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which the external narial apertures are lodged; second, the marked
convexity of the contour of the bridge; third, the well-defined or
sharp angularity of the general form. Her son's nose differs from hers
in all three of these points. His wife's nose is of the more rounded
type and differs very widely from that of the gipsy grandmother (her
mother-in-law). The three girl children of these two parents clearly
do not possess a nose like that of their grandmother. The two younger
daughters appear to resemble their mother, while the oldest appears to
be an intermediate between her mother and father. So far then there is
no feature of any special interest.

But it is otherwise when we come to deal with the nose of the son
(grandson of the old gipsy woman). For it resembles hers in all three
of the marked features which give to her nose its distinctive and
prominent form. The convexity of the bridge is, perhaps, not quite so
pronounced, but then he is still young, and this is a feature likely to
become accentuated with age.

Two features of Mendelian interest are shown in this group of a
grandmother, two parents and four grandchildren. First, there is a
hereditary transmission of nose type from grandmother to grandson.
Second, there is a clean segregation of the nose type manifested by
the brother, from the contrasted nose type or types exemplified by his
three sisters. In addition, the case is interesting since it manifests
segregation of characters in the offspring of parents of different
races, _i.e._, a gipsy and a native of the West of England.

In the absence of precise information concerning the form of nose of
the gipsy grandmother's husband, and of their five other children, and
of the brothers and sisters of the grandmother, it is difficult to
formulate a scheme showing a definite Mendelian inheritance in this
case. But the two features alluded to in the preceding paragraph are
strongly suggestive of inheritance according to Mendelian principles.

We are indebted to Mrs. Rose Haig Thomas for the general facts of this
case and for the photograph of the group.


+EUROPEAN V. AMERICAN RED INDIAN.+

[Sidenote: K 2]

A few years ago I had an opportunity of meeting two friends who had
spent many years in different parts of Canada and were acquainted with
families who were derived from an ancestry partly European and partly
North American Indian. I gathered from my friends, in virtue of much
kindness and patience upon their part, some valuable facts concerning
the nature of various facial features in the offspring of the two
mixed races - European and Red Indian. I purpose here to deal with two
families and with only one character, _i.e._, the type of nose. The
Red Indian and European type of nose are easily distinguishable. In the
Red Indian the nose is prominent and its frontal profile is formed by
two lines which diverge from the bridge towards the base. The latter
is, in consequence, very broad. The form of nose is sometimes known as
the _busqué_ or curved type, since its lateral profile is in outline
markedly aquiline. But examination of a series of photographs of Red
Indians shows some variation in the lateral profile, since some are
decidedly concave. But the broadness at the base is apparently never
diminished; it is always marked and unmistakable. The well-pronounced
Indian nose can always be easily distinguished from the European nose
by persons who have had a long acquaintance with both races. But cases
do occur where even an experienced observer would feel some doubt in
expressing an opinion as to which type a given nose belonged. Such
cases are, however, not common.

[Sidenote: K 2a]

From the pedigrees of families derived from a mixed racial parentage
in my possession, I select two for exhibition at this Congress. The
first is that known as "Family 5" in my list. In this case a Scotchman
(Generation A, S) married a full-blood Indian woman. They had a son and
daughter (Generation B, 2 and 3). The half-breed son had the Indian
type of nose. The daughter had a small and well-shaped European nose.

The son married a full-blood Indian woman (Generation B, 1) and had
four children. Two of these were infants at the time my informant knew
them, and though they were described as being generally of the Indian
type, they were too young to give any reliable details concerning the
form of the nose. The two elder children (Generation C, 1 and 2) were a
daughter and a son, and both had the Indian type of nose.

The half-breed daughter (Generation B, 4) married twice. Her first
husband was a half-breed Indian (B 3). He was not seen by my informant.
They had a son and a daughter (Generation C, 5 and 6). The former
was Indian in type of nose as well as in other facial characters.
The daughter, though she had very decided Indian cheek bones, had
the European type of nose. She is of further interest, inasmuch
as while her eye-colour was European the shape of her eyes was
characteristically Indian.

The second husband of the half-breed daughter was a Welshman
(Generation B, W). By him she had seven children. The last was a baby
at the time my informant saw it, and we may leave it out of account.
The penultimate child was a son (Generation C, 12), and his nose was
sunken, and my informant found it difficult to say whether it was
European or Indian in type. I rather suspect from an inspection of some
photographs of Indians which I have seen that it resembles a very
concave flattened Indian type. Of the remaining five children, four had
an European type and one an Indian type of nose.

Assuming that my informant's observations and memory are accurate - and
I feel sure they are quite reliable since he spent many years among
the Indians and half-breeds of North America in company with other
Europeans, and he is a man of naturally sharp discernment - this family
shows clear evidence of the segregation of nose type. It is shown more
particularly in the children of the half-breed daughter who married
twice, since among her offspring (Generation C, 5-13) both types of
nose appeared. The re-appearance of the European nose was manifested,
not only when she was mated back to an European in her second marriage,
but when she married a half-breed like herself. This latter marriage,
however, did not constitute, as we might at first sight regard it, an
experimental mating in every way analogous to a Mendelian cross of DR
x DR; because although she was a half-breed her nose was not like her
brother's of the Indian type, but European.

It thus appears as though the Indian nose was dominant in one case,
and the European in the other. Too much stress must not be laid on
this point. So many half-breeds are indistinguishable from full-blood
Indians, that the possibility is to be borne in mind that this woman's
mother, who was married to the Scotchman, was not really a full-blood
Indian, and that tradition was in error. I am, however, making further
inquiries.

But Mendelian segregation is shown in this pedigree in another way. The
granddaughter (Generation C, 6), by the first husband, manifested, as
already indicated, an European type of nose and European eye-colour.
She also manifested other European characters, with which I do not
now purpose dealing. But her cheek bones were decidedly Indian and
the shape of her eyes were also Indian. Thus we have the segregation
in the same individual of the characters of two distinct races of
men. In other words, there has been segregation of racial characters
followed by their recombination in a hybrid race. That is a fact of
some importance, in what we may designate as anthropological Eugenics,
or, if we prefer it, as the Eugenics of Anthropology. For it turns our
thoughts to the possibility of calling into being a more perfect type
of men by the recombination of the better alternative qualities of two
less perfect races.

[Sidenote: K 2b]

The second pedigree exhibited is that of "Family 4" in my list. I am
indebted to another informant for the facts of this pedigree, and they
relate to another part of North America. In this case a Frenchman
(Generation A, F) married a full-blood Indian Princess, namely, a
daughter of a Chief. She had one only daughter (Generation B, 2) whose
nose was of the Indian type, but rather flat.

The daughter married an Irishman (Generation B, 1), and they had six
children. Of these three had European types of nose and three the
Indian type (Generation C, 1-6).

This family shows again an apparently clean segregation of Indian
and European types of nose. The two types appear, side by side, in
different individuals of the same fraternity.

THE SEGREGATION OF RACIAL EYE-COLOUR.

By Geo. P. Mudge.

It is a matter of importance to know the exact influence which a
mixture of races exerts upon the hereditary transmission of characters.
For instance, do the alternative characters of two races of men, when
they are related by marriage, segregate in inheritance in accordance
with Mendelian principles? Is the term "blending or fusion of races
misleading, and only accurate when employed in a qualified sense"?

It has been shown by Mr. Hurst's very careful investigations in a
Leicestershire village that certain types of human eye-colour, which
he designates as "Simplex" and "Duplex," are inherited in complete
accord with Mendelian principles of inheritance. The two types not
only segregate from each other in the course of transmission, but they
do so in practically exact Mendelian proportions. And the "Simplex"
type, which is the recessive form of eye-colour, breeds true. It begets
nothing but the Simplex eye. These results have been confirmed by
Professor and Mrs. Davenport in America. In this and similar cases we
are merely dealing with the transmission of alternative characters in
individuals of the same race.[D]

[Footnote D: Of course, the "English" race is really a community of
many commingled races. But from our present standpoint that matters
little. It is rather confirmatory of the further facts and conclusions
I am about to describe.]

But one of the interesting problems of the future is concerned with the
transmission of characters when human races of diverse characteristics
breed together. We are not concerned to discuss now whether the races
of mankind are varieties or species.

