Copyright
Various.

Abstracts of Papers Read at the First International Eugenics Congress online

. (page 6 of 15)
Online LibraryVariousAbstracts of Papers Read at the First International Eugenics Congress → online text (page 6 of 15)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


Photographs of Charles Darwin, B. 3, 5,
of Small Study in which "Origin of Species" was written, B. 6

Physical Development in relation to Duration of Breast-feeding, C. 7
Qualities, Heredity of, Tables shewing, C. 7

Phthisis Mortality, Decline in, for
England & Wales, F. 2 (_a_)
England & Ireland, F. 2 (_b_)
Liverpool, F. 2 (_d_)
Scotland, F. 2 (_c_)

Polygamous Utah Family, Inheritance in, of Physical and Mental Qualities
and Defects, and of Literary Ability, N. 1

Population
Births, _per_ Couple, essential to prevent Decay of
Nation, C. 123 _et proevi_
Descent of Qualities in (after Galton), O. 4
Malthusian theory of, H. 1-30
Neomalthusian theory of, C. 118-29

Portraits of
Darwin, Charles
(Engraving by L. Flameng, after Hon. John Collier's painting), B. 4
by Maull & Polyblank (Photograph), B. 3
on his horse Tommy (Photograph), B. 5
Painting by W. W. Ouless, B. 1
Darwin, Dr. Erasmus, and his son, Erasmus (Silhouette), A. 2
Darwin, Mrs. (Silhouette), A. 3
Galton, Samuel Tertius, his son Erasmus, and three daughters
(Silhouette), A. 4
Galton, Sir Francis, by Charles Furze, A. 1

Poultry, _see_ Blue Andalusian Fowls

Pregnancy, effect on, of Female Labour, C. 99-101

Premature Births and Abortion in various Callings, C. 101
in relation to Conception losses, C. 52(2)

Princely families, Infantile Mortality in, in relation to Numerical
position, C. 53

Principles of Heredity Charts of, P.

Progeny of the Highly Gifted in France, C. 124

Progressive Muscular Atrophy, Inheritance of, C. 13

Prolificness of First Marriages, 19th century, C. 40

Protestant Countries, Birth- and Death-rates and Infant
Mortality in, H. 11-13

Prussia, Fertility (restricted) in, C. 126

Prussia
Lunatic Asylums of, Frequency in, of Delirium tremens, Epilepsy, and
General Paralysis, C. 88
Male Life-duration in, Urban and Rural, C. 22

Ptolemäus X., pedigree of, shewing Inbreeding, C. 113

PUNNETT, PROF. R. C., M. 1-7 (_b_)


Q

Qualities, Descent of, in a Population (after Galton), O. 4


R

Rabbits, Mendelian Inheritance in, M. 1, 2

Rachitic disturbances of Development, Frequency of, in relation to
Duration of Breast-feeding, C. 78

Race - Hygiene, C. 46-7

Racial Crossing, C. 106-7
Fertility and Health in relation to, C. 117
Eye-colour Segregation of, K.
Form of Nose and its Segregative Inheritance, K. 1-2 (_a_ & _b_)
Inbreeding, C. 106-7

Recombination of Colours in Fowls, Mendelian experiments shewing, M. 3

Recruits, qualified for one year's service, and Recruits in general,
Germany, causes of Unfitness in, compared, C. 33, 34

Reigning families, Inbreeding among, C. 112
Houses, Pedigrees of, shewing Ancestral Loss, C. 116

Relations, Nearest, Distribution among, of Particular Taints, C. 16-19

Reproduction, effect on, of Female Labour, C. 99-101
of Paternal Lead Poisoning, C. 98

Reproduction-methods of _Alytes obstetricans_, Hereditary changes
in, C. 3-4

Reproductive Functions, Injury to, from Alcohol, C. 89-90

Restriction of Birth, C. 125-8

Reversion in Sweet Peas
on Crossing, followed by appearance in next generation of Numerous
Types, M. 4
in Structural characters, M. 5

Roman Catholic Countries, Birth- and Death-rate and Infant Mortality
in, H. 14-16

Rural and Urban Duration of Male Life, Prussia, C. 22


S

Self-fertilization in Maize, C. 111

School Reports, average, in relation to Duration of Breast-feeding, C. 77

Schools, German, in relation to Military Fitness, C. 31

Scientific Ability, Descent of, Pedigree shewing I. 2, _and see_ Darwin,
Galton, Wedgwood families.

