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Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally
printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an
underscore, like C_n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side-notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective
paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not
inserted.

(5) [root] stands for the root symbol; [alpha], [beta], etc. for greek
letters.

(6) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

AUTHOR LIST: "W. L. F. Walter Lynwood Fleming, M.A., Ph.D." 'M.A.'
amended from 'A.M.'.

ARTICLE FRANCS-TIREURS: "... and prevented him from gaining
information, and that their soldierly qualities improved with
experience." 'improved' amended from 'inproved'.

ARTICLE FRANKLIN, SIR JOHN: "... (which, as Franklin discovered,
was erroneously placed four degrees of latitude too much to the
north) ..." 'degrees' amended from 'degress'.

ARTICLE FRANKLIN, SIR JOHN: "The alternative course permitted
Franklin by his instructions had been attempted but not pursued,
and in the autumn of 1846 he had followed that route which was
specially commended to him." 'instructions' amended from
'intructions'.

ARTICLE FRAUENBURG: "Frauenburg was founded in 1287 and received
the rights of a town in 1310." 'Frauenburg' amended from
'Frauenberg'.

ARTICLE FREEMAN, EDWARD AUGUSTUS: "Historical and religious
sentiment combined with his detestation of all that was tyrannical
to inspire him with hatred of the Turk and sympathy with the
smaller and subject nationalities of eastern Europe." 'detestation'
amended from 'destestation'.

ARTICLE FREEMASONRY: "Elias Ashmole (who according to his diary was
"made a Free Mason of Warrington with Colonel Henry Mainwaring,"
seven brethern being named as in attendance at the lodge ..."
'brethern' amended from 'brethen'.

ARTICLE FRENCH LANGUAGE: "... perd (perdit) and perde (perdat)
being generally distinguished as pèr and pèrd, and before a vowel
as pèrt and pèrd." 'distinguished' amended from 'ditinguished'.

ARTICLE FRENCH LANGUAGE: "In Early Old French (as in Provençal)
there are two main declensions, the masculine and the feminine;
with a few exceptions the former distinguishes nominative and
accusative in both numbers, the latter in neither." 'distinguishes'
amended from 'ditinguishes'.




THE

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

ELEVENTH EDITION




FIRST edition, published in three volumes, 1768-1771.
SECOND " " ten " 1777-1784.
THIRD " " eighteen " 1788-1797.
FOURTH " " twenty " 1801-1810.
FIFTH " " twenty " 1815-1817.
SIXTH " " twenty " 1823-1824.
SEVENTH " " twenty-one " 1830-1842.
EIGHTH " " twenty-two " 1853-1860.
NINTH " " twenty-five " 1875-1889.
TENTH " ninth edition and eleven
supplementary volumes, 1902-1903.
ELEVENTH " published in twenty-nine volumes, 1910-1911.


COPYRIGHT

in all countries subscribing to the Bern Convention

by

THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS
of the
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE


_All rights reserved_




THE

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

A DICTIONARY OF
ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME XI
FRANCISCANS to GIBSON

New York

Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
342 Madison Avenue


Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910,
by
The Encyclopædia Britannica Company.


VOLUME XI, SLICE I

Franciscans to French Language




ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:


FRANCISCANS FREDERICK I. (king of Prussia)
FRANCK FREDERICK II. (king of Prussia)
FRANCK, CÉSAR FREDERICK III. (king of Prussia)
FRANCK, SEBASTIAN FREDERICK III. (king of Sicily)
FRANCKE, AUGUST HERMANN FREDERICK I. (elector of Brandenburg)
FRANCKEN FREDERICK I. (elector of the Rhine)
FRANCO-GERMAN WAR FREDERICK II. (elector of the Rhine)
FRANÇOIS DE NEUFCHÂTEAU, LOUIS FREDERICK III. (elector of the Rhine)
FRANCONIA FREDERICK IV. (elector of the Rhine)
FRANCS-ARCHERS FREDERICK V. (elector of the Rhine)
FRANCS-TIREURS FREDERICK I. (duke of Saxony)
FRANEKER FREDERICK II. (duke of Saxony)
FRANK, JAKOB FREDERICK III. (elector of Saxony)
FRANK-ALMOIGN FREDERICK (Maryland, U.S.A.)
FRANKEL, ZECHARIAS FREDERICK AUGUSTUS I.
FRANKENBERG FREDERICK AUGUSTUS II.
FRANKENHAUSEN FREDERICK CHARLES (KARL NIKOLAUS)
FRANKENSTEIN FREDERICK HENRY
FRANKENTHAL FREDERICK LOUIS
FRANKENWALD FREDERICK WILLIAM I.
FRANKFORT (Indiana, U.S.A.) FREDERICK WILLIAM II.
FRANKFORT (Kentucky, U.S.A.) FREDERICK WILLIAM III.
FRANKFORT-ON-MAIN FREDERICK WILLIAM IV.
FRANKFORT-ON-ODER FREDERICK WILLIAM (of Brandenburg)
FRANKINCENSE FRÉDÉRICK-LEMAÎTRE, ANTOINE PROSPER
FRANKING FREDERICKSBURG
FRANKL, LUDWIG AUGUST FREDERICTON
FRANKLAND, SIR EDWARD FREDONIA
FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN FREDRIKSHALD
FRANKLIN, SIR JOHN FREDRIKSTAD
FRANKLIN, WILLIAM BUEL FREE BAPTISTS
FRANKLIN (district of Canada) FREEBENCH
FRANKLIN (Massachusetts, U.S.A.) FREE CHURCH FEDERATION
FRANKLIN (New Hampshire, U.S.A.) FREE CHURCH OF ENGLAND
FRANKLIN (Pennsylvania, U.S.A.) FREE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND
FRANKLIN (Tennessee, U.S.A.) FREEDMEN'S BUREAU
FRANKLIN (freeman) FREEHOLD (New Jersey, U.S.A.)
FRANKLINITE FREEHOLD (law)
FRANK-MARRIAGE FREELAND
FRANKPLEDGE FREEMAN, EDWARD AUGUSTUS
FRANKS, SIR AUGUSTUS WOLLASTON FREEMAN
FRANKS FREEMASONRY
FRANZ, ROBERT FREEPORT
FRANZÉN, FRANS MIKAEL FREE PORTS
FRANZENSBAD FREE REED VIBRATOR
FRANZ JOSEF LAND FREESIA
FRANZOS, KARL EMIL FREE SOIL PARTY
FRASCATI FREE-STONE
FRASER, ALEXANDER CAMPBELL FREETOWN
FRASER, JAMES FREE TRADE
FRASER, JAMES BAILLIE FREGELLAE
FRASER, SIR WILLIAM AUGUSTUS FREIBERG
FRASER (river) FREIBURG
FRASERBURGH FREIBURG IM BREISGAU
FRASERVILLE FREIDANK
FRATER FREIENWALDE
FRATERNITIES, COLLEGE FREIESLEBENITE
FRATICELLI FREIGHT
FRAUD FREILIGRATH, FERDINAND
FRAUENBURG FREIND, JOHN
FRAUENFELD FREINSHEIM, JOHANN
FRAUENLOB FREIRE, FRANCISCO JOSÉ
FRAUNCE, ABRAHAM FREISCHÜTZ
FRAUNHOFER, JOSEPH VON FREISING
FRAUSTADT FRÉJUS
FRAYSSINOUS, DENIS ANTOINE LUC FRELINGHUYSEN, FREDERICK THEODORE
FRÉCHETTE, LOUIS HONORÉ FREMANTLE
FREDEGOND FRÉMIET, EMMANUEL
FREDERIC, HAROLD FRÉMONT, JOHN CHARLES
FREDERICIA FREMONT (Nebraska, U.S.A.)
FREDERICK (name) FREMONT (Ohio, U.S.A.)
FREDERICK I. (Roman emperor) FRÉMY, EDMOND
FREDERICK II. (Roman emperor) FRENCH, DANIEL CHESTER
FREDERICK III. (Roman emperor) FRENCH, NICHOLAS
FREDERICK III. (German king) FRENCH CONGO
FREDERICK II. (king of Denmark) FRENCH GUINEA
FREDERICK III. (king of Denmark) FRENCH LANGUAGE
FREDERICK VIII. (king of Denmark)




INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XI. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTORS,[1] WITH
THE HEADINGS OF THE ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.


