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Harper's Round Table, August 27, 1895 online

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Chester in No. 824. Philadelphia to Atlantic City - First Stage in
No. 825.




[Illustration: THE CAMERA CLUB]

Any questions in regard to photograph matters will be willingly
answered by the Editor of this column, and we should be glad to
hear from any of our club who can make helpful suggestions.


PAPERS FOR BEGINNERS, NO. 13.

DARK-ROOM HINTS.

In guides to photography, directions are always given for varnishing the
negative, but with ordinary care a negative need not be varnished except
for the purpose of retouching. Retouching means covering the spots in
the film with some non-actinic substance. Small spots are covered by
touching them lightly with a rather soft lead-pencil. Sometimes
water-color is used applied with a delicate brush, and sometimes crayons
are used.

It is not necessary to varnish a negative in order to retouch it; for a
fluid can be bought for this purpose, called "retouching fluid," which
is applied locally with a piece of surgeon's cotton. To "apply locally"
means to put the fluid on the part of the plate which needs retouching,
instead of covering the whole plate. A bottle of retouching fluid costs
twenty-five cents, and will last a long time. Full directions for use
come with each bottle.

Fine retouching is an art, but the amateur can easily learn to cover the
spots in his negative which would disfigure or spoil his prints.

The small clear spots on negatives are usually caused by dust on the
plate. They make what are called pin-holes, and wherever these occur in
the negative a black spot will show on the print. Amateurs are often
advised to dust their plates with a brush before placing them in the
holders. It requires a very soft brush and a careful hand to dust a
sensitive plate without scratching the film, and if the plate-holders
and camera-bellows are wiped frequently with a damp cloth there will be
little danger of pin-holes from dust spots in the sensitive plate.

Transparent spots in the negative are caused by air-bubbles forming on
the plate when the developer is turned over it, and the bubbles not
being broken, the developer does not have a chance to act on the film.

Larger spots on the plate or near the edge, which seem less intense than
the rest of the negative, are caused by the plate not being covered all
at once with the developer. The undeveloped plate should be placed in
the tray and the developing solution turned over it quickly with a sort
of sweeping motion, and the tray rocked in all directions till the plate
is completely covered.

Never place a negative in sunshine or near a stove to dry. The heat
causes the gelatine to melt and run off the plate. If for any reason one
wishes to dry a negative quickly, wash it, after removing it from the
hypo, for about half an hour, wipe off the water with a piece of damp
surgeon's cotton, lay the negative in the tray, and cover it with
alcohol. Let it remain in the alcohol for a minute or two, then take it
out and set it up to dry. It will dry in from five to ten minutes, ready
for printing.

Sometimes in warm weather the edges of the sensitive plate will come
loose from the glass. This is called "frilling," and occurs when the
developer is too warm. If the plate begins to frill, remove it to a dish
of cold water, and lower the temperature of the developer by setting it
for a few minutes in a dish of ice-water. The temperature of solutions
should not rise above 85°, or sink below 65° if good results are
desired.

In a later paper full directions will be given for retouching negatives,
improving the high-lights, blocking out backgrounds, etc. But these
belong to the finer part of the mechanical work of photography.

SIR KNIGHