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country of 18,507 families, 18,127 in leaseholds and 305 in labourers'
dwellings. For 1900 to 1910 the total number of families settled amount
to 14,511."

"The Royal General Commission began its activity later, but since
1906 has been energetically pursuing the settlement of agricultural
labourers. At Münster, in the years 1908 to 1910, 247 leasehold small
holdings for artisans have been created."

"The results of the Royal District Administrations are as yet less
considerable, those of private societies with State subvention, though
irregular, are worthy of note."

"The total work of settlement is almost exclusively effected by the
Commission for settlements and the General Commission."

"Counting five members to each family, 130,000 people have been brought
into economically improved conditions. In how far this may benefit
the second generation - the children of the settlers - cannot as yet be
determined."

"These efforts, however, may be looked upon as a regenerative component
among the measures for the improvement of the people."

[Sidenote: C 26 & 27]

Figure C 26 deals with the +fitness for military service in Germany
in relation to the locality of birth+ and the +occupation+
of the individual or the parents. Table C 27 with +fitness for
military service in town and country+ (both after Wellmann).

[Illustration:

Fitness for Military Service according to Place of Birth and Calling.

German Empire, 1902-08.

Percentage of Recruits examined and found fit:

Country born. City born.
Employed in Employed in
Agriculture. Otherwise. Agriculture. Otherwise.

% 60.5 50.5 58.7 59.7 58.3 57.2 59.3 57.9 56.5 53.8 51.3 49.7

Years 1902 1904 1907 1902 1904 1907 1902 1904 1907 1902 1904 1907
-03 -06 -08 -03 -06 -08 -03 -06 -08 -03 -06 -08

Figure C 26.]

[Illustration:

Fitness for Military Service in Town and Country. (After Wellmann.)

Locality of Birth.
Trade. Percentage Of those examined. Of both parents.
of fit.
Large city. Village. Large city. Village.
% % % %

Brewer ... 63.4 3.0 55.3 3.0 55.3

Cab Driver 63.3 3.2 69.0 1.6 69.8

Smith 61.2 1.9 71.0 1.2 75.7

Skilled Mechanic 29.7 44.4 10.9 30.9 30.0

Implement maker or
Tool maker ... 28.5 36.3 15.9 24.8 28.3

Figure C 27.]

[Sidenote: C 28]

+Enlistments into the Army+ in Germany in 1907 and 1908, +according
to size+ (number of inhabitants) +of native place+, are shown by Dr.
Walter Abelsdorff in Figure C 28.

[Sidenote: C 29]

Figure C 29 shows +the percentage of those found fit in the final
examination in Bavaria+ and +occupation of the parents+.

[Sidenote: C 30]

Table C 30 shows the total of all the +non-commissioned officers and
privates in the German Army+ on December 1st, 1906, +classed
according as they came from town or country+ and +according to
the occupation or the parents+.

Attention is invited to the fact that according to Figure C 26 the
percentage of those found fit for military service in Germany has
diminished in recent years, but it is doubtful whether this is caused
by a general lowering of physique. It may be due to the application
of a higher standard in consequence of increased supply. The distinct
increase in height, in Germany as well as in many other European
countries, of those obliged to offer themselves for military service
speaks against deterioration in the average of physique. Against the
suggestion that with the increase in height may be coupled a greater
disposition to tuberculosis must be set the fact that amongst the tall
is found a percentage of fit higher than the average.

Abelsdorff remarks of Table C 27: "The results of recruiting for the
years 1907 and 1908 have been grouped according to the size of the
place of birth of the recruits.

The average for the whole empire in 1907 is 54.9, in 1908 54.5, fit in
every 100 finally examined. The percentage of fitness has diminished
0.4% from 1907 to 1908. The numbers for 1904, 1905 and 1906 are
respectively 56.4, 56.3, and 55.9%.

Towns with over 1,000,000 inhabitants show the smallest number of fit:
1907, 31.4%; 1908, 28.2%. The decline is 3.2%. Compared with the figure
for the whole empire it shows 23.5% less fitness in 1907 and 26.3% in
1908.