A. B. R.
ALFRED BARTON RENDLE, M.A., D.SC., F.R.S., F.L.S.

Keeper, Department of Botany, British Museum. Author of _Text Book
on Classification of Flowering Plants_; &c.

Fruit.

A. B. W. K.
SIR ALEXANDER BLACKIE WILLIAM KENNEDY, LL.D., F.R.S.

Emeritus Professor of Engineering, University College, London.
Consulting Engineer to Board of Ordnance.

Friction.

A. Ca.
ARTHUR CAYLEY, LL.D., F.R.S.

See the biographical article, CAYLEY, ARTHUR.

Gauss.

A. E. H. L.
AUGUSTUS EDWARD HOUGH LOVE, M.A., D.SC., F.R.S.

Sedleian Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of
Oxford. Hon. Fellow of Queen's College; formerly Fellow of St
John's College, Cambridge. Secretary to the London Mathematical
Society.

Function: _Functions of Real Variables_.

A. E. S.
ARTHUR EVERETT SHIPLEY, M.A., D.SC., F.R.S.

Master of Christ's College, Cambridge. Reader in Zoology,
Cambridge University. Joint-editor of the _Cambridge Natural
History_.

Gastrotricha.

A. Ge.
SIR ARCHIBALD GEIKIE, LL.D.

See the biographical article, GEIKIE, SIR A.

Geology.

A. Go.*
REV. ALEXANDER GORDON, MA.

Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester.

Franck, Sebastian;
Gallars.

A. G. B.*
HON. ARCHIBALD GRAEME BELL, M.INST.C.E.

Director of Public Works and Inspector of Mines, Trinidad. Member
of Executive and Legislative Councils, Inst.C.E.

Georgetown, British Guiana.

A. G. D.
ARTHUR GEORGE DOUGHTY, C.M.G., M.A., LITT.D., F.R., HIST.S.

Dominion Archivist of Canada. Member of the Geographical Board of
Canada. Author of _The Cradle of New France_; &c. Joint-editor
of _Documents relating to the Constitutional History of Canada_.

Frontenac et Palluau.

A. H. Sm.
ARTHUR HAMILTON SMITH, M.A., F.S.A.

Keeper of the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities in the
British Museum. Member of the Imperial German Archaeological
Institute. Author of _Catalogue of Greek Sculpture in the British
Museum_; &c.

Gem: II. (_in part_).

A. M.*
REV. ALLEN MENZIES, D.D.

Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism, University of St
Andrews. Author of _History of Religion_; &c. Editor of _Review
of Theology and Philosophy_.

Free Church of Scotland (_in part_).

A. M. C.
AGNES MARY CLERKE.

See the biographical article, CLERKE, AGNES M.

Galileo.

A. N.
ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S.

See the biographical article, NEWTON, ALFRED.

Frigate-Bird;
Gadwall;
Gannet;
Gare Fowl.

A. N. B.
ALFRED NEAVE BRAYSHAW, LL.B.

Author of _Bible Notes on the Hebrew Prophets_.

Friends, Society of.

A. N. W.
ALFRED NORTH WHITEHEAD, M.A., D.SC., F.R.S.

Fellow and Lecturer in Mathematics, Trinity College, Cambridge.
Author of _A Treatise on Universal Algebra_; &c.

Geometry: VI. (_in part_) and VII.

A. R. C.
ALEXANDER ROSS CLARKE, C.B., F.R.S.

Colonel, Royal Engineers. Royal Medallist, Royal Society, 1887. In
charge of the trigonometrical operations of the Ordnance Survey,
1854-1881.

Geodesy (_in part_).

A. S. M.
ALEXANDER STUART MURRAY, LL.D.

See the biographical article, MURRAY, ALEXANDER STUART.