[Sidenote: K 3]

SPANIARD _v._ GIPSY.

The records of travellers provide certain information which helps
us to form reliable though limited conclusions as to the results of
the +interbreeding of different human races+. Mrs. Rose Haig
Thomas, to whom we are indebted for the exhibit of a photograph,
taken during a journey through Spain a few years ago, of a Spanish
gipsy woman with her three children, has made several observations
of some interest. She became acquainted with a family in which "the
mother was a dark-skinned, black-haired, black-eyed gipsy woman. (See
photograph, Exhibit No. K 3.) The husband was a Spaniard with blue
eyes. There were three children. Of these, the eldest had flaxen hair
and blue eyes. The second was a boy with black eyes, black hair, and an
olive skin as dark as the mother's. The third child was too young to
justify any conclusion being based on its characteristics. It was only
18 months old; but was flaxen-haired, blue-eyed, and fair skinned."
This observation of Mrs. Haig Thomas, in Granada, affords then a clear
example of the segregation of blue-eye and flaxen-hair characters among
the gametes of the black-eyed, black-haired, and olive-complexioned
mother. For, in the light of Mendelian researches, it is obvious she
was carrying these characters recessive, and that some of her gametes
were pure in respect of them.


ARAB _v._ SPANIARD.

[Sidenote: K 4]

The second photograph, exhibited by Mrs. Haig Thomas (Exhibit No. K 4),
is of three sisters who were also photographed in Granada. The eldest
is of the dark, typical "Arab type," so well recognised by Spaniards
wherever it is seen in Spain. The second sister is clearly much lighter
in hair and fairer in complexion than her sister. The nose, too, is
very distinct in both. The baby is fair. It is impossible, of course,
to trace the remote ancestry of these sisters, and Mrs. Haig Thomas
obtained no information as to their parents, but from what we know of
Spanish history the case suggests a +possible segregation of Moorish
from Gothic features+ after the intermixture of the two races,
by marriage, had occurred. But the question is extremely complex. It
is impossible to say to what extent the inhabitants of modern Spain
represent in varying degrees a commingled race of Phoenicians and
Iberians, of these with Romans and Goths, and of all with Moors,
themselves at the time of the conquest of Spain a mixed race. All that
can be said with any degree of probability is that these various races
have more or less intermingled[E] during the long history of Spain,
and that the flaxen hair and blue eyes among its inhabitants are the
heritage which the Goths have left them.

[Footnote E: I advisedly use the word intermingled and not blended.]


EUROPEAN _v._ AMERICAN RED INDIAN.

For the facts of the segregation of European and Indian eye-colour,
I am indebted to two friends who resided for many years in different
parts of Canada, and who do not desire their names published.

[Sidenote: K 5]

The first case of this kind (Pedigree Chart, No. K 5) of
+segregation of racial eye-colour+ is that of the offspring
from a marriage between a blue-eyed Scotchman and a black-eyed, full
blood American Red Indian woman.[F] They had a son and a daughter, and
the eyes of both were Indian brown. This brown differs from that of
European eyes, and can usually be distinguished by observers who know
the two races well. The half-breed son (No. 2, Generation B) married a
full blood Indian woman (No. 1), who also had Indian brown eyes, and by
her had four children. Two of them were babies at the time my informant
knew them, and we may leave them out of account. The other two, a son
and daughter (Nos. 2 and 1, Generation C), had Indian brown eyes. This
result is in accord with Mendelian expectations.

[Footnote F: This is the same family as Family 5 described in
connection with Segregation of Nose Form in exhibit K 2a.]

The half-breed Indian daughter (No. 4, Generation B) of the blue-eyed
Scotchman and Indian mother married a Welshman (No. 5, B) with hazel
eyes. They had seven children. Of these, two - a son and daughter (No.
7 and 11, Generation C) - had blue eyes. The remaining children - with
the exception of a baby, whom my informant had seldom seen - had eyes of
varying shades of brown. Two (Nos. 9 and 12, C) had European brown, one
dark Indian brown, and one Indian brown eyes (Nos. 8 and 10, C).