For towns of 500,000 to 1,000,000 inhabitants the figures are slightly
better; they reach 39.9% in 1907 and 44.0% in 1908; an improvement of
4.9% on the figures of the largest towns. The other three classes,
viz., towns with 200,000 to 500,000; 100,000 to 200,000 and 50,000
to 100,000 inhabitants, show comparatively little variation in their
figures for fitness for military service. They are 50.1% and 48.9%;
47.9 and 48.2%; 51.8 and 51.5%. The differences between the two years
are not material. With the towns of from 200,000 to 500,000 and from
50,000 to 100,000 inhabitants there has been a decrease against an
increase in those of from 100,000 to 200,000 inhabitants. But the
figures for all three classes remain behind the average figure for the
empire and so do those of all towns, they show 50.4 and 50.1%.

The most favourable results are yielded by the country districts. Here
there were fit in 1907 58%, in 1908 57.7%. A trifling decrease is shown
even here. The figures, however, are higher by 3.1% in 1907 and 3.2%
in 1908 than the average for the empire. The conclusion is that the
fitness is highest in the smallest, and lowest in the largest places.

Taking the average for the Empire as 100, those found fit from country
districts number 106, from towns 92, from towns of over 50,000
inhabitants 83, and from towns of over 100,000 only 80."

The tables showing the recruiting results amongst those qualified for
the one year voluntary service are particularly interesting.

[Sidenote: C 31]

In Table C 31 Schwiening (Veröffentlichungen aus dem Militär
Sanitatswesen. 40. Berlin, Hirschwald, 1909) gives the figures
of those finally passed as +fit for military service in the
Mittelschulen+ (secondary schools), +which are classified
according to their nature+. The figures are too optimistic because
no account has been taken of those who were found temporarily unfit.
The Classical Schools (Gymnasium) give the least satisfactory results.

[Illustration:

Fitness for Military Service and Secondary Schools.

Of every 100 of the pupils of the following Schools

Class of School: there were found fit for Military Service:

Classical High Schools (Gymnasium) 62,2
Old Scientific & Classical High Schools (Realgymnasium) 64,0
Lower Grade of Classical High Schools (Progymnasium) 64,5
Polytechnics 64,8
Lower Grade of Scientific Schools 66,0
" " " " and Classical High Schools 66,9
Modern Scientific High Schools 66,9
Commercial Schools 69,4
Training Colleges 73,1
Private Schools 74,9
Agricultural Schools 83,4
Average 64,7

Figure C 31.]

[Sidenote: C 32]

Table C 32 gives the +principal reasons for which students have been
rejected as unfit for military service+.

[Illustration:

Causes of Unfitness for Military Service in the German Empire, 1904-6.
Of every 100 permanently unfit.

There were rejected on account of: [A] [B]
================================== ====== ======
General debility - weak chest. 36.4 35.4
Diseases of the heart and large
blood-vessels. 14.7 5.8
Defects of eyes (error of
refraction). 10.9 4.4
Pulmonary defects. 4.5 1.9
Diseases of the nervous system
(excl. epilepsy). 1.00 0.33
Obesity. 2.2 0.29
Diseases of the limbs and joints. 5.6 6.1
Rupture. 3.1 4.1
Flat feet. 2.6 4.9
Varicose veins. 1.9 3.9
Deformities. 1.4 3.1
Insanity and Epilepsy. 0.65 2.1

Key to Table
- - - - - -
[A] Entitled to one year's service. (Einjhrign Freiwilligen.)
[B] Ordinary soldiers subject to full Military Service

Figure C 32.]

[Sidenote: C 33]

Table C 33 is a +comparison of the frequency of the various
causes of unfitness as between those qualified for the one year's
voluntary service and the recruits in general+. This table is very
remarkable, because it shows the preponderance of general weakness,
diseases of the heart and large vessels, and pulmonary defects among
the former.

[Illustration:

Military Fitness and Secondary Schools.

Percentage of unfit to every 100 recruits examined.