Gem: II. (_in part_).

A. W. H.*
ARTHUR WILLIAM HOLLAND.

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of
Gray's Inn, 1900.

Frederick II., _Roman Emperor_;
French Revolution: _Republican Calendar_;
Germany: _History (in part) and Bibliography_.

A. W. W.
ADOLPHUS WILLIAM WARD, LITT.D., LL.D.

See the biographical article, WARD, A. W.

Garrick, David (_in part_).

B. A. W. R.
HON. BERTRAND ARTHUR WILLIAM RUSSELL, M.A., F.R.S.

Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of
_Foundations of Geometry; Principles of Mathematics; &c._

Geometry: VI. (_in part_).

B. S. P.
BERTHA SURTEES PHILPOTTS, M.A. (Dublin).

Formerly Librarian of Girton College, Cambridge.

Germany: _Archaeology_.

C. B.*
CHARLES BÉMONT, LITT.D. (Oxon.).

See the biographical article, Bémont, C.

Fustel De Coulanges;
Gascony.

C. D. W.
HON. CARROLL DAVIDSON WRIGHT.

See the biographical article, WRIGHT, HON. CARROLL DAVIDSON.

Friendly Societies: _United States_.

C. E.*
CHARLES EVERITT, M.A., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S.

Sometime Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford.

Geometry: _History_.

C. F. A.
CHARLES FRANCIS ATKINSON.

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of
London (Royal Fusiliers). Author of _The Wilderness and Cold
Harbour_.

Franco-German War (_in part_);
French Revolutionary Wars: _Military Operations_;
Germany: _Army_;
Gibraltar: _History_.

C. H. Ha.
CARLTON HUNTLEY HAYES, M.A., PH.D.

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York
City. Member of the American Historical Association.

Gelasius II.

C. K. S.
CLEMENT KING SHORTER.

Editor of _The Sphere_. Author of _Sixty Years of Victorian
Literature_; _Immortal Memories_; _The Brontës, Life and Letters_;
&c.

Gaskell, Elizabeth.

C. Mi.
CHEDOMILLE MIJATOVICH.

Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister
Plenipotentiary of the King of Servia to the Court of St James's,
1895-1900 and 1902-1903.

Garashanin.

C. M. K.
SIR CHARLES MALCOLM KENNEDY, K.C.M.G., C.B. (1831-1908).

Head of Commercial Department, Foreign Office, 1872-1893. Lecturer
on International Law, University College, Bristol. Commissioner in
the Levant, 1870-1871, at Paris, 1872-1886. Plenipotentiary,
Treaty of the Hague, 1882. Editor of Kennedy's _Ethnological and
Linguistic Essays_; _Diplomacy and International Law_.

Free Ports.

C. Pf.
CHRISTIAN PFISTER, D.-ÈS.-L.

Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of
Honour. Author of _Études sur le règne de Robert le Pieux_; _Le
Duché mérovingien d'Alsace et la legende de Sainte-Odile_.

Franks;
Fredegond;
Germanic Laws, Early.

C. R. B.
CHARLES RAYMOND BEAZLEY, M.A., D.LITT., F.R.G.S., F.R.HIST.S.

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham.
Formerly Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer
in the History of Geography. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889.
Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of _Henry the Navigator_;
_The Dawn of Modern Geography_; &c.

Gerard of Cremona.

C. R. C.
CLAUDE REGNIER CONDER, LL.D.

Colonel, Royal Engineers. Formerly in command of Survey of
Palestine. Author of _The City of Jerusalem_; _The Bible and the
East_; _The Hittites and their Language_; &c.

Galilee (_in part_);
Galilee, Sea of (_in part_).

C. T.*
REV. CHARLES TAYLOR, M.A., D.D., LL.D. (1840-1908).

Formerly Master of St John's College, Cambridge. Vice-Chancellor,
Cambridge University, 1887-1888. Author of _Geometrical Conies_;
&c.

Geometrical Continuity.

C. We.
CECIL WEATHERLY.

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law.

Gate.