The re-appearance of blue eyes among two of the Scotchman's
grandchildren is a clear example of the Mendelian segregation among the
gametes of the half-breed Indian mother of the factors which produce
blue eyes. The Welsh father, with the hazel eyes, must, of course, as
we deduce from other cases, have carried the blue-eye factors recessive.

The black-eyed full blood Indian grandmother also carried various
shades of Indian brown, recessive to the Indian black which she herself
manifested, since her daughter and two granddaughters exhibited Indian
brown and dark Indian brown coloured eyes. The two European brown-eyed
grandsons were probably in eye-colour hybrids between the hazel colour
of the Welsh father and the Indian brown of the half-breed Indian
mother.

The pedigree is thus, in respect of eye-colour - and of other
characters also which are not here described - clearly Mendelian in its
manifestations. It shows that the offspring of two very different types
of human races exhibit the same mode of Mendelian inheritance as do the
descendants of two contrasted parents of the same race.

[Sidenote: K 6]

Family 4 (Pedigree Chart, No. K 6) illustrates the same kind of facts
and conclusions. In the A Generation a Frenchman, whose eye-colour
was unknown to my informant, married a full blood Indian princess who
had Indian brown eyes. There was one daughter only (Generation B) by
this marriage, and she had Indian brown eyes. She married an Irishman,
who had red hair, grey eyes, and a freckled complexion (Generation
B). From this marriage there came six children (Generation C). Two of
these had "grey eyes like their father." Three had dark brown eyes of
European tint. My informant had some doubt as to the European tint of
two of these three (Nos. 3 and 4, C Generation); their eye-colour was
very dark brown, and possibly it may have been the Indian tint. The
remaining member of this generation had Indian brown eyes of a very
dark shade.

It may be desirable to state that Families 4 and 5 come from different
parts of Canada.

The chief feature of interest in this family is the segregation of the
grey eye-colour of the Irishman among his offspring. It appears in
two daughters. From what we know of analogous cases, there is little
doubt that the gametes of his half-breed Indian wife carried the blue
or grey factors derived from her French father. The appearance of an
European brown eye-colour in Generation C, No. 6, suggests that the
French grandfather had brown eyes, and that, therefore, this colour has
segregated out among the gametes of the half-breed Indian mother.




Exhibited by Mr. E. Nettleship.

[Sidenote: L]

[Sidenote: L 1]

+Congenital Colour-blindness+. Pedigree showing unusual
features, viz.: (_a_) females affected; (_b_) twins, of whom one
is affected, the other not; (_c_) marriage between two unrelated
colour-blind stocks. Except that two females are affected the
inheritance, so far as can be traced, has followed the rule for
colour-blindness; viz., limitation to males and transmission through
unaffected females.

_Key to Signs_.

[M] normal male; [F] normal female.
[M-] colour-blind male; [F-] colour-blind female.
[circle] batch of whom there are no particulars.
[OO with over bar] twins. [Greek: ph] died in infancy. [ob]: dead.
[×] seen and examined.
[× ×] reported normal, but not seen.

[Sidenote: L 2]

+Hereditary night-blindness with myopia+ (short sight) affecting
21 males and only 1 female in a large pedigree. The night-blindness
congenital and stationary. Descent always through mothers themselves
unaffected. Mental defects in several of the night-blind stock. Other
pedigrees of this male-limited night-blindness are on record.

_Key_.

[M-] and [F-] night-blind male and female.
Otherwise the same as for L 1.

[Sidenote: L 3]

Pedigrees of +hereditary congenital Nystagmus+ (involuntary
rhythmical movements of the eyes) showing two different modes of
descent.

[Sidenote: L 3a]

In Figure L 3a the nystagmus occurs only in males and descends through
unaffected females.

[Sidenote: L 3b]

In Fig. L 3b both males and females are liable to the disease, and
either parent may transmit it, although descent is more often through
mother than father.

The movements of the eyes are very often accompanied by rhythmical
movements of the head in the non-sex-limited type (Fig. L 3b), but head
movements very seldom occur in the male-limited type (Fig. L 3a).

In both types many of those affected have also optical defects of the
eyes, especially astigmatism. No mental or nerve complications in
either kind.

_Key_.

[M-] and [F-] male and female with Nystagmus.
Otherwise as for L 1.