Cause of rejection: [A] [B] [C] [D] [E]
============================= ============================
General debility - weak chest. 12.2 14.1 13.6 15.1 9.6
Diseases of the heart and
large blood-vessels. 5.6 5.0 4.7 4.9 5.1
Defects of eyes (errors of
refraction). 4.5 3.8 2.7 2.6 2.8
Disease of the joints or limbs. 2.3 1.9 2.0 1.7 1.1
Pulmonary defects. 1.8 1.5 1.1 1.3 1.4

Key to Table
- - - - - -
[A] Classical High School.
[B] Old Science and Classical High School.
[C] Modern Science High School.
[D] Lower Grade High School.
[E] Training College.

Figure C 33.]

[Sidenote: C 34]

It goes without saying that the schools are only responsible to a
lesser degree for this; we have to deal here with a serious symptom
of a bad constitution amongst the higher social grades which betrays
itself also in the dying out of the socially prominent families. How
badly their progeny comes off, in spite of the great care bestowed
on it, is illustrated in Table C 34. In two Munich Regiments the
percentage of fit among all those entitled to offer themselves for the
one year's service from the most varied parts of Germany was only,
according to Dieudonné, 21.6, 20.1, and 16.4.

[Sidenote: C 35 & 36]

Great anxiety is justly caused by the increasing number of those
taken care of in public Lunatic Asylums. It remains doubtful to what
degree this may be due to the greater use made of asylums and the
decrease of the care of the mentally infirm in the family home; the
deterioration of the nervous system nevertheless remains according to
the general impression an incontestable fact. As a symptom of this
may be interpreted the increasing +number of suicides in civilised
countries+, demonstrated in Rüdin's Tables, C 35 and C 36, showing
the number of suicides in every one million of inhabitants.

More serious still than the frequency of mental and nervous diseases
is another phenomenon which demonstrates how unsatisfactory is the
constitutional condition of large circle of our population of to-day.

This phenomenon which as yet has received much too little attention is
+the large scale on which families die out+, at first in the
male line. Apparently (sufficient observations for control are not
available) those families which hold an eminent economical or social
position (aristocracy, old county families, etc., etc.) are mainly
concerned. Because exceptional endowment in one or more respects
(intelligence, talent, will power, etc.) is generally required to
secure or to maintain a leading position, and because such endowment
is given to only a small fraction of the population, but is inherited
largely by the progeny, this dying out of the leading families means a
serious loss to the race.

The deficient fertility of the stock thus endowed results in a lower
average of mental capacity in the population generally, and cannot in
the long run be made up by the constant re-appearance of distinguished
men appearing as variations, the smallest number of whom are
"mutations."

The tendency among town families to die out appears to be wide-spread.
Professor S. Schott in Tables C 37-C 40 adds materially to our
knowledge on this point, Professor Schott makes the following comment
on his Tables: -

"S. Schott. Old Mannheim families, 4 tables."

"Source: 'Old Mannheim families. A contribution to the family
statistics of the 19th Century by Professor Dr. Sigmund Schott,
Mannheim and Leipzig, 1910. J. Rensheimer.' Statistical demonstration
of the development, decline, and extinction of about 4,000 families
which were in existence at Mannheim at the beginning of the 19th
Century, based on permanently maintained family registers. This
research, pursued on a basis of population statistics, lends itself
only to a limited degree to application for biological purposes."

[Sidenote: C 37]

+Gradual extinction of the Mannheim families in the 19th
Century.+ Only extinction by death in Mannheim and in the male
line are taken into account. Families which have disappeared through
emigration have been excluded. Branches of families which have become
extinct at Mannheim may be flourishing elsewhere. Of 3,081 families,
2,538 have become extinct by death at Mannheim itself, 543 survive. The
spiral curve shows the number of survivors in any year as so many per
thousand of the original number.

[Illustration:

Old Mannheim Families.

Gradual extinction of Old Mannheim Families during the 19th century.

Figure C 37.]

