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Abstracts of Papers Read at the First International Eugenics Congress online

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|
F_1 Purple
|
+ - - - - - - - - - - -+ - - - - - - - - - -+
| | |
F_2 3 types of purple 3 corresponding figures Whites
viz.: - of reds, viz.: -

(_a_) Purple (_a_) Painted Lady

(_b_) Deep Purple (_b_) Miss Hunt

(_c_) Picotee (_c_) Tinged White

The varied forms in the F_2 generation appear in definite proportions
and a certain number of plants of each variety are already "fixed," and
have been shewn, by further experiment, to breed true to type.

[Sidenote: M 5]

Experiment with Sweet Peas, illustrating reversion in structural
characters.

A cross between the ordinary "Cupid" dwarfs and the half-dwarf "Bush"
form results in a complete reversion to the normal tall habit such as
occurs in the wild sweet pea. A further generation raised from these
reversionary talls consists of talls, Bush, Cupids, and a new form, the
"Bush-Cupid." These last combine the erect bush-like habit of growth
with the dwarfness of the Cupid.

Bush × Cupid
|
F_1 Tall
|
+ - - - - - + - - + - - + - - - - - - +
| | | |
F_2 Tall Bush Cupid Bush-Cupid

In the
ratio 9 3 3 1

[Sidenote: M 6a]

Example of +association of characters in heredity+.

In the sweet pea the dark reddish purple axil is dominant to the light
green one. Also the fertile condition of the anthers is dominant to
the contabescent sterile condition. In families which involve these
characters, the nature of the F_2 generation depends upon the way in
which the original cross was made. (A) When each parent has one of the
dominant characters.

Dark axil} {Light axil
Sterile} × {Fertile
|
F_{1} Dark axil
Fertile
|
+ - - - - - - + - -+ - - - - -+ - - - - - - - - +
| | | |
F_{2} Dark axil Dark axil Light axil {[*]Light axil}
Fertile Sterile Fertile { Sterile }

Approximate 2 1 1
ratio

* Not yet found, but probably occurs very rarely.]

[Sidenote: M 6b]

(B) If, however, both of the dominant characters go in with one parent,
and neither with the other parent, they tend to remain associated in
F_{2}; thus: -

Light} {Dark
Sterile} × {Fertile
|
F_{1} Dark Fertile
|
+ - - - - - -+ - - - - - + - - - - - -+
| | | |
F_{2} Dark Dark Light Light
Fertile Sterile Fertile Sterile
+Ratio.+ 737 31 31 225

In such a cross the classes resembling the two original parents tend to
be produced in excess, while the other two combinations are produced
much more rarely. Nevertheless, the ratio of dark to light axil, and of
fertile to sterile anthers, is, in each case, a simple 3:1 ratio.


[Sidenote: M 7a]

Example of association of +characters in heredity+.

Purple flower colour is dominant to red in the sweet pea, and the
old-fashioned erect form of standard with the central notch is dominant
to the hooded. In families where these characters are involved, the
nature of the F_{2} generation depends upon the manner in which the
cross was made.

(A) When one dominant character goes in with each parent.

Purple} {Red
hood} × {erect
|
Purple erect
+ - - - - + - - - -+ - - - -+
| | | |
Purple Purple Red [*]Red
erect hood erect hood
Approximate
ratio 2 1 1

* Not yet found in this mating, but probably occurs very rarely.

[Sidenote: M 7b]

(B) When the two dominants enter, from one parent, they tend to remain
associated in the F_{2} generation.

Purple} {Red
erect} × {hood
|
+ - - - - + - - + - - - + - - - - +
| | | |
Purple Purple Red Red
erect hood erect hood
Approximate \ - - - -+ - - - - /
ratio 3 | 1
These two classes are
only found very rarely
_i.e._, about once in
each 300 plants of the
F_{2} generation.




[Sidenote: N & N 1]

Exhibited by the Utah Agricultural College.

* * * * *

Mr. E. G. Titus.

* * * * *

The chart is 147 feet long, 54 inches wide, exclusive of the important
data condensed on a separate 8-foot sheet. This is only a preliminary
chart, as may be seen from the condensed data attached, which shows
that of the 822 persons represented on the chart 539 are of mature
age. The unknown persons represent 303, unknown ability; 336, unknown
height; 339, unknown weight; 348, unknown health. The family is
remarkable for the health of its members, having so far only 97 deaths.
The oldest child, Generation II-1, was born in 1827. There are, of
course, a large number of persons on the chart who are rather young.
Where a person has more than one ability well marked, such as music and
literary ability, or music and business ability, or constructive and
business ability, the chart shows only one ability. There are several
cases where persons have three well marked abilities. In all cases, the
following is the rank on the chart: -

Literary ability is always charted. Following this, music and then art,
and then constructive. Constructive ability represents those persons
who have a decided mathematical and mechanical turn of mind, who are
builders, contractors, carpenters of advanced standing, architects
and men of these classes. Under "Various" abilities are classified
business, agricultural and domestic abilities. These are not marked on
the chart.