Sexes, Normal proportion of, Disturbance in, as symptom of Abnormal
germ production, C. 44

Segregation Inheritance of Racial form of Nose, K., 1-2 (a & b)

Segregation of Racial Eye-colour, K. (3-5)

Silhouettes of
Darwin, Dr. Erasmus, and his son Erasmus, A. 2
Darwin, Mrs., A. 3
Galton, Samuel Tertius, his son Erasmus, and three daughters, A. 4.

Skin-Colour, changes in, in Fire Salamander according to whether kept on
Yellow or Black Earth, C. 1-2

Soter II., Pedigree of, shewing Inbreeding, C. 113

Spaniard _v._ Gipsy Inheritance, Segregation of Eye-colour, K. 3

Stillbirths, in relation to Conception losses, C. 52-3
Decrease of Total of, C. 48(4)

Structural Characters, Reversion in, in Sweet Peas, M. 5

Students, German, causes of Military Unfitness in, C. 32, 33

Suicides in Civilised Countries, Increasing numbers of, C. 35-6

Suckling, _see_ Breast-feeding

Sucklings, _see_ Infant Mortality

Surgery in Childbirth, increase in, Racial significance of, C. 48 (1-6)

Standard Scheme of Descent (after Galton), O. 2

Sweet Peas
Association in, of Characters in Heredity, M. 6 & 7 (_a_ & _b_)
Reversion in, on Crossing, followed by appearance of Numerous Types in
next generation, M. 4
in Structural Characters, M. 5

Syphilitic and Sexually-immoral Couple, Offspring of, D. 15

Syphilis
Heart and Vessels as harmed by, C. 85
Mortality from, at 36 to 50 years, C. 85
Frequency of, relative, Urban and Rural, C. 86-8


T

Taints, particular, distribution of among nearest Relations, C. 16-9

Teeth, Carious, average of, Breast-feeding in relation to, C. 74, 75

Toronto, City of, Birth- and Death-rates of, H. 27

Towns, _see also_ Urban
French and German, Restriction of Births in, C. 125-9
Life in, Special effect of, on Male Mortality, C. 83-5

Tramp and Peasant Inter-marriage, Pedigree showing results, C. 21

Tuberculosis
Frequency of, within Families, C. 15
Infant Mortality, and Pauperism, relation between, E. 5 (_a_ & _e_)
Mortality from, of Married and Unmarried persons, C. 102

Tuberculous family with apparently Normal Parents from Tuberculous
Stocks, E. 5 (_a_)
Stock, Survival of, by accession of strength from
Normal, E. 5 (_c_ & _d_)

Twins, Hereditary tendency to beget, C. 11

Two-children System in Berlin, C. 127-9


U

United Kingdom and Germany, Total Population, and Birth- and Death-rates,
Variations in, H. 5-6

Urban Tendency to Extinction of Higher-grade families, C. 37
and Rural Duration of Male life, Prussia, C. 22
relative Frequency of Syphilis and other Venereal diseases, C. 86-8


V

Vitality of Child, influence on, of Birth-intervals, C. 65

Venereal Disease, Frequency of
among Military Recruits, C. 87
Urban and Rural, relative, C. 86-8


W

Wealth, in relation to
Birth-rate, C. 118-22
Fertility
Denmark, C. 121, 122
France, C. 118, 119

Wedgwood, Galton, and Darwin Families, Inheritance of Ability as
exemplified by, O. 5

WEEKS, DAVID FAIRFIELD, Director of the N. Jersey State Village for
Epileptics at Skillman, U.S.A. D. 1-15

