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side. The red squares and circles indicate epileptics, the green the
insane, the black the feeble-minded, and purple the criminalistic. The
figures directly above the fraternity line indicate the rank in birth,
a figure inside a square or circle shows the number of individuals of
that sex. A black dot suspended from the fraternity line stands for a
miscarriage or a stillbirth. A line underneath a square or circle shows
that institutional care has been received. The hand points out our
patient.

The following letters indicate the different conditions: A, alcoholic;
B, blind; C, criminalistic; D, deaf; E, epileptic; F, feeble-minded;
I, insane; M, migrainous; N, normal; P, paralytic; S, syphilitic; T,
tubercular; W, wanderer, tramp; d, died; b, born; inf, infancy; Sx,
unchaste.

[Sidenote: D 1]

This chart shows very clearly the dangerous results of a marriage in
which both of the +parents are epileptic+. Of the four children
the first three were epileptic, and the fourth, a boy, who died at the
age of nine, was feeble-minded. All four of these children were cared
for at public expense, two are patients at the New Jersey State Village
for Epileptics, and the other two were wards of the Children's Home
Finding Society. The epileptic father is dead, and the mother married
again to an alcoholic man. When last heard of she had another child.

[Sidenote: D 2]

An +epileptic+ woman, married to a +feeble-minded man+,
is responsible for the large number of defectives shown on this chart.
The principal mating is that of one of the epileptic daughters of
this woman, who, like her mother, married a feeble-minded man. Eight
children resulted from this marriage; one died before two years of age,
the other seven were epileptic, the five who are living are patients
at the New Jersey State Village. Two of the girls in this fraternity
had illegitimate children before receiving proper care. This family is
undoubtedly a branch of a family of defectives, most of whom live in an
adjoining State.

[Sidenote: D 3]

This is a case of +incest+, and shows plainly that the "empty
germ plasm can yield only emptiness." These people lived in a hut
in the woods. The feeble-minded man had by his defective sister an
epileptic daughter, then by this daughter he had four children, one an
epileptic, one a feeble-minded woman of the streets, who spends much
of her time in jail, one an anencephalic monster who died soon after
birth, and one a feeble-minded boy, who did not grow to manhood. Since
the hut in the woods burned down, the epileptic woman and feeble-minded
daughter live in a cellar in town, though much of their time is spent
in jail.

[Sidenote: D 4]

This chart shows a +feeble-minded+ man, who came from a
feeble-minded family, married to an +epileptic+ woman, who
descended from a tubercular epileptic father and a mother who is
described as "flighty," "not too bright." This couple had six children,
three feeble-minded, two epileptic, and one still-born. Since the death
of the epileptic mother, the father has secured homes in institutions
for all of his children except one, and then married again. As yet he
has no children by the second wife.

[Sidenote: D 5]

The wife in the central mating in this case is a low grade
+epileptic+, who can scarcely recognize her own children. The
father is a +feeble-minded alcoholic+, who works hard, but who
spends all his money for drink. There were six children; one died at
the age of four, and all of the others except one six-year-old boy are
epileptic. All are being cared for by the public. Before the mother and
three of the epileptic children were brought to the State Village for
Epileptics the family lived in a cellar, slept on rags, and depended on
the neighbours for food.

[Sidenote: D 6]

This is a history which illustrates very well the source of a
large number of the almshouse inmates. The central figure is an
+epileptic+ woman, who spent most of her life in the poor house.
No two of her seven children are by the same father. The epileptic
daughter, whose father was feeble-minded, had started to lead the same
kind of life as her mother; in the almshouse she gave birth to one
illegitimate child before she was put under State care. The mother,
when she last left the almshouse, went to live in a hut in the woods
with a feeble-minded man, who had three feeble-minded sons; one of
these sons married the feeble-minded sister of one of the epileptic
patients at the New Jersey State Village.

[Sidenote: D 7a]

[Sidenote: D 7b]

This is the history of two patients who have been found to be related,
the great grandfather of the one was the brother of the grandmother of
the other. The principal mating under D 7a is that of a +feeble-minded+
man married to an +epileptic+ woman, whose mother died in the insane
asylum. They had six children, the first died when only a few months
old, the next and the fourth were not bright and died young, the third
is an epileptic, the fifth is feeble-minded and criminalistic and he
is now at the State Home for Boys, the sixth is also feeble-minded and
cared for at an industrial home for children. The mother and father,
at one time inmates of the almshouse, are now supported by the town.
Under D 7b the father, who died of spinal meningitis, was migrainous
and had many epileptic relatives, the mother is neurotic. There were
four children, the first an epileptic, the second died at 20 of spinal
meningitis, the third is of a very nervous temperament, the last, a
girl of 16, seems to be normal.

[Sidenote: D 8]

Both of the parents in this case are +feeble-minded+. The
father was the black sheep of his family, his brothers are intelligent
men, and for the most part good citizens; the mother, however, was
the illegitimate child of a feeble-minded woman. There were seven
children, one an epileptic, the others all feeble-minded with the
exception of the sixth, who is now about 11 years old; she was taken
from her home and put with a very good family; she shows the effect
of the changed environment, and though not up to her grade in school,
is only slightly backward. There is some doubt about the parentage of
the child, and it is very probable that she is by a different father.
Since the father's death the mother has had one illegitimate child; her
children were taken away from her except the two oldest because of the
immoral conditions in the home, and she now claims to be married to
a feeble-minded man, who is the younger feeble-minded brother of her
imbecile daughter's husband.

[Sidenote: D 9]

The central mating in this case is that of an +epileptic, alcoholic,
sexually immoral+ man, married to a +neurotic and sexually
immoral+ woman, who has many insane and feeble-minded relatives.
They had in all ten children; two were epileptic, three, feeble-minded,
one criminalistic and sexually immoral, the sixth is the only one who
has a good reputation, the last was a stillbirth. The father and mother
are no longer living together.

[Sidenote: D 10]

The case illustrated on this chart is of a +feeble-minded+
woman married to an +alcoholic+ man. The wife descended from an
alcoholic father, who had several epileptic relatives. The husband also
descended from an alcoholic father, and had an epileptic nephew. Of
their nine children, the first three died young of scarlet fever, the
fourth was epileptic, and the other five are feeble-minded.

[Sidenote: D 11]

On this chart we have the history of an +epileptic+ man whose
attacks were of the petit-mal type. He married a choreic woman. They
had four children, the eldest a man who developed epilepsy after
his second marriage. His first wife was insane; by her he had two
daughters, one of whom is now an inmate in an insane asylum, the other
is neurotic and has been treated in a sanatorium. Of the other children
two are apparently normal and one migrainous.

[Sidenote: D 12]

This chart shows an +epileptic+ man married to a normal woman;
he had both epileptic and insane relatives, while she had epileptic,
alcoholic, and tubercular relatives. Their first child was an
epileptic, the next were twins, one of these appears to be normal while
the other is of a very nervous temperament, the fourth died in infancy,
and the last three were stillbirths. The mother married the second
time, this time to a man who drank to excess after their marriage; by
him she had two children, both of whom seem to be normal. They are both
in school.

[Sidenote: D 13]

This is the history of a low grade +epileptic+. His oldest
sister is normal; she was brought up by strangers after her mother's
death, and is now earning her living as a saleslady. The second was a
boy, who was thought to be normal until he was about sixteen, when he
displayed criminalistic tendencies, and for the crime of rape was put
in the Reform School. The youngest is a girl, who is of a very nervous
temperament. The father was an alcoholic, and went on long sprees; he
deserted his wife and family to live with a woman who also deserted a
family. His brother is an alcoholic, and married the patient's mother's
sister; they are now divorced. The mother was migrainous, she died of
tuberculosis; her family shows a neurotic taint, while the father has
several epileptic relatives.

[Sidenote: D 14]

In the central mating the father and mother are both
+migrainous+. They both belong to families prominent in the
community in which they reside; their homes are among the best, and
they are counted as leading citizens. There were nine children;
three died before four years of age, one is epileptic, one seems to
be normal, and the others all show some nervous taint, though not
migrainous.

[Sidenote: D 15]

This is the history of a +syphilitic and a sexually immoral
couple+. They were never married, and the woman for many years
supported the man, who was never sober and frequently had attacks of
delirium tremens. She finally deserted him. Of their eight children two
were stillbirths, three were epileptic, and the other syphilitic. One
of the epileptics in a jealous rage shot the woman whom he loved, and
when he found that escape was impossible, killed himself.

[Sidenote: D 15a-b]

Charts explaining the method of collecting and recording data.

* * * * *




[Sidenote: E]

Exhibited by Mr E. J. Lidbetter.


A selection by Mr. E. J. Lidbetter, from his collection of pedigrees,
showing pauperism in association with mental and physical defect,
justifying the inference that a high proportion of +pauperism is to
be attributed to the transmission of defect+ and the perpetuation
of stocks of a low type: -

[Sidenote: E 1]

Pedigree showing +mental disease and destructive eye-disease+
in the same stock. Insanity, epilepsy, feeble-mindedness and idiocy in
various degrees in twelve members, several of them being also blind;
partial or total blindness from detachment of the retina without mental
defect in several others. Tendency to "anti-dating" or "anticipation"
of the mental disease in succeeding generations or younger born
offspring. The printed numbers on the diagram indicate the age of the
individual on 1st attack. Prevalence of tuberculosis (three members).
Neither mental nor ocular conditions attributable to syphilis. Of the
49 individuals whose history is known 26 have been, or are being,
maintained in public institutions (Asylums, Workhouses, Blind Schools,
or Poor Law Schools), 29 have been paupers at intervals, and two
are known to have been in prison. Several marriages between mental
defectives yielding large but inferior families. (Exhibited by Mr. E.
T. Lidbetter. The eye-disease reported upon by Mr. E. Nettleship.)

[Sidenote: E 2]

Pedigree showing the tendency to +intermarry among pauper and
defective families+. On the left "able-bodied" pauperism and on
the right sickness. One hundred and fifty-seven units shown in five
generations; 76 paupers shown, including 38 classed as chronic, 32
occasional and six medical only. Twenty-eight died in infancy, nine
tuberculous, six insane, two epileptics, and one blind. Shows also
pauper children born in lucid intervals of parent suffering from
periodic insanity.

[Sidenote: E 3]

Pedigree illustrating stock of a +low type in which very little
physical defect appears+. The total includes 61 individuals, of
whom 42 are or have been paupers, eight have died in workhouse or
infirmary, and two in asylums for lunatics; one child is an imbecile.
On the whole the stock may be described as mentally sub-normal (not
strongly so), but with a marked non-moral tendency. Of the 34 children
in the last generation, ten are certainly illegitimate; 15 were, or
are, being brought up in Poor Law Institutions, and nine received
out-door relief with their parents. The collective period of pauperism
in this case exceeds 115 years and the cost to the ratepayers is
estimated at about £2,400.

[Sidenote: E 4]

Showing the case of a woman who had two husbands. With the first her
children were consistently defective (deaf and dumb). With the second,
one died in infancy and three are doing well. All the children of the
first are, or have been, paupers.

[Sidenote: E 5]

A series showing the intimate +relation between tuberculosis infant
mortality and pauperism+: -

[Sidenote: E 5a]

Showing a +tuberculous family with apparently normal parents+,
both of whom come from tuberculous stocks. Of their 14 children only
two are normal; six are consumptive; four died in infancy. The father
was one of a family of 8 of whom only he and one other survived - and
that other became insane, and his wife and children became paupers in
consequence.

[Sidenote: E 5b]

Showing +insanity, consumption and infant mortality+; also the
transmission of insanity through the apparently normal.

[Sidenote: E 5c]

Showing the +survival of tuberculous+ stock by accession of
strength from the normal. Only the illegitimate children and their
non-sick father survive in this group.

[Sidenote: E 5d]

Showing the case of a +normal woman who had two consumptive
husbands+. Survival of defective strain by accession of strength
from the normal.

[Sidenote: E 5e]

+Consumption+ in three generations. +Male infant
mortality+. Query, transmission (?) through the normal.

[Sidenote: E 6]

A series showing +transmission of mental defect through the
apparently normal+.

[Sidenote: E 6a]

Insanity, blindness, epilepsy and feeble-mindedness.

[Sidenote: E 6b]

Insanity in three generations. Transmission through the normal in each
case.

[Sidenote: E 6c]

Insanity through the normal twice removed.

[Sidenote: E 6d]

Insanity, epilepsy, and infant mortality - a Mendelian suggestion.


[Sidenote: F]

EXHIBITED BY PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT, CITY OF LIVERPOOL.

E. W. Hope, M.D., M.O.H.

[Sidenote: F 1]

One large model of +insanitary property+ dealt with in
Liverpool, built to scale, etc., with glass cover.

[Sidenote: F 2]

Charts showing the +decline in mortality from phthisis+: -

[Sidenote: F 2a]

One showing rate for England and Wales.

[Sidenote: F 2b]

One " " England and Ireland.

[Sidenote: F 2c]

One " " Scotland.

[Sidenote: F 2d]

One " " Liverpool.

[Sidenote: F 3 b c d e f]

Six framed and glazed photographs illustrating insanitary property
which has been demolished in Liverpool, and the new dwellings which
have been erected to house the dispossessed tenants.

* * * * *




[Sidenote: G]

AN EXHIBIT OF A SYSTEM OF MAKING PEDIGREE RECORDS.

Exhibited by Dr. Raymond Pearl,

+Biologist of the Maine Agricultural Experiment Station, Orono,
Maine.+


This exhibit consists of a series of blank record forms designed to
+illustrate the method of keeping pedigree records+ which has
been in use at the Maine Agricultural Experiment Station for a period
of five years, in connection with its work in the experimental study of
inheritance in poultry and in various plants. The advantages which have
been found by experience to inhere in this system of pedigree record
keeping are (_a_) simplicity; (_b_) ease of operation; (_c_) small
chance for error in the keeping of large masses of pedigree records;
(_d_) uniformity of the system, such that records of all kinds, in any
way pertaining to the work, may be brought together with great ease for
consultation or study.

In addition to the record blanks there are exhibited also various
marking devices and other apparatus connected with the proper working
of the plan.

It should be noted that while the blanks here exhibited are devised
particularly for work with poultry and plants, the same system, with
slight modifications, may be successfully applied to the keeping of
human pedigree records; indeed it is a pleasure to state that the
system here exhibited is an outgrowth and development of a scheme for
the keeping of pedigree data in general and particularly human pedigree
records suggested many years ago by the late Sir Francis Galton.

* * * * *




[Sidenote: H]

Exhibited by C. V. Drysdale, Esq., D. Sc.


The +Malthusian theory of population+ leads to the conclusion
that the population of the majority of countries is held in check by
lack of food. Therefore, there should be a correspondence between the
birth and death rates, high birth rates producing high death rates and
high infantile mortality, and the death rate should rise or fall with a
rise or fall of the birth rate.

In the accompanying diagrams, white strips imply birth rates, shaded
strips death rates, and black strips infantile mortality, or deaths of
children under one year.

[Sidenote: H 1]

Shows the relation between +birth and death rates and infantile
mortality+ in various countries in 1901-1905.

[Illustration: VARIOUS COUNTRIES 1901-05

Figure H 1.]

[Sidenote: H 2]

Relation between _birth rate and +corrected+ death rates_ in
various countries. (This shows that France is healthier than appears in
H 1.)

[Sidenote: H 3]

Shows relation between +birth and death rates+ from various
causes in five districts of +London+.

[Sidenote: H 4]

Relation between the +birth rate and death rate+ for various
arrondissements of +Paris+ in 1906. (Note that the increase in
the Elysée quarter is as high as the average in the quarters of high
birth rate.)

[Sidenote: H 5-6]

Variation of the +total population and birth and death rates+ in
the +United Kingdom+ and the +German Empire+. (Note that the fall
in the death rate corresponds fairly closely to that in the birth
rate.)

[Sidenote: H 7]

Id. for +France+. (Note that the population is still increasing
although slowly.)

[Sidenote: H 8]

=Birth and death rates for France= since 1781. (Note that the rate of
increase of population in 1781 was no higher with a birth rate of 39
per 1,000 than in 1901-6 with a birth rate of only 21 per 1,000. A fall
of 17.8 per 1,000 in the birth rate has resulted in a fall of 17.5 per
1,000 in the death rate.)

[Sidenote: H 9]

+Birth and death rates and infantile mortality for England and
Wales+. Also +marriage rate, fertility of married women,
illegitimacy+ and +variation of diseases+. (Note that the
illegitimate birth rate has fallen to half since the fall of the birth
rate set in.)

[Sidenote: H 10]

+Birth and death rates and infantile mortality+ in the
+Netherlands+ (Notice the rapid increase of population as the
death rate falls, and the great fall of infantile mortality, probably
due to the practical work of the Dutch Neo-Malthusian League among the
poor.)

[Sidenote: H 11-13]

+_Protestant Countries._+ (Notice the correspondence between the
birth and death rates and infantile mortality in all.)

[Sidenote: H 14-16]

+_Roman Catholic Countries._+ (Note that the fall of the birth
rate has taken place almost equally with that in the Protestant
Countries, and with the same result.)

[Sidenote: H 17-20]

The only +four countries in which the birth rate is approximately
_stationary_+. (Notice that the death rate has not fallen - except,
perhaps in Russia - and that the infantile mortality has not fallen.
Also that the highest birth rate produces the highest death rate and
infantile mortality, and the lowest birth rate the lowest mortality.)

[Sidenote: H 21-24]

The only +four countries with _rising_ birth rates.+ _The death
rate and the infantile mortality have increased in every one._

[Sidenote: H 25]

+_Australia._+ The death rate has fallen with the birth rate,
and is now only about 10 per 1,000.

[Sidenote: H 26]

+_New Zealand._+ The only country in which the fall in the
birth rate has not produced a fall in the death rate, and which is not
therefore over-populated. The infantile mortality is the lowest in the
world, and the death rate less than 10 per 1,000, which gives us an
ideal which we can reach in all countries by lowering the birth rate
sufficiently.

[Sidenote: H 27]

+_The City of Toronto._+ The birth rate has fallen and
afterwards risen. The death rate has fallen with the birth rate, and
afterwards risen, showing that the improvements in sanitation have not
been the cause of the falling death rate in other countries.

[Sidenote: H 28]

+_Berlin._+ The birth rate rose rapidly from 1841 to 1876, and
afterwards fell even more rapidly. The death rate, except for epidemics
and wars, rose and fell in almost precise correspondence with the birth
rate.

[Sidenote: H 29-30]

+_Europe and Western Europe._+ These show that the total
population of Europe is increasing faster, the more the birth rate
falls, while in Western Europe the birth and death rates correspond
almost exactly. Calculations made from this show that about 25,000,000
fewer deaths have occurred in Europe since 1876, due to the fall in
the birth rate caused by the Knowlton Trial and the Neo-Malthusian
movement. It should be noted that in the great majority of cases the
decline of the birth rate commenced in 1877, the year of the Knowlton
Trial.

[Illustration:

EUROPE.

WESTERN EUROPE. (COMPRISING THE UNITED KINGDOM, NORWAY, SWEDEN,
FINLAND, DENMARK, HOLLAND, BELGIUM, FRANCE, GERMANY, AUSTRIA,
SWITZERLAND, ITALY, SPAIN, & PORTUGAL.)

(SEE SUNDBARG'S APERÇUS STATISTIQUES INT'ONAUX 1905. pp. 76 & 80.)

Figures H 29-30]


[Sidenote: I]

Exhibits lent by Mr. and Mrs. W. C. D. Whetham.

* * * * *

[Sidenote: I 1]

1. Pedigree showing the descent of Administrative Ability.

[Sidenote: I 2]

2. Wollaston Pedigree, showing the descent of Scientific Ability.

[Sidenote: I 3]

3. Pedigree showing the Mendelian descent of Eye-colour in mankind.




[Sidenote: K]

THE RACIAL FORM OF NOSE AND ITS SEGREGATIVE INHERITANCE.

By Geo. P. Mudge.

The +form of a nose+ doubtless depends upon many factors. But
chief among them we may suppose are the length, breadth, and angle
of inclination of the nasal bones; the form, length, breadth, and
thickness of the nasal septum, and the degree of development of the
turbinal bones. The segregation and persistence in families of a
definite type of nose-form is a subject well worth further study. The
inheritance of this character from the Mendelian standpoint has not yet
been adequately studied. But as with eye-colour, so with nose-form,
we desire to know not only how alternative characters are inherited
among individuals of the same race, but how they are +transmitted
among+ the offspring of mixed races.


ENGLISH V. GIPSY.

[Sidenote: K 1]

I am able in the photograph exhibited to show what appears to be
an undoubted transmission of a very prominent form of nose from a
grandmother to a grandson. The grandmother (on the right of the
photograph, who is now over 80 years of age) was the wife of a gipsy
and she herself came of gipsy stock. She and her husband eventually
settled in a small village in the West of England. They had six
children, namely, two sons and four daughters. Of the two sons, one was
fair in complexion and had the "wild ways and habits of the gipsy." The
other was dark in complexion and married an English countrywoman of the
district in which his parents had settled. She was of fair complexion.
They are shown, as husband and wife, in the left-hand corner of the
central photograph. They have had four children, namely, three girls
(shown in the centre of the photograph) and one son (shown standing
by the right of his gipsy grandmother in the right corner of the
photograph).

The gipsy grandmother has a very prominent type of nose. It is
characterised by three chief features: First, the broad base on


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Online LibraryVariousAbstracts of Papers Read at the First International Eugenics Congress → online text (page 11 of 15)