It will be noticed under "Diseases" that a majority of the persons
who have died were infants, and even among infants the deaths are
remarkable for their small number considering the conditions under
which the people of the third generation of this family had to live.
The paternal ancestor, Generation I., came to America in 1842, dying
two years later, and his children came to Utah among the early
settlers, 1847-52. Many of the third generation were born in this State
under conditions that are not by any means comparable to those existing
in communities that have been settled for many years. The opportunity
to care for children was very limited. Physicians were not as easily
reached, and the methods and appliances of modern times were not at
hand. Yet, even under these circumstances, it will be noticed of the
822 persons listed on the chart, that only 68 deaths were those of
persons under 25 years.


GENERATIONS
I IC II IIC III IIIC IV IVC V TOTALS
PERSONS CHARTED 1 1 7 18 125 82 384 68 136 822
" OF MATURE AGE 1 1 6 18 118 82 237 68 8 539
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
ABILITY - LITERARY 1 5 5 30 6 31 2 1 81
MUSICAL 1 1 9 14 27 1 4 57
ARTISTIC 1 4 2 7 1 15
CONSTRUCTIVE 1 2 2 16 3 15 3 2 44
VARIOUS 1 2 3 36 10 9 61
TOTALS 2 1 11 11 95 35 89 7 7 258
NO SPECIAL ABILITY 3 8 1 2 14
ABILITY UNKNOWN 4 26 65 146 61 1 303
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
HEIGHT 5 FT. OR LESS 1 2 3
5-1 TO 5-2 1 3 2 1 2 9
5-3 TO 5-4 1 2 3 8 10 16 40
5-5 TO 5-6 2 14 9 12 2 39
5-7 TO 5-8 2 2 19 4 14 1 42
5-9 TO 5-10 1 1 1 9 2 10 1 25
5-11 TO 6-0 2 16 3 11 3 35
6-1 TO 6-2 3 1 4 1 9
6-3 TO 6-4 1 1
TOTALS 1 1 6 13 72 31 71 7 1 203
UNKNOWN 5 46 51 166 61 7 336
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
WEIGHT 100 LBS. OR LESS 2 1 2 2 1 8
101 TO 120 1 10 10 11 1 33
121 TO 150 1 1 6 28 10 27 4 1 78
151 TO 170 1 3 4 23 5 11 6 47
171 TO 200 2 4 7 3 5 6 27
201 TO 220 3 1 4
221 TO 250 1 2 3
TOTALS 1 1 6 17 73 31 58 10 3 200
UNKNOWN 1 45 51 179 58 5 339

GENERATIONS
I IC II IIC III IIIC IV IVC V TOTALS
HEALTH - EXCELLENT 1 1 6 3 34 15 131 6 44 241
GOOD 7 42 16 54 4 18 141
FAIR 3 3 4 8 18
DELICATE 1 2 4 7
POOR 1 7 2 11 21
TOTALS 1 1 6 15 88 37 208 10 62 428
UNKNOWN 3 24 45 147 58 71 348
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
DIED UNDER ONE YEAR 8 16 2 26
1 TO 5 YEARS 1 5 13 1 20
6 TO 25 YEARS 11 11 22
26 TO 40 YEARS 3 3
41 TO 70 YEARS 1 2 5 2 10
PAST 70 YEARS 1 3 4
AGE UNKNOWN 1 2 5 2 1 1 12
TOTALS 1 1 2 7 37 4 41 1 3 97
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
CAUSE OF DEATH
PREMATURE BIRTH 1 5 6
INFANTILE COMPLAINTS 1 11 13 3 28
DIPHTHERIA 3 5 8
SCARLET FEVER 2 2
MEASLES 1 1
TYPHOID FEVER 2 2 4
PNEUMONIA 1 6 1 1 9
CONSUMPTION 2 2
OPERATIONS 1 1
CHILD BIRTH 1 1 2

VARIOUS 1 1 6 6 9 23
UNKNOWN 1 3 3 3 1 11
TOTALS 1 1 2 7 37 4 41 1 3 97


[Sidenote: O]

Exhibited by the Eugenics Education Society.

O 1 Mendelism.


[Sidenote: O 1a]

Theoretical Example of Mendelian Inheritance in Peas. (After _Thomson_.)

[Sidenote: O 1b]

Theoretical Example of Mendelian Inheritance in Peas. (After _Laurie_.)

[Sidenote: O 1c]

Theoretical Example of Mendelian Inheritance, with Dominance, in Mice.
(After _Laurie_.)

[Sidenote: O 1d]

Illustration of the Theory of Gametic Purity in Mendelian Heredity in
Mice. (After _Laurie_.)

[Sidenote: O 1e]

Example of Mendelian Inheritance, without Dominance, in Blue Andalusian
Fowls. (After _Laurie_.)

[Sidenote: O 1f]

Illustration of the Theory of Gametic Purity in Mendelian Heredity, in
Blue Andalusian Fowls. (After _Laurie_.)

[Sidenote: O 2]

Standard Scheme of Descent. (After _Galton_.)

[Sidenote: O 3]

Comparison of Mr. Booth's Classification of All London with the Normal
Classes. (After _Galton_.)

[Sidenote: O 4]

Descent of Qualities in a Population. (After _Galton_.)

[Sidenote: O 5]

Inheritance of Ability, as exemplified in the Darwin, Galton, and
Wedgwood Families. (After _Whetham_ and _Marshall_.)




[Sidenote: P]

Exhibited by the American Breeders' Association - Eugenics Section.

C. B. Davenport, Esq.

[Sidenote: P 1-16]

Charts of Statistics of Defectives.

Charts of Classification of Defectives.

Charts of Principles of Heredity.

Pedigrees collected by field-workers in America.




[Sidenote: Q]

Exhibited by Cyril Burt, Esq.

Description of Diagrams illustrating the use of experimental Tests of
Mental Capacities.

1. "Experimental Tests of General Intelligence."

[Sidenote: Q 1]

A List of twelve tests applied to two schools at Oxford. The first
two columns of figures indicate the "reliability" or self-consistency
of the tests as compared with that of examinations and master's
general impression. The second two columns give the correlations of
the results of the tests with the children's "general intelligence."
It will be seen that several of the tests of higher mental processes
are as reliable as the scholastic tests at present in vogue, and that
they correlate quite as highly with intelligence. Further experiments
show that while examinations and master's estimates measure knowledge
and skill acquired by memory and training, the tests seems to provide
measurements rather of innate capacities; and that children of
superior parentage (_e.g._ the preparatory school boys) are themselves
superior at tests, which show an appreciable positive correlation
with intelligence (_i.e_. all except tests of touch and weight). The
tests thus provide an experimental demonstration of the inheritance of
mental ability and a means of measuring the same. (References: - Burt,
Experimental Tests of General Intelligence, British Journal of
Psychology, Vol. III., Pts. 1 and 2.) Burt, Inheritance of Mental
Characteristics, Eugenics Review, 1912, July.

[Sidenote: Q 2]

2. Sex-differences in mental tests.

A list of experimental tests applied to children of both sexes with
a view to measuring their innate capacities for performing mental
processes of different levels of complexity. The amount of divergence
between the sexes, is indicated by the column in red. It will be seen
that the sex-differences become smaller, the higher the level tested.
There is some evidence to show that these differences are the result
of inheritance and are not the result of difference of tradition or
environment. (References: Burt and Moore, the Mental Differences
between the sexes. Journal of Experimental Pedagogy, 1912, June. Burt,
Inheritance of Mental Characteristics, Eugenics Review, 1912, July.)




[Sidenote: R]

Exhibit by Dr. George Papillault.

Four sets of questions drawn up by Dr. George Papillault, Professor of
Sociology in the Paris School of Anthropology, with a view to noting
and comparing the +bio-social characteristics+ of individuals
belonging to different groups of population.

[Sidenote: R 1]

Set of questions +adopted by the Commission of Criminology+
instituted and presided over by Mr. - - Keeper of the Seals;
Vice-presidents, Messrs. Léon Bourgeois, senator, and Dr. Dron,
Vice-president of the Chamber of Deputies and Reporter to the
Commission; Scientific Secretary, Dr. G. Papillault.

This set of questions comprises:

1st. An individual criminological chart for the purpose of showing 271
biological and social characteristics of the prisoners.

2nd. Family Charts for each of the ancestors, descendants or collateral
relatives of the prisoner and more particularly intended to note
hereditary characteristics.

These Charts have been issued with a view to a methodical enquiry on
the criminal, under the direction of the Scientific and Criminological
Department.

[Sidenote: R 2]

Set of questions of the French Lay Mission, designed to note the
characteristics of the young natives and of their relatives in the
French Colonies. The teachers will have to return them filled up with
the greatest care to the Lay Mission, where Dr. Papillault, before
their departure, delivered a series of lectures to teach them how to
proceed.