WHEELER, E. G., A. (1-4)

WHETHAM, MR. & MRS. W. C. D., I. 1-3

Widows and Divorced persons, High Death-rate of, C. 103

WIDTSOE, JOHN A., A.M., Ph.D., Chart shewing Inheritance of Physical and
Mental Qualities and Defects, and of Literary Ability, from
Polygamous family in Utah, N. 1

Wife, Importance of in raising or lowering Family Status, C. 21

William II., German Emperor, Pedigree of, showing "Ancestral
loss," C. 116

Wollaston Pedigree, shewing descent of Scientific Ability, I. 2

Woman with two husbands, Defective family by the first, E. 4


Z

Zero von Jorger family, Pedigree of, C. 21




First International Eugenics Congress,

London, July, 1912.


LIST OF EXHIBITS.


[Sidenote: A.]

Exhibited by E. G. Wheler, Esq.

[Sidenote: A 1]

Portrait of Sir Francis Galton, by Charles Furze, 1903.

[Sidenote: A 2]

Silhouettes of Dr. Erasmus Darwin and his son Erasmus.

[Sidenote: A 3]

Silhouette of Mrs. Darwin.

[Sidenote: A 4]

Silhouettes of Samuel Tertius Galton, his son Erasmus and three
daughters.

[Sidenote: B.]

Exhibited by William> E. and Leonard Darwin.

[Sidenote: B 1]

Portrait of Charles Darwin, by W. W. Ouless, R A., painted in 1875.

[Sidenote: B 2]

Portrait of Erasmus Darwin (after Wright, of Derby), the common
grandfather of Charles Darwin and Francis Galton.

[Sidenote: B 3]

Photograph of Charles Darwin, by Maull & Polyblank, taken about the
year 1854.

[Sidenote: B 4]

Leopold Flameng's Engraving, after the portrait of Charles Darwin, by
the Hon. John Collier, painted in the year 1881 - now in the National
Portrait Gallery.

[Sidenote: B 5]

Photograph of Charles Darwin on his horse Tommy.

[Sidenote: B 6]

Photograph of the small study at Down in which the "Origin of Species"
was written.

[Sidenote: B 7]

Etching by Axel Haig of the large study at Down, which Charles Darwin
occupied from about 1887 onwards.

[Sidenote: B 8]

Water-colour Drawing of Down House, by Albert Goodwin, painted in 1882.

[Sidenote: B 9]

Two letters of Charles Darwin, on "Worms and their Habits,"

[Sidenote: C.]

Exhibited by Professor von Gruber.

[Sidenote: C 1 & 2]

Experiments by P. Kammerer on +changes produced in the colours in
the skin of the Fire Salamander - Salamandra maculosa - by keeping them
on yellow or black earth respectively+.

According as to whether the animals are kept on yellow or black earth
the yellow or black colouring of the skin spreads, and this change
of colour appears in the same way in the offspring, though a direct
influence of the colour of the earth on the germ plasm is absolutely
unthinkable. The two pictures in the lower part of Figure C 1 show
the colouring of that generation to which the animal portrayed above
belongs, according as to whether they have been kept permanently on
yellow soil (right) or returned again to black soil (left). Here,
it is true, it is not a question of a new quality or tendency. The
capacity in the parents to deposit black pigment in their skin has
been increased or decreased according to their surroundings. But the
distinctive point remains, that their offspring is subsequently endowed
with the inherited tendency to produce proportionately more or less
pigment. This may, however, be a direct result of the abnormal life
conditions of the parents, in so far as the depositing of more or less
pigment in the skin of the parents is certainly not a purely local
process, but rather is bound up with other metabolic changes which may
extend to or influence the developing gametes.

[Sidenote: C 3 & 4]

Very remarkable are the +hereditary changes+ which Kammerer
established in +Alytes obstetricans+ - the midwife toad.

