. The division of labour between man and wife, with reference to
the care of the offspring, is one of Nature's institutions which is of
the greatest advantage for parents as well as children.

[Sidenote: C 106-107]

+Inbreeding and the Crossing of Races.+ On the whole with
mankind inbreeding is viewed with fear, and justly so, in view of
our customary carelessness with regard to the physical and mental
conditions of those who contract marriage. +If blood relations have
similar pathological conditions or pre-dispositions to illness or
degeneracy, the progeny which results from their union is endangered to
a particularly high degree.+ Our collection brings as an example
of this in Table C 106 - the pedigree of the celebrated Don Carlos. The
bad inheritance of Johanna the Mad asserts itself to a lesser degree
yet quite perceptibly also in the children of Max. II. Table C 107 - the
children of Maximilian and his cousin Maria of Spain; undoubtedly the
Emperor Rudolf II. was mentally diseased. Also Charles V. and his son
Philip II. were abnormal characters.

[Sidenote: C 108]

+Blood relationship of the parents and health of the children+,
which v. d. Velden has prepared from Riffel's family tables, also
speaks for the harmfulness of inbreeding. The offspring of blood
relations are emphatically weaker and sicklier than those of persons
related distantly or not at all.

[Sidenote: C 109]

The harm of inbreeding amongst the pathological is also illustrated by
the large Table 222 (exhibited by Schüle). Pedigrees from wine-growing
districts in the centre of Baden; against this it may be taken as
proved that inbreeding in itself between the healthy and fit is
not harmful. Animal breeders (as well as plant cultivators) make
an extensive use of it with the view to the cultivation of certain
hereditary characteristics.

[Sidenote: C 110]

We show in Table C 110, after de Chapeaurouge, the +pedigree of
Belvidere+, an animal which, in spite of close inbreeding, was
distinguished by excellent qualities, and by whom, out of his own
daughter, another sire of the highest rank was produced.

[Sidenote: C 111]

After long-continued and very close inbreeding, even with a faultless
condition of the germ plasm, the decrease of vitality and fertility
of the progeny asserts itself. Important evidence for this is given
by Georg. H. Shull in his exhibition of +cross-fertilized,
self-fertilized and hybridized maize+ (Exhibit No. C 111).
Shull makes the following comments: "Results of inbreeding with
maize - crossing between different races or genotypes, if not too
distantly related, results in a progeny which excels its parents in
vitality, whereas crosses between individuals belonging to the same
genotype engender no increase of vitality as compared with the parents."

In maize, and presumably in most other plants and animals in which
cross-fertilization is the rule, all individuals are usually
complicated hybrids between different varieties of genotype. They owe
their vigorous constitution to this hybrid nature.

"The result of self-fertilization or of close inbreeding is that
the hybrid nature diminishes in degree. The stock is reduced to a
homozygotic condition, and is thus deprived of the stimulus which lies
in the hybrid condition."

"When two given genotypes are crossed, the first hybrid generation is
possessed of the greatest vigour. Even the second generation shows
much less vitality, and this decrease continues with the third and
later generations. But each succeeding generation differs less from
its predecessor than the latter differed from its own parents. As soon
as the stock has become a pure line, inbreeding produces no further
weakening."

"The top row of the exhibited collection of maize cobs (large cobs with
many grains) is derived from a family in which for five generations
self-fertilization has been prevented by using mixed pollen. These
conditions approach those prevailing in an ordinary field."

"The middle row of maize cobs (small cobs with few grains) comes
from families of the same derivation as the first row; but for five
generations they have been self-fertilized. Each one has characters
which the others do not possess. They are almost pure bred, and
continued self-fertilization produces no further adverse influence. The
cob, quite to the right, without grains, has pistils so short that
they do not project from the husks. This genotype must, therefore, be
fertilized artificially."

"The lowest row (the largest cobs with the most grains) comes from
families which have been created by the crossing of plants belonging to
different genotypes, the relationship in which case is indicated by the
lines which connect this row with the middle row."

"The following harvests of grain were made in the year 1910: -

Self-fertilization prevented (average of nine
families) 53.5 hi pro ha.
Self-fertilized (average of ten families) 25.3 " " "
F1 hybrid (average of six families) 59.2 " " "
F2 hybrid (average of seven families) 38.8 " " "

[Sidenote: C 112-114]

It is well-known to what degree +inbreeding+ is practised in
+reigning families+. We show as an example for this, Chart
C 112, the +pedigree of the Archduchess Maria de los Dolores of
Tuscany+, exhibited by Dr. Stephan Kekule von Stradonitz, and
Chart C 113 of the same exhibitor, +pedigree of Ptolemäus X+.
Soter II. (Lathros), and Chart C 114, +pedigree of the celebrated
Cleopatra+. Though with Ptolemäus X. the effect of sexual
reproduction in bringing about new combinations of hereditary units was
very limited, since the couple, Ptolemäus V. Epiphanes and Cleopatra
Syra having produced all the germ cells from which he developed, he
appears, nevertheless, to have been a perfectly normal being. In his
granddaughter Cleopatra certainly much "extraneous blood" circulated.

[Sidenote: C 115]

Even where there is no high degree of inbreeding, the individuals of a
people are much more closely related to each other than is generally
assumed. Table C 115, "+theoretical number of ancestors+," shows
that, assuming the duration of one generation to be 35 years, and that
no marriages between relations have taken place, the number of the
ancestors of a man living now would have been eighteen billions in the
year 0 a.d. In reality the germanic race, wandering west, probably
only numbered hundreds of thousands. This phenomenon of "+ancestral
loss+," as Ottokar Lorenz calls it (that the number of real
ancestors is much smaller than those theoretically possible), can be
illustrated in the pedigrees of the reigning houses.

[Sidenote: C 116]

We have in Table C 116 an +analysis of pedigree of Emperor William
II.+, after Ottokar Lorenz. Investigations show that twelve
generations back the real number of his ancestors amounts to only
one-eighth of the possible figure. Only 275 persons have actually been
found because in the older lines, the bourgeois element, of which no
record can be found, has had a very large share.

[Sidenote: C 117]

Very little knowledge exists concerning the effect of the crossing of
races in man. On the whole it appears not to be favourable, if it is a
question of crossing of races from far apart, even in purely physical
respects. An example of harmful influence is given in v. d. Velden's
Table C 117 - "+Fertility and Health in relation to the crossings of
races+."




NEOMALTHUSIANISM.


[Sidenote: C 118-122]

The next and the greatest concern of race-hygiene - much greater than
the relative increase of inferiority - is, to-day, neomalthusianism,
the intentional restriction of the number of births in varying degrees
up to complete unproductiveness. Though conscious regulation of the
production of children is absolutely necessary, it becomes fatal to
a nation if under no control but the egotism of the individual. For
its permanent prosperity a nation requires, in order merely to hold
its own, a sufficient number of "hands" and a sufficient number of
"heads" to guide those "hands." We referred to this when mention was
made of sterility as a phenomenon of degeneration, but this cause of
sterility during the last decades only takes a second place compared
to deliberate intention. The wealthy and higher social classes were
first attacked by neomalthusianism. Their progeny is becoming more and
more utterly insufficient, so that under our present social conditions,
particularly which give mind and talent better openings, and thereby
more and more take out of the mass of the people the better elements,
make the strongest demand for them and use them up, the danger of an
increasing deterioration of the average quality of its progeny grows
greater and greater. The baneful influence of wealth on fertility is
shown by several tables. Figure C 118 "+Fertility and Wealth+,"
after Goldstein and Tallquist, gives the condition in the French
Departments; Figure C 119, "+Number of Children and Wealth+,"
after Bertillon, for the Arrondissements of Paris; Figure C 120,
"+Fertility and Wealth+," after Mombert, for Münich, 1901, Table
C 121, "+The Number of Children in Families of Different Classes in
Denmark+, 1901," after Westergaard; Table C 122, "+Fertility
of Marriages, Occupation, and Wealth for Copenhagen, and Dutch
Conditions+," after Rubin, Westergaard, and Verrijn Stuart.

[Sidenote: C 123]

The worst condition with regard to the fertility prevails among
those with the highest mental endowment. Evidence of this is given
in Figure C 123, "+Insufficient Fertility of the Highly Endowed
in Holland+," after J. R. Steinmetz. It shows the rapidity with
which the number of children decreases. In order to estimate the
significance of these statistics, it must be noted that after taking
into account the mortality among children and young persons, and the
unfitness for parenthood of an appreciable fraction of the adults,
a fully capable couple would have to produce at least four children
to assure the necessary moderate increase in the population which
is required to prevent a people from sinking into stagnation and
deterioration.

[Sidenote: C 124]

The dying out of highly gifted families is shown to be more accentuated
in Figure 255, after Bertillon, "+Progeny of the Highly Gifted in
France+." Four hundred and forty-five of the best known Frenchmen,
with their wives, have not even reproduced that number of individuals,
and this in spite of the fact that repeated marriages of the same
individuals have not been taken into account.

[Sidenote: C 125-126]

Even if one has been able, up to the present, to live in the hope
that the number of persons of more than average ability produced by
the mass of the people is always sufficient to replace those that are
used up, at the present time anxiety about the "heads" is replaced
by anxiety about the "hands." The knowledge of means of preventing
fertilization spreads incessantly, and is recklessly promulgated by
the neomalthusians and by a shameless industry. We point to Figure C
125, "+Want of Fertility in French Towns+," after Jayle, and to
Figure C 126, "+Fertility in Prussia+." In Berlin fertility is
decreasing most rapidly; at the end of the sixties it still amounted
to 200 in every 1,000 women of child-bearing age. In the five years,
1905-1910, only to 84; in the year 1910 only to 74. This state of
things is shown also in the relative increase in numbers of the first
born.

[Sidenote: C 127, 128 & 129]

Figure C 127, "+Decrease of Legitimate Fertility in Berlin - the
two-children system+." The other German towns follow the example
of Berlin. Berlin to-day produces 20% less children than are required
to maintain its own population without immigration, and the same
conditions will soon prevail in other towns. Up to now the country
districts in general maintain their fertility (West Prussia on Figure
C 128), but there, too, modern practices begin to make themselves
felt. The town and industrial population increases so rapidly that the
conditions prevailing among them have an ever increasing effect on the
people as a whole. Thus we see, even at the present time, a serious
decline in fertility among an overwhelming majority of European States:
Figure C 129, "+Decrease of Fertility in Some European States+."

[Sidenote: D]

Exhibited by David Fairchild Weeks, M.D.,

+Director of the New Jersey State Village for Epileptics at
Skillman, U.S.A.+


Explanation of Symbols used in the Charts.

Male individuals are indicated by squares and females by circles. The
members of each fraternity are connected by the same horizontal line.
The fraternity line is connected by a vertical line to the line joining
the symbols representing the father and mother. Illegal unions and
illegitimate children are shown by dotted lines. As an aid in tracing
the patient's immediate family, a green line is used to connect the
direct ancestors on the paternal side, and a red line on the maternal


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Online LibraryVariousAbstracts of Papers Read at the First International Eugenics Congress → online text (page 10 of 15)