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Current History, Vol. VIII, No. 3, June 1918 online

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Clause 2. - _Demobilization of the Rumanian Forces._

Article III. The demobilization of the Rumanian Army, which is now
proceeding, will immediately after peace is signed be carried out
according to the prescriptions contained in Articles IV. and VII.

Article IV. The regular military bureau, the supreme military
authorities and all the military institutions will remain in
existence as provided by the last peace budget. The demobilization
of divisions eleven to fifteen will be continued as stipulated in
the treaty of Focsani signed on March 8 last. Of the Rumanian
divisions one to ten, the two infantry divisions now employed in
Bessarabia, including the Jäger battalions which are the remnants of
dissolved Jäger divisions, and including two cavalry divisions of
the Rumanian Army, will remain on a war footing until the danger
arising from the military operations now being carried on in the
Ukraine by the Central Powers ceases to exist.

The remaining eight divisions, including the staff, shall be
maintained in Moldavia at the reduced peace strength. Each division
will be composed of four infantry regiments, two cavalry regiments,
two field artillery regiments, and one battalion of pioneers,
together with the necessary technical and transport troops. The
total number of the infantry of the eight divisions shall not exceed
20,000 men; the total number of cavalry shall not exceed 3,200; the
entire artillery of the Rumanian Army, apart from the mobile
divisions, shall not exceed 9,000 men. The divisions remaining
mobilized in Bessarabia must, in case of demobilization, be reduced
to the same peace standard as the eight divisions mentioned in
Article 4.

All other Rumanian troops which did not exist in peace time will at
the end of their term of active military service remain as in peace
time. Reservists shall not be called up for training until a general
peace has been concluded.

Article V. Guns, machine guns, small arms, horses, and cars and
ammunition, which are available owing to the reduction or the
dissolution of the Rumanian units, shall be given into the custody
of the Supreme Command of the allied (Teutonic) forces in Rumania
until the conclusion of a general peace. They shall be guarded and
superintended by Rumanian troops under supervision of the allied
command. The amount of ammunition to be left to the Rumanian Army in
Moldavia is 250 rounds for each rifle, 2,500 for each machine gun,
and 150 for each gun. The Rumanian Army is entitled to exchange
unserviceable material at the depots of the occupied region, in
agreement with the allied Supreme Command, and to demand from the
depots the equivalent of the ammunition spent. The divisions in
Rumania which remain mobilized will receive their ammunition
requirements on a war basis.

Article VI. The demobilized Rumanian troops to remain in Moldavia
until the evacuation of the occupied Rumanian regions. Excepted from
this provision are military bureaus and men mentioned in Article 5,
who are required for the supervision of the arms and material laid
down in these regions. The men and reserve officers who have been
demobilized can return to the occupied regions. Active and formerly
active officers require, in order to return to these regions,
permission of the chief army command of the allied forces.

Article VII. A General Staff officer of the allied powers, with
staff, will be attached to the Rumanian Commander in Chief in
Moldavia, and a Rumanian General Staff officer, with staff, will be
attached as liaison officer to the chief command of the allied
forces in the occupied Rumanian districts.

Article VIII. The Rumanian naval forces will be left to their full
complement and equipment, in so far as their views, in accordance
with Article IX., are not to be limited until affairs in Bessarabia
are cleared, whereupon these forces are to be brought to the usual
peace standard. Excepted herefrom are river forces required for the
purposes of river police and naval forces on the Black Sea, employed
for the protection of maritime traffic and the restoration of
mine-free fairways. Immediately after the signing of the peace
treaty these river forces will, on a basis of special arrangement,
be placed at the disposal of the authorities intrusted with river
policing. The Nautical Black Sea Commission will receive the right
of disposing of the naval forces on the Black Sea, and a naval
officer is to be attached to this commission in order to restore
connection therewith.

Article IX. All men serving in the army and navy, who in peace time
were employed in connection with harbors or shipping, shall, on
demobilization, be the first to be dismissed in order that they may
find employment in their former occupations.