With them copulation normally takes place on dry land. The male
extricates from the female the string of eggs, winds it round his hind
legs and carries it about until the eggs are ready. Then, and not till
then, he enters the water where the larvæ escape. If, however, one
keeps these toads in a high temperature (25-30 C.) they enter the water
to cool themselves and abandon their normal way of manipulating their
brood because the string of spawn swells in water and does not remain
sufficiently sticky to allow the male to fasten it to his thighs. The
animals become gradually accustomed to live in water, and continue to
carry on the business of reproduction there, even when the temperature
is normal. As soon as the new instinct has become sufficiently
established with the parents they beget offspring, which at a normal
temperature go of their own accord into water to deposit their eggs,
and also produce eggs more numerous than, and somewhat different
from, those of the normal toad. Further, the males of this succeeding
generation develop thumbs and forearms of a character which enables
them to perform the difficult task of holding the females during
copulation in the water.

[Sidenote: C 5 & 6]

The likeness of offspring to their parents is extremely great and goes
into many details; this we frequently overlook because a divergence
strikes us more than a similarity. A similarity becomes striking when
it is a question of familiar peculiarities. These often relate to
exterior unimportant peculiarities. Our collection contains +a
pedigree+ (taken by Dr. Walter Bell from Bateson's "Mendel's
Principles of Heredity"), Figure C 5, +of a family with peculiarly
curled hair+; also in Figure C 6, a +case of heredity of a lock
of white hair+, likewise taken from Bateson's work by Rizzoli.

[Sidenote: C 7]

The heredity of physical qualities is strikingly illustrated in
Weinberg's Table C 7, showing the age +at death of the parents
and the marital gross and nett fertility+. It is founded on the
Stuttgart family registers, and comprises about 1,900 non-tubercular
and about 3,000 tubercular families ("Archiv für Rassen and
Gesellschafts Biologie" and Württemberger Jahrbücher für Statistik und
Landeskunde, 1911). W. Weinberg adds:

[Illustration:

Relation of Age at Death of Parents to Gross and Nett Fertility. (After
Weinberg.)

Age of parents. Men: Women:

Years under 30 A 0.58 C 1.00 A 0.93 C 1.79
B 0.62 D 1.34 B 0.82 D 1.72

30-40 A 1.38 C 2.81 A 1.65 C 3.40
B 1.41 D 2.70 B 1.81 D 3.53

40-50 A 2.31 C 3.94 A 1.88 C 3.34
B 1.90 D 3.69 B 2.25 D 4.52

50-60 A 2.39 C 4.05 A 2.31 C 3.69
B 2.21 D 4.04 B 1.92 D 3.42

60-70 A 3.05 C 4.76 A 2.62 C 4.37
B 2.88 D 4.65 B 2.79 D 4.28

70-100 A 3.38 C 5.50 A 2.76 C 4.34
B 3.22 D 5.53 B 2.80 D 4.33

A - Non-tuberculous families, number of children surviving 20th year.
B - Tuberculous " " " " "
C - Non-tuberculous families, number of children dying before attaining
20th year.
D - Tuberculous " " " " "

Number of non-tuberculous families about 1,900 (1876-79-86), of
tuberculous about 3,000 (1873-89); from Stuttgart family registers.

Figure C 7.]

"The gross as well as the nett fertility of those which have died
increases with the age attained, the latter, however, in a greater
degree, because the mortality of children decreases with the greater
age attained at death. With the wife the curve is less steep and less
regular, because in her case mortality is unfavourably influenced by
the birth functions; this is particularly plainly seen in the case of
tuberculous women, when the curve has two peaks."

[Sidenote: C 8]

The same fact of heredity of "constitution" is demonstrated in
Weinberg's Table C 8 showing the +age at death of the parents and
the mortality of the children up to the age of 20.+ It is based on
the same material as Table 7 and proves: "With the increasing age of
the parents child mortality decreases, especially so in the case of the
children of the tuberculous, and the number of children reaching the
age of sexual maturity increases correspondingly."

[Illustration:

Age at Death of Parents and Mortality of the Children up to the Age of
20 (including Still-born).

Deaths per 100 living-born children:

Non-tuberculous. Tuberculous.

Age at death of father of mother of father of mother

Under 30 42.1 45.1 52.9 54.8
30- 40 51.2 51.6 48.6 40.6
40- 50 38.3 43.8 48.3 50.2
50- 60 41.5 35.6 45.5 43.7
60- 70 38.1 40.1 38.1 36.4
70-100 38.5 36.2 42.4 39.8

Figure C 8.]

[Sidenote: C 9 & 10]

The same is proved by the two Tables C 9 and 10 by Ploëtz referring
to +age at death of fathers and mothers and child mortality up to
the age of five years+. Very striking in both these tables is
the extremely low mortality of the offspring of the parents with the
greatest longevity.

[Sidenote: C 11]

Table C 11 by Weinberg: +Hereditary of the disposition to beget
twins+ (Archiv für Rassen & Gesellschafts Biologie VI. 1909) is
remarkable. "The difference in favour of sisters speaks for Mendel's
law of dominance and recessivity. The more twins a woman has borne,
the more frequently the same phenomena is found in her nearest
female relations." That the mortality among twins is very great is a
well-known fact.

[Illustration:

Inheritance of Tendency to Bear Twins.

About 2,000 families from Würtemberg family registers (after Weinberg).

In every 100,000 Births Twin Births occur in the following numbers:

Total population 1087

Among daughters 1394
of mothers
" maidens 1523
of twins
" sisters 2135

Figure C 11.]

[Illustration:

In every 1,000 Births there are the following numbers of Twin Births
among the immediate relatives:

Of all mothers 11
Of women who have had 1 multiple birth 17
" " 2 " " 20
" " 3 or more " 56


Mortality of Twins.

Percentage of deaths before the age of 20:
Single-born Children 39
Twins 61

Figure C 11 (_continued_).]

[Sidenote: C 12]

Figure C 12 the celebrated pedigree of the Hæmophilic +family+
(bleeders) +Mampel+ (by Rüdin after Lossen).

[Sidenote: C 13]

Figure C 13 showing the inheritance of progressive muscular
+atrophy+ (after Eichhorst).

[Sidenote: C 14]

Figure C 14 a partial reproduction of a +pedigree+ comprising
over 2,000 people of the family Nongaret suffering from inherited
stationary night +blindness+ (compiled by Cunier, Truc and
Nettleship). With regard to these figures it is to be noted that only a
fraction of the offspring is affected with the illness, the remainder
being perfectly normal. It is remarkable with the bleeders (Hæmophilic
persons) that the females do not suffer from the disease though they
transfer it to their male offspring; a similar latent disposition is
observable in other hereditary conditions, especially colour-blindness.

[Sidenote: C 15]

W. Weinberg shows in Table C 15 the +frequency of tuberculosis
within families+. He adds: "This is a comparison of the experiences
of married tubercular individuals, regarding the frequency of
tuberculosis among their parents, brothers and sisters, with the
corresponding experiences of their husbands or wives who come on an
average from similar surroundings. The experiences of the latter
represent the normal expectation. It is especially striking that the
family influence tells most with the children of the well-to-do." The
well-known fact that the tuberculous frequently come from tuberculous
stock is clearly demonstrated in the figures of this table.

[Sidenote: C 16]

[Sidenote: C 17]

In Table C 16 Dr. Otto Diem shows the +distribution of particular
taints+ in every hundred of the tainted members +among the
nearest relations+ (parents, grandparents, uncles, aunts, brothers
and sisters) of the entire material he deals with. It is shown for
instance that with the mentally sound, 15% of the tainted relatives
were mentally diseased against 45.9% with the mentally diseased. Figure
C 17 shows the share of this percentage among the parents only. It is
demonstrated that with the mentally diseased a much larger percentage
of the total hereditary taint is traceable to parental madness,
alcoholism, abnormality of character, than with the mentally sound.