[Sidenote: C 38]

+Average number of children in each generation; the families being
grouped according to the number of generations they attained.+
The families of 1807 (original families) and their descendants were
classed into five groups, according to the number of generations they
attained in Mannheim. For each group is calculated the average number
of children within one generation - for each separate family as well as
for the entire family (_i.e._, the total of all the separate families
which have sprung from the same "original family"). For instance:
"Original families" which have lasted into the third generation, 464;
the separate families show in the first generation, 464 families,
2,377 children; in the second generation, 718 families, with 3,645
children; in the third generation, 754 families, with 2,454 children.
Accordingly, the total families show average numbers 5.1, 7.9, 5.3;
the separate families, 5.1, 5.1, 3.3. All these averages are minimum
figures, because it was impossible to eliminate the moderate number
of couples who emigrated before the number of their offspring was
completed.

In the generations up to the third inclusive, reproduction may be
considered as terminated, but in the fourth, and especially the fifth
and sixth, it still is in progress.

[Sidenote: C 39]

+Age intervals separating the various generations.+

Taking into account all the families investigated, the average length
of time between the birth of the originator of the family and his first
born son was 33-1/4 years, his first born grandchild 63-2/3 years,
and his first born great grandchild 95-1/3 years. The curves become
gradually flatter, because the possible difference between minimum
and maximum age distance from one generation to another increases in
arithmetical progression.

[Sidenote: C 40]

+Prolificness of first marriages in the 19th century.+ Taking
the entire period from 1811 to 1890 together the percentage of large
families (six children or more) and of small families (one-two
children) produced by all first marriages, excluding childless ones,
is indicated by the horizontal centreline. The positive or negative
deviations from the average during each decade are entered respectively
above and below this line. The note in Figure C 38 referring to the
families which may have emigrated while still productive applies here
also. The temporary increase in prolific marriages after 1870 may be in
connection with the material decrease in the age of those contracting
marriage for the first time, as compared with the preceding decade.
(Men 28.65 in the earlier period as against 27.41 in the later, and
women 25.92 against 24.68 years.)

The extinction of the families is undoubtedly due partly to other
causes than the voluntary limitation of families - to a process of
degeneration. A very remarkable proof of the degenerative character of
the dying out of families is given by Pontus Fahlbeck in his book, "The
Aristocracy of Sweden" (Fischer, Jena, 1903).

[Sidenote: C 41-43]

The six Figures C 38-43 give what is biologically of greatest interest
in it. Note how the terribly +quick extinction+ of the +families+ of
the nobility is +inaugurated by catastrophic changes+: rapid fall in
the frequency of marriages, in the number of fertile marriages, and
in the number of their progeny. The curves of the surviving families
(red in the original tables) are for comparison. That we have to deal
here with a natural and not a voluntary process is shown by the rapid
increase in the mortality of male youth in the last generations; also
by the extraordinary change in the proportion of the sexes of the
children - which, of course, is beyond any control, marked preponderance
of girls amongst the survivors (possibly also by the frequency of
still-born male children).

+A disturbance in the normal proportion of the sexes as a symptom
of abnormal germ production+ may also assert itself in the opposite
direction. O. Lorenz has pointed out the frequent occurrence of
an extraordinary increase of male children immediately before the
extinction of a family in the male line. One of the most celebrated of
these cases is the one of the family of the Emperor Max II. He had six
sons and two daughters, who all reached the age of maturity, but not a
single male grandchild in the legitimate male line.

[Sidenote: C 44]

Fresh evidence is exhibited by von den Velden in Figure C 44. With the
families described by von Riffel, who have died out in the male line,
there is still a great preponderance of boys in the last generation in
which boys have reached the age of sexual maturity, whereas there is a
preponderance of females amongst the brothers and sisters of the wives
of the last male issue of the family.

[Illustration:

Families in Process of Extinction.

(From Riffel's Tables, after v. d. Velden in the Archiv für Rassen- und
Gesellschafts-Biologie, 1909, No. 6.)