C. W. W.
SIR CHARLES WILLIAM WILSON, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836-1907).

Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American
Boundary Commission, 1858-1862. British Commissioner on the
Servian Boundary Commission. Director-General of the Ordnance
Survey, 1886-1894. Director-General of Military Education,
1895-1898. Author of _From Korti to Khartoum_; _Life of Lord
Clive_; &c.

Galilee, Sea of (_in part_).

D. C.
DUGALD CLERK, M.INST.C.E., F.R.S.

Director of the National Gas Engine Co., Ltd. Inventor of the
Clerk Cycle Gas Engine.

Gas Engine.

D. F. T.
DONALD FRANCIS TOVEY.

Balliol College, Oxford. Author of _Essays in Musical Analysis_,
comprising _The Classical Concerto_, _The Goldberg Variations_,
and analyses of many other classical works.

Fugue.

D. H.
DAVID HANNAY.

Formerly British Vice-consul at Barcelona. Author of _Short
History of Royal Navy, 1217-1688_; _Life of Emilio Castelar_;
&c.

French Revolutionary Wars: _Naval Operations_.

E. Br.
ERNEST BARKER, M.A.

Fellow of, and Lecturer in Modern History at, St John's College,
Oxford. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven
Scholar, 1895.

Fulk, King of Jerusalem.

E. B. El.
EDWIN BAILEY ELLIOTT, M.A., F.R.S., F.R.A.S.

Waynflete Professor of Pure Mathematics, and Fellow of Magdalen
College, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford.
President of London Mathematical Society, 1896-1898. Author of
_Algebra of Quantics_; &c.

Geometry, IV.

E. C. B.
RIGHT REV. EDWARD CUTHBERT BUTLER; O.S.B., D.LITT. (Dublin).

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of "The Lausiac History of
Palladius" in _Cambridge Texts and Studies_.

Franciscans;
Friar.

E. E.
LADY EASTLAKE.

See the biographical article, EASTLAKE, SIR C. L.

Gibson, John.

E. G.
EDMUND GOSSE, LL.D.

See the biographical article, GOSSE, EDMUND.

Fryxell;
Garland, John.

E. J. D.
EDWARD JOSEPH DENT, M.A., MUS.BAC.

Formerly Fellow of King's College, Cambridge.

Galuppi.

E. O.*
EDMUND OWEN, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.SC.

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the
Children's Hospital, Great Ormond Street; late Examiner in Surgery
at the Universities of Cambridge, Durham and London. Author of _A
Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students_.

Gastric Ulcer.

E. Pr.
EDGAR PRESTAGE.

Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of
Manchester. Commendador Portuguese Order of S. Thiago.
Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal Academy of Sciences and
Lisbon Geographical Society; &c.

Garção;
Garrett,

E. W. B.
SIR EDWARD WILLIAM BRABROOK, C.B., F.S.A.

Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. Chief Registrar of Friendly
Societies, 1891-1904. Author of _Building Societies_; _Provident
Societies and Industrial Welfare_; _Institutions of Thrift_; &c.

Friendly Societies.

F. C. C.
FREDERICK CORNWALLIS CONYBEARE, M.A., D.TH. (Geissen).

Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University
College, Oxford. Author of _The Ancient Armenian Texts of
Aristotle_; _Myth, Magic and Morals_; &c.

Funeral Rites.

F. C. M.
FRANCIS CHARLES MONTAGUE, M.A.

Astor Professor of European History, University College, London.
Formerly Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. Author of _Limits of
Individual Liberty_; chapters in _Cambridge Modern History_; &c.

French Revolution.

F. F.*
SIR JAMES FORTESCUE-FLANNERY, BART., M.P., M.INST.C.E.

Ex-President of the Institute of Marine Engineers. M.P. for the
Maldon Division of Essex, 1910. M.P. for the Shipley Division of
Yorkshire, 1895-1906.

Fuel: _Liquid_.

F. G. M. B.
FREDERICK GEORGE MEESON BECK, M.A.

Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge.

Germany: _Ethnography and Early History_.

F. H. B.
FRANCIS HENRY BUTLER, M.A.

Worcester College, Oxford. Associate of Royal School of Mines.