[Sidenote: R 3]

Questions on the half-breeds, adopted by the Paris Society of
Anthropology, and designed to show the bio-social characteristics of
the half-breeds proceeding from cross-breeding between different races.

[Sidenote: R 4]

Questions asked by the General Psychological Institute for the purpose
of undertaking a vast enquiry on the value taxonomic, organic,
bio-social, and selective of the different human races which actually
exist in the French Colonies, and particularly in North Africa.

A like spirit and method governs these four sets of questions; to
discard the verbalism which obstructs and imperils Sociology; to study
characteristics precise, objective, easily controllable and comparable,
and likely consequently to form statistics, which alone, are capable
of revealing characteristics of groups; to establish the correlations
which these characteristics may present among themselves, and to arrive
at last at the discovery of positive sociological laws.




[Sidenote: S]

Exhibited by Frederick Adams Woods, M.D.

Thirteen photographic copies of authentic portraits of distinguished
historical personages of the sixteenth century, showing that the bony
framework of the face, especially about the nose and eyes, was not
commonly the same as it is to-day.

These are samples of a much larger collection.

[Sidenote: S 1]

Charles VII., XV Century, eye-brows very high above the eyes.

[Sidenote: S 2]

Mary of Lorraine, Queen of James of Scotland (National Portrait
Gallery). Eyes far apart, and eye-brows high.

[Sidenote: S 3]

Francis I. of France, French School, XVI. Century. (Louvre.) Eyes
small, upper eye-lids peculiar, and typical of the period.

[Sidenote: S 4]

Louse de Rieux; Marquise d'Elboef, XVI. Century. (Louvre.) Naso-orbital
region typical, eyes small far apart, upper part of the nose broad and
flat, upper eye-lids long (vertical distance between eye and eye brow
considerable.)

[Sidenote: S 5]

Dr. Stokesley, Bishop of London (Holbein.) Eyes far apart upper part of
nose broad.

[Sidenote: S 6]

Jane Seymour (Holbein). Eyes far apart, upper eye lids characteristic.

[Sidenote: S 7]

Jean de Bourbon, Comte d'Enghien. XVI Century. Eyes far apart, upper
eye-lids vertically prominent.

[Sidenote: S 8]

Portrait of a young German gentleman.

The eye-lids are modern, that is the eyes are set in deeply under the
arch, but the eyes themselves are far apart, and the upper part of the
nose is broad.

[Sidenote: S 9]

Mary Queen of England. (National Portrait Gallery).

It would seem that allowance might be made for the crudity of the
portrait, but the naso-orbital region is typical of the northern races
during the XVI century.

[Sidenote: S 10]

Holbein's Duke of Norfolk. In the Royal Gallery at Windsor Castle.

Eyes are more deep-set under the superorbital arch than is usual in
portraits of the period, but the upper part of the nose is broad, and
eyes are far apart.

[Sidenote: S 11]

Henry VIII., attributed to Holbein but on doubtful authority.

Broad flat nose, small eyes set far apart, eye-brows arching upward
and outward. Observe the upper eye-lids in contrast to the Italian by
Lorenzo Lotto, which shows the usual modern type of eye-lid.

[Sidenote: S 12]

Portrait of the Prothonotary Apostolic Juliano. (Lorenzo Lotto.)

Modern type of face. Eyes deep set in under the superorbital arch and
eye-brow. Upper part of the nose delicate and projecting. This type of
face is occasionally, but only rarely met with north of the Alps during
the early period. It is common enough in portraits of Italians.

[Sidenote: S 13]

Portrait of a German scholar, by Holbein. Modern type, very rarely
found.





First

International Eugenics Congress,

LONDON, 1912.

=========

PROGRAMME.

===============================================


Contents.

Page

Accommodation 5

Application Forms 23, 25

Arrival 7

Badges 8

Banquet 5

Business Meetings 9, 14

Consultative Committees 3

Correspondence 4

Daily Time-Table 9-18

Delegates 11, 21

Entertainments 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16

Exhibition 19

General Arrangements 1

Hospitality Bureau 7, 11

Languages 4

Lunches and Refreshments 10, 27

Meetings 10-18

Membership 5

Offices of Congress 1

Officers 11-20

Place of Meeting 1

Railway Arrangements 5, 6, 7

Receptions 9, 11, 13, 16

Rules of Procedure 8

Stewards 5

Vice-Presidents 2

===============================================

_All Communications should be addressed to the Secretaries._

- - - - >


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Online LibraryVariousAbstracts of Papers Read at the First International Eugenics Congress → online text (page 13 of 15)