[A] [B]
======================================================= ===== =====
Decrease of frequency of Marriage. Men: 57 39
Of 100 adults there marry: Women: 61 49

Decrease of duration of life. Men: 38.5 24.0
Average duration of life in years: Women: 33.5 32.0

High mortality of offspring.
Of 100 births there died before the 20th year:
Fathers, the only members of their Sons 45.5
generation who married. Grandchildren 55.4
Mothers, with childless brothers. Sons 42.0
Grandchildren 46.1

Reversal of proportion of sexes born.
To every 100 girls there are born boys:
In normal families: 106
In dying-out families: 90

Disturbance to Proportion of Sexes among the
Children.
Normal: 106
Generation of sonless fathers: 160
" " " mothers: 93

Key to Table
- - - - - -
[A] Normal families.
[B] Families in process of extinction.

Figure C 44.]

[Sidenote: C 45]

In this connection another figure, C 45, by von den Velden ought to
be mentioned. He shows, from investigations made by von Riffel, that
the +physical condition of childless couples is on the average
inferior to that of fertile parents+. This, however, by no means
holds good in every case. Evidence to the contrary is given by the
pedigree of an aristocratic family which has died out in the male line.
It may be looked upon as typical. One generation (the second), with
three times as many grown up men than women, produces only four boys
(44% of the children), of whom two reach maturity. With the fourth
generation the male issue dies out. Though a large majority of the
members of all three generations (2-4th) have good health and attain
to an exceptionally high age, most of the female lines also die out.
Only in two branches, which spring from the marriage of an aristocratic
daughter with a man from the people, there are children in the fifth
generation of whom at least a part promise a healthy progeny. Fahlbeck,
too, has drawn attention to the fact that the dying out Swedish
aristocracy shows no signs of striking degeneracy in the individual.

This fact is of the greatest theoretical and practical importance
because it proves that there exists, up to a certain degree, an
independent degeneration of the germ plasm, even as the germ plasm
may remain unaffected by damage to the soma. That such a one-sided
degeneration of the germ plasm with respect to the power of
reproduction may take place among animals has been known for a long
time.

In particular, Chs. Darwin has collected facts of this kind in his
"Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication." For civilised
peoples it is a matter for reflection that with animals even slight
deviations from their customary "natural" mode of living may lead to
such serious consequences.


RACE-HYGIENE.

[Sidenote: C 46 & 47]

As the +nature and aims of race-hygiene+ are still unknown in
wide circles it will be useful to show in Tables C 46 and C 47, by
A. Ploëtz, what its position is amongst other sciences and what the
various branches of its activity consist in.

Many theoretical workers hold that the most important mission or
race-hygiene is to fight against Therapeutics and Hygiene of the
individual, for about these they have the most serious misgivings.
They consider, that by maintaining inferior variations up to the age
of reproduction, the average quality of the race must suffer and
that to certain defects - which otherwise would rapidly disappear - an
opportunity is given to spread through an entire people. This point
of view, short sighted as it may be, must be examined into. It
appears to be forgotten that on the one hand hygiene is powerless in
cases of a high degree of degeneration and that on the other hand
hygiene, by prevention of illness, does away with a number of causes
of inferiority. Finally it appears to be entirely overlooked that
with the best inherent qualities and unfavourable surroundings the
individual development may be poor and stunted. Of what use are the
highest potentialities if they remain latent? The main point is that
so far convincing proofs of the preponderant harmfulness of hygiene are
entirely absent. (S. Gruber, Heredity, Selection and Hygiene. Deutsche
med. Wochenschr, 1909).

[Sidenote: C 48]

[Illustration:

The Increasing Frequency of Obstetrical Operations and their
Significance to the Race.

(Based on the official statistics of Baden by Dr. Agnes Bluhm.)

Figure C 48.]

Dr. Agnes Bluhm contributes to the question of the deterioration
of the race by therapeutic measures in dealing in Figure C 48 with
"+The increasing frequency of surgical operations in connection
with childbirth and its significance for the race.+" She writes
in explanation "The number of doctors having increased relatively
much more than the number of the population, it follows that for a
growing number of women medical assistance at childbirth is available.
To this must be added that progress in surgical technique, above all
the diminished danger of infection, allows of a much more frequent
operative interference with good results for mother and child.
Both these facts find expression in the reduction of the number
of stillbirths. The purpose of these operations being to assist a


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Online LibraryVariousAbstracts of Papers Read at the First International Eugenics Congress → online text (page 7 of 15)