Frankincense;
Galls.

F. J. H.
FRANCIS JOHN HAVERFIELD, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A.

Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford.
Fellow of Brasenose College. Fellow of the British Academy.
Formerly Censor, Student, Tutor and Librarian of Christ Church,
Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1906-1907. Author of Monographs on Roman
History, especially Roman Britain; &c.

Gaul.

F. N. M.
COLONEL FREDERIC NATUSCH MAUDE, C.B.

Lecturer in Military History, Manchester University. Author of
_War and the World's Policy_; _The Leipzig Campaign_; _The Jena
Campaign_.

Franco-German War (_in part_).

F. R. C.
FRANK R. CANA.

Author of _South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union_.

French Congo;
German East Africa;
German South-West Africa.

F. R. H.
FRIEDRICH ROBERT HELMERT, PH.D., D.ING.

Professor of Geodesy, University of Berlin.

Geodesy (_in part_).

F. S.
FRANCIS STORR.

Editor of the _Journal of Education_, London. Officer d'Académie
(Paris).

Games, Classical.

F. W. R.*
FREDERICK WILLIAM RUDLER, I.S.O., F.G.S.

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London,
1879-1902. President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889.

Garnet;
Gem: I.

G. E.
REV. GEORGE EDMUNDSON, M.A., F.R.HIST.S.

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's
Lecturer, 1909.

Gelderland (_Duchy_).

G. L.
GEORG LUNGE.

See the biographical article. LUNGE, G.

Fuel: _Gaseous_;
Gas: _Manufacture_, II.

G. Sa.
GEORGE SAINTSBURY, D.C.L., LL.D.

See the biographical article, SAINTSBURY, G.

French Literature;
Gautier.

G. W. T.
REV. GRIFFITHS WHEELER THATCHER, M.A., B.D.

Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew
and Old Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford.

Ghazali.

H. B.
HILARY BAUERMANN, F.G.S. (d. 1909).

Formerly Lecturer on Metallurgy at the Ordnance College, Woolwich.
Author of _A Treatise on the Metallurgy of Iron_.

Fuel: _Solid_.

H. B. W.
HORACE BOLINGBROKE WOODWARD, F.R.S., F.G.S.

Late Assistant Director, Geological Survey of England and Wales.
Wollaston Medallist, Geological Society. Author of _The History of
the Geological Society of London_; &c.

Gaudry.

H. Ch.
HUGH CHISHOLM, M.A.

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the
11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Co-editor of the
10th edition.

Gambetta;
Garnett, Richard;
George IV. (_in part_).

H. C. L.
HON. HENRY CABOT LODGE.

See the biographical article, LODGE, HENRY CABOT.

Gallatin.

H. F. Ba.
HENRY FREDERICK BAKER, M.A., D.SC., F.R.S.

Fellow and Lecturer of St John's College, Cambridge. Cayley
Lecturer in Mathematics in the University. Author of _Abel's
Theorem and the Allied Theory_; &c.

Function: _Functions of Complex Variables_.

H. L. C.
HUGH LONGBOURNE CALLENDAR, F.R.S., LL.D.

Professor of Physics, Royal College of Science, London. Formerly
Professor of Physics in MacGill College, Montreal, and in
University College, London.

Fusion.

H. M.*
HUGH MITCHELL.

Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple.

Gibraltar (_in part_).

H. M. W.
H. MARSHALL WARD, M.A., D.SC., F.R.S. (d. 1905).

Formerly Professor of Botany, Cambridge. President of the British
Mycological Society. Author of _Timber and Some of its Diseases_;
_The Oak_; _Sach's Lectures on the Physiology of Plants_;
_Diseases in Plants_; &c.

Fungi (_in part_).

H. N.
HENRY NICOL.

French Language (_in part_).

H. R. M.
HUGH ROBERT MILL, D.SC., LL.D.

Director of British Rainfall Organization. Editor of _British



Online LibraryVariousThe Brochure Series of Architectural Illustration, Volume 01, No. 10, October 1895. French Farmhouses → online text (page 1 of 43)