[Sidenote: L 4]

Pedigree of +hereditary Cataract+. The cataract in this
genealogy begins in childhood, and usually progresses so as to require
operation by the time its subject is grown up; results of operation
usually good and lasting. Most of the affected members still living; of
the four dead, none died before 54, and two of them lived to 78 and 83
respectively. Both sexes affected and either sex may transmit. No other
eye disease and no prevalent constitutional diseases or degeneracies in
the cataractous stock.

Many similar pedigrees are known.

_Key_.

[M-] and [F-] male and female with cataract.
Otherwise as for L 1.




[Sidenote: M]

Exhibited by Professor R. C. Punnett, F.R.S.

Mendelian Inheritance in Rabbits.

[Sidenote: M 1.]

Yellow Himalayan
Dutch × (Black)
|
F_{1} Agouti
(reversion to wild colour).
|
F |
______________________|__________________________
| | | | |
Agouti Black Yellow Tortoise Himalayan
+Ratio.+ 27 9 9 3 16

Factors concerned: -

+A+. the factor for agouti which turns a black into an agouti,
or a tortoise into a yellow.

+E+. the factor for extension of pigment which when present
turns a yellow into an agouti, or a tortoise into a black.

+S+. the factor for self colour which turns a Himalayan into a
self coloured animal.

All the rabbits in this experiment contain the factor for black (B).

[Sidenote: M 2.]

The Himalayan pattern can occur in all four colour classes. Thus the
agouti Himalayan has lighter points than the black Himalayan. (cf. 2
specimens shown.)

Experiments to demonstrate that +black rabbits may be of different
constitution genetically+.

Factors concerned in these experiments are: -

+A+. the agouti factor.

+E+. the factor for extension of pigment.

+D+. a factor for density of pigmentation.

All the rabbits are homozygous for the black factor +B+.

Homozygous agouti = +AA BB EE+.

Black rabbits may be either: -

(1) Rabbits of the constitution +aa BB EE+. These breed true and
behave as simple recessive to agouti.

(2) Rabbits of the constitution +AA BB EE DD+., _i.e._,
agoutis to which a double dose of D has been added are pure blacks in
appearance, when only a single dose of D is added the animal shows some
agouti markings and is an agouti-black. Such rabbits have always proved
to be heterozygous, and when mated together give blacks, agouti-blacks,
and agoutis in the ratio 7:6:3.

(3) Rabbits of the constitution +AA BB Ee Dd+. An agouti-black
(AA BB EE Dd) becomes a pure black when heterozygous for E. Such blacks
when mated with blacks of constitution +aa BB EE dd+ throw some
agoutis and also some agouti-blacks.

Further, the experiments have shewn that the factor +D+ is coupled with
+E+ in the gametogenesis of rabbits of the constitution +AA BB Ee Dd+.
The gametes produced by such animals are of two kinds only viz - +A B
E D+ and +A B e d+. When mated with a tortoise aa BB ee dd they give
blacks and yellows only - +and no agoutis+. So far as is known, the
coupling between E and D is complete. At present this is the only case
of coupling between characters yet worked out in a mammal.

[Sidenote: M 3]

Experiments with +Poultry+, illustrating the +recombination
of characters+.

Brown
Leghorn [F-] × Silky [M-]
|
(_a_) Coloured (chiefly brown) | (_a_) White plumage (with or
plumage | without slight buff tinge)
|
(_b_) Normal feathers | (_b_) Silky feathers
|
_________________________|__________________________
| |
F_1 [F-] (_a_) Coloured F_1 [M-]
(_b_) Normal feathers
- - - - ________ ________ - - - - -
- - - - - × - - - - -
|
|
|
F_2 Generation
________________________________________________________
| | | |
/ - - - + - - - \ / - - - + - - - \ / - - - + - - - \ / - - - + - - - \

Coloured plumage Coloured plumage White plumage White plumage
Normal feathers Silky feathers Normal feathers Silky feathers

[Sidenote: M 4]

Experiment with +Sweet Peas, illustrating reversion on crossing,
followed by the appearance of numerous types in next generation+.

White × White


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Online LibraryVariousAbstracts of Papers Read at the First International Eugenics Congress → online text (page 12 of 15)