[Sidenote: C 18]

Figure C 18 corresponds, with figure C 17, except that not only the
parents are reckoned but the nearest defective relative in any degree.

[Sidenote: C 19]

Figure C 19 teaches that the reckoning of all the taints in the
ancestry taken together with the collaterals fails to give as clear and
convincing a picture of the dissimilarity in the heredity of mentally
sound and diseased, as the reckoning of the taints among the parents
alone. The establishment of the hereditary taint in the direct ancestry
appears therefore by far the more important.

[Sidenote: C 20]

In Figure 144 (Journal f. Psychologie und Neurologie. XIII. Bd.) Drf.
Hans W. Mayer gives a number of examples of +heredity among moral
imbeciles+, and he draws the following conclusions: "Consequently
moral defect in frequent combination with alcoholism is hereditary
in the highest degree. Remedy: Incarceration of these dangerous
individuals, not according to the accidental form of the crime
committed, but as diseased and forming a public danger. If there is a
risk of escape or if liberty is conceded - undoubtedly sterilization
to prevent perpetuation of the defect." This latter course is already
followed in North America, and a start has been made with it in
Switzerland, at least in cases where the consent of the patients is
obtained.

[Sidenote: C 21]

The pedigree of the +family of Zero von Jorger+, figure C 21
(Archiv für Rassen & Gesellschafts biologie I.), shows in a convincing
manner how very important for the protection of society is the
prevention of the reproduction of the degenerate. In the course of time
this family has burdened the sound and fit with taxation amounting to
hundreds of thousands of pounds. The author remarks: "The family Zero
springs from good peasant stock intermarrying with homeless female
tramps. Its history shows how alcohol (especially spirits) and bad
environment (in this case always combined) may create a scourge to
society which continues from generation to generation. The family
has produced many criminals, lunatics and feeble-minded persons. The
offspring of these are destined to die out. Their great fertility at
times is counteracted by great infant mortality."

"In places regeneration is evident which invariably is inaugurated by
marriage with a good woman and the consequent abandonment of the abuse
of alcohol. As with the degeneration so with the regeneration the wife
takes the leading part."

The question whether modern civilized races are degenerate in body and
mind is much disputed. In some respects for instance in the increase
of myopia and caries of the teeth it is generally admitted, but in
others it is doubtful, though it may be considered an established fact
that the general average of health among all civilized nations is
unsatisfactory. We do not know for certain whether the general level of
all or certain qualities is being lowered or not, and still less can we
say what part is played by heredity.

The demand for the systematic collection of data on these points is the
first which Race Hygiene has to make from Governments.

The examinations as to fitness for military service in Germany might
offer an excellent index of the physique of the people, but for this
purpose the physical condition of the conscripts would have to be
recorded in a much more thorough manner than at present (S. Gruber
Concordia, 1916). There appears, however, to be no doubt that in
general the country and agricultural pursuits produce young men of
better average health than do towns and other occupations. This agrees
with the fact that the life of the inhabitants in rural districts and
of those engaged in agriculture is longer than that of town dwellers.

[Sidenote: C 22]

Table C 22 +compares+ the+ duration of life+ of men
living +in towns with+ those living in +rural districts
in Prussia+. Beyond all doubt the peasant population is still
constitutionally the most valuable part of the people, and the
colonisation at home, such as the Prussian Government is pursuing to
an increasing degree, may become of the very highest value for the
improvement of the race.

[Sidenote: C 23, 24 & 25]

Dr. Walter Abelsdorff gives the following explanations to Table C
23, and figures C 24 and C 25. "They endeavour to show the number of
+families brought 'back to the land' in North Germany+ in the
years 1900-1910."

"The Royal Commission for settlement in West Prussia and Posen has
achieved notable results since the beginning of its activity in 1886.
This body has brought about from 1886 to 1910 the settlement in the


1 2 3 4 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Online LibraryVariousAbstracts of Papers Read at the First International Eugenics Congress → online text (page 6 of 15)