Clause 3. - _Cessions of territory outlined in Articles X., XI., and
XII._

Article X. With regard to Dobrudja, which, according to Paragraph 1
of the peace preliminaries, is to be added by Rumania, the following
stipulations are laid down: (A) Rumania cedes again to Bulgaria,
with frontier rectifications, Bulgarian territory that fell to her
by virtue of the peace treaty concluded at Bucharest in 1913.
(Attached is a map showing the exact extent of the frontier
rectification, with a note to the effect that it forms an essential
part of the peace treaty.) A commission composed of representatives
of the allied powers shall shortly after the signature of the treaty
lay down and demarkate on the spot the new frontier line in
Dobrudja. The Danube frontier between the regions ceded to Bulgaria
and Rumania follows the river valley. Directly after the signature
of the treaty further particulars shall be decided upon regarding
the definition of the valley. Thus the demarkation shall take place
in Autumn, 1918, at low water level.

[Illustration: RUMANIA AND ITS LOST TERRITORY: THE BLACK AREA SHOWS THE
SOUTHERN PART OF DOBRUDJA, WON FROM THE BULGARS IN THE LAST BALKAN WAR,
WHICH RUMANIA IS FORCED TO RETURN TO BULGARIA. THE SHADED AREA - NORTHERN
DOBRUDJA - WHICH INCLUDES THE MOUTHS OF THE DANUBE AND RUMANIA'S ONLY
ACCESS TO THE BLACK SEA, IS CEDED TO THE CENTRAL POWERS, WHO WILL
ADMINISTER IT THROUGH A MIXED COMMISSION. THE SHADING ALONG RUMANIA'S
WESTERN BORDER INDICATES THE AUSTRO-GERMAN "RECTIFICATION," WHICH GIVES
AUSTRIA ALL THE MOUNTAIN PASSES AND IMPORTANT MINERAL LANDS.]

(B) Rumania cedes to the allied powers that portion of Dobrudja up
to the Danube north of the new frontier line described under Section
A; that is to say, between the confluence of the stream and the
Black Sea, to the St. George branch of the river. The Danube
frontier between the territory ceded to the allied powers and
Rumania will be formed by the river valley. The allied powers and
Rumania will undertake to see that Rumania shall receive an assured
trade route to the Black Sea, by way of Tchernavoda and Constanza,
(Kustendje.)

Article XI. says that Rumania agrees that her frontier shall undergo
rectification in favor of Austria-Hungary as indicated on the map,
and continues:

"Two mixed commissions, to be composed of equal numbers of
representatives of the powers concerned, are immediately after the
ratification of the peace treaty to fix a new frontier line on the
spot."

Article XII. Property in the ceded regions of Rumania passes without
indemnification to the States which acquire these regions. Those
States to which the ceded territories fall shall make agreements
with Rumania on the following points: First, with regard to the
allegiance of the Rumanian inhabitants of these regions and the
manner in which they are to be accorded the right of option;
secondly, with regard to the property of communes split by the new
frontier; thirdly and fourthly, with regard to administrative and
juridical matters; fifthly, with regard to the effect of the changes
of territory on dioceses.

Clause 4 deals with war indemnities, of which Article XIII. declares
that the contracting parties mutually renounce indemnification of
their war costs, and special arrangements are to be made for the
settlement of damages caused by the war.

The fifth clause relates to the evacuation of occupied territories,
embodied in Articles XIV. to XXIV., summed up as follows:

"The occupied Rumanian territories shall be evacuated at times to be
later agreed upon. The strength of the army of occupation shall,
apart from the formation employed in economic functions, not surpass
six divisions. Until the ratification of the treaty the present
occupation administration continues, but immediately after the
signature of the treaty the Rumanian Government has the power to
supplement the corps of officials by such appointments or dismissals
as may seem good to it."

Up to the time of evacuation, a civil official of the occupation
administration shall always be attached to the Rumanian Ministry in
order to facilitate so far as possible the transfer of the civil
administration to the Rumanian authorities. The Rumanian authorities
must follow the directions which the commanders of the army of
occupation consider requisite in the interest of the security of the
occupied territory, as well as the security, maintenance, and
distribution of their troops.

For the present, railways, posts, and telegraphs will remain under
military administration, and will, in accordance with proper
agreements, be at the disposal of the authorities and population. As
a general rule, the Rumanian courts will resume jurisdiction in the
occupied territories to their full extent. The allied powers will
retain jurisdiction, as well as the power of police supervision,
over those belonging to the army of occupation. Punishable acts
against the army of occupation will be judged by its military
tribunals, and also offenses against the orders of the occupation
administration. Persons can only return to the occupied territories
in proportion as the Rumanian Government provides for their security
and maintenance.

The army of occupation's right to requisition is restricted to
wheat, peas, beans, fodder, wool, cattle, and meat from the products
of 1918, and, further, to timber, oil and oil products, always
observing proper regard for an orderly plan of procuring these
commodities, as well as satisfying the home needs of Rumania.

From the ratification of the treaty onward the army of occupation
shall be maintained at the expense of Rumania. A separate agreement
will be made with regard to the details of the transfer of the civil
administration, as well as with regard to the withdrawal of the
regulations of the occupation administration. Money spent by the
allied powers in the occupied territories on public works, including
industrial undertakings, shall be made good on their transfer. Until
the evacuation these undertakings shall remain under the military
administration.

Clause 6. - _Regulations regarding navigation on the Danube._

Article XXIV. Rumania shall conclude a new Danube Navigation act
with Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey, regulating the
legal position on the Danube from the point where it becomes
navigable, with due regard for the prescriptions subsequently set
forth under Sections A to D, and on conditions that the
prescriptions under Section B shall apply equally for all parties to
the Danube act. Negotiations regarding the new Danube Navigation act
shall begin at Munich as soon as possible after the ratification of
the treaty.

The sections follow: (A) Under the name Danube Mouth Commission, the
European Danube Commission shall, under conditions subsequently set
forth, be maintained as a permanent institution, empowered with the
privileges and obligations hitherto appertaining to it for the river
from Braila downward, inclusive of this port. The conditions
referred to provide, among other things, that the commission shall
henceforth only comprise representatives of States situated on the
Danube or the European coasts of the Black Sea. The commission's
authority extends from Braila downward to the whole of the arms and
mouth of the Danube and adjoining parts of the Black Sea.

(B.) Rumania guarantees to the ships of the other contracting
parties free navigation on the Rumanian Danube, including the
harbors. Rumania shall levy no toll on ships or rafts of the
contracting parties and their cargoes merely for the navigation of
the river. Neither shall Rumania, in the future, levy on the river
any tolls, save those permitted by the new Danube Navigation act.

Section C provides for the abolition after the ratification of the
treaty of the Rumanian ad valorem duty of 1-1/2 per cent. on imports
and exports.

Articles XXV. and XXVI. deal with Danube questions and provide that
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Turkey, and Rumania are entitled
to maintain warships on the Danube, which may navigate down stream
to the sea and up stream as far as the upper frontier of Austria's
territory, but are forbidden intercourse with the shore of another
State or to put in there except under force majeure or with the
consent of the State.

The powers represented on the Danube Mouth Commission are entitled
to maintain two light warships each as guard ships at the mouth of
the Danube.

Article XXVII. provides equal rights for all religious
denominations, including Jews and Moslems, in Rumania, including the
right to establish private schools.

Article XXVIII. provides that diversity of religion does not affect
legal, political, or civil rights of the inhabitants, and, pending
ratification of the treaty, a decree will be proclaimed giving the
full rights of Rumanian subjects to all those, such as Jews, having
no nationality.

The remaining three articles provide that economic relations shall
be regulated by separate treaties, coming into operation at the same
time as the peace treaty. The same applies to the exchange of
prisoners.


THE KAISER EXULTS

Emperor William replied to Chancellor von Hertling's congratulations on
the conclusion of peace between Germany and Rumania with this message:

The termination of the state of war in the east fills me also with
proud joy and gratitude. Thanks to God's gracious help, the German
people, with never-failing patriotism, under brilliant military
leadership and with the assistance of strong diplomacy, are fighting
step by step for a happy future.

I can but convey my thanks on this occasion to you and also to
your collaborators. God will help us to pass through the struggle
which the hostile attitude of the powers, still under arms against
us, has forced us to continue and to conclude it victoriously for
the good of Germany and her allies.

Emperor William in a telegram to Dr. Richard von Kühlmann, the German
Secretary for Foreign Affairs, said:

The conclusion of peace with Rumania gives me an opportunity of
expressing my joyful satisfaction that peace has now been given to
the entire eastern front.

May rich blessings descend on the peoples concerned from the
resumption of peaceful labor to which they can now devote
themselves.

I thank you and your collaborators for the work done in loyal
co-operation with our allies, and I confer on you as a sign of my
appreciation the Order of the Royal Crown of the First Class.




Bessarabia Voluntarily United to Rumania


Count Czernin, the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister, during the
negotiations with Rumania explained in a public speech that Rumania
would be compensated for the loss of territory on the Transylvanian
border by taking the southern part of Bessarabia, the Russian province
bordering Rumania on the east. The southern part of Bessarabia, however,
has few Rumanians, while the northern part is largely populated by them.
Subsequent events have apparently changed the Austro-German plans, for
the whole of Bessarabia has voted almost unanimously for union with
Rumania. The event was officially announced at Washington on April 22
through the Rumanian Charge d'Affaires, N. H. Lahovary, as follows:

On April 9 the National Assembly of Bessarabia voted by 86 against
3 for union of Bessarabia to Rumania. The Rumanian Premier was then
at Kishinev (capital of Bessarabia) and took cognizance of the vote
amid enthusiastic acclamation and declared this union to be
definitive and indissoluble.

Bessarabian delegates went to Jassy on April 12 to present the
homage of the people of Bessarabia to their Majesties the King and
Queen of Rumania. A Te Deum was sung at the cathedral in the
presence of the royal family, the Government, and the Bessarabian
delegates. The Archbishop of Bessarabia was also there, having
taken the place next to the Metropolitan of Moldavia, who
celebrated the service.

After the ceremony was over a parade of the troops took place,
followed by a luncheon given at the royal palace in honor of the
Ministers of Bessarabia. His Majesty the King drank to the health
of the united Rumanian and Bessarabian people, after witnessing the
great historic event accomplished by the will of the people of
Bessarabia and proclaiming indissoluble the union of the ancient
province of the Moldavian crown to the mother country.

Bessarabia, according to Mr. Lahovary, has about 3,000,000 inhabitants,
and more than three-fourths of these are Rumanians. "Bessarabia," he
continued, "is one of the richest farm lands of what was formerly
Russia. The Bolsheviki ravaged it frightfully during the Winter months,
and the country was only saved by the Rumanian troops, who were called
in by the Bessarabians. Because of this help the Bolsheviki declared war
on Rumania, and there were violent clashes between the Bolshevist
brigands and Rumanian troops. Finally the latter ousted the Bolsheviki
and succeeded in restoring tranquillity, but only after the Bolsheviki
had committed most frightful outrages and pillaged the country. If
Rumania was obliged to make peace, it was due directly to the attitude
of the Bolsheviki toward Rumania."




The War and the Bagdad Railway

A Study by Dr. Morris Jastrow

_Professor of Semitic Languages in the University of Pennsylvania_

[From his book, "The War and the Bagdad Railway"]

_Germany's project of a railway from Berlin to Bagdad, now rivaled by a
new one from Berlin to Bombay via Russia, was one of the chief causes of
the war. It dates from 1888, when a syndicate of German and British
capital organized the Anatolian Railway, to be built from Haidar Pacha,
opposite Constantinople, to Angora - about 360 miles. The German members
later bought out the British interests. Further concessions were
obtained, but in 1898 a much more ambitious plan was brought forward by
the visit of the German Emperor to Sultan Abdul Hamid, and in 1899 the
general policy of a line across Asia Minor was announced. This line,
however, as a glance at the map will show, did not get beyond Angora;
Russia killed that phase of the project. The Bagdad Railway was then
organized in 1903, and obtained from Turkey an unprecedented concession
running southeastward to the Persian Gulf. Both England and France were
offered a minor share in the enterprise, but refused. The Germans thus
remained in full control, at the same time obtaining all the French
capital they needed through Swiss banks._


The Bagdad Railway has been a nightmare resting heavily on all Europe
for eighteen years - ever since the announcement in 1899 of the
concession granted to the Anatolian Railway Company. No step ever taken
by any European power anywhere has caused so much trouble, given rise to
so many complications, and has been such a constant menace to the peace
of the world. No European statesman to whom the destinies of his country
have been committed has rested easily in the presence of this spectre of
the twentieth century. In the last analysis the Bagdad Railway will be
found to be the largest single contributing factor in bringing on the
war, because through it more than through any other cause the mutual
distrust among European powers has been nurtured until the entire
atmosphere of international diplomacy became vitiated. The explanation
of this remarkable phenomenon, transforming what appeared on the surface
to be a magnificent commercial enterprise, with untold possibilities for
usefulness, into a veritable curse, an excrescence on the body politic
of Europe, is to be sought in the history of the highway through which
the railway passes. The control of this highway is the key to the
East - the Near and the Farther East as well. Such has been its rôle in
the past - such is its significance today. * * *

The most recent events are merely the repetition on a large scale of
such as took place thousands of years ago and at frequent intervals
since. The weapons have changed, new contestants have arisen to take the
place of civilizations that after serving their day faded out of sight,
but the issue has ever remained the same. We are confronted by that
issue today - the control of the highway that leads to the East. * * *
The decisive battlefields for the triumph of democracy are in the West,
but the decision for supremacy among European nations lies in the East.
The Bagdad Railway is the most recent act in a drama the beginnings of
which lie in the remote past. * * *

The course of events in the Near East since the entering wedge,
represented by Napoleon's expedition to Egypt, is to be interpreted as
the irresistible onslaught of the West to break down the barrier created
in 1453. As we survey the successive steps in this onslaught, the
struggle between France and England, culminating in the Convention of
1904, which gave France a dominant position in Morocco in return for
allowing England a free hand in Egypt, the attempts of France and Russia
to hedge in England in India, followed by England and Russia in dividing
up their "spheres of influence" in Persia, the commercial and railway
concessions secured by England, France, and Russia from Turkey, sinking
ever deeper into a slough of desperate weakness, we see how these
struggles, conventions, and partnerships all lead up to the dramatic
climax - the struggle for the historic highway which is the key to the
Near East. Its possession will mean in the future - as it always has in
the past - dominion over Syria, Mesopotamia, Egypt, and probably Arabia;
and the Near East points its finger directly toward the Farther East.
Under the modern symbol of railway control, Asia Minor, true to the
genius of its history, once more looms up as a momentous factor in the
world history. * * * The murder at Serajevo was merely the match applied
to the pile all ready to be kindled. * * *

[Illustration: MAP SHOWING THE COMPLETED AND PROJECTED SECTIONS OF THE
BAGDAD RAILWAY, THE GERMAN ENTERPRISE THAT FIGURED AMONG THE PRIMARY
CAUSES OF THE WAR]

Full credit should be given to the German brains in which this project
was hatched, and there is no reason to suspect that at the outset the
German capitalists who fathered the enterprise were actuated by any
other motive than the perfectly legitimate one to create a great avenue
of commerce. When, however, the German Government entered the field as
the backer and promoter of the scheme the political aspect of the
railroad was moved into the foreground, and that aspect has since
overshadowed the commercial one.

Had the original plan of the German group to run the Bagdad Railway
across Northern Asia Minor from Angora been adhered to, the interior
would have been kept free, and it is likely that a favorite English plan
(afterward taken up also by the French Government) to run a railway from
the Gulf of Alexandretta via Aleppo and the Euphrates to Bagdad might



Online LibraryVariousCurrent History, Vol. VIII, No. 3, June 1918 → online text (page 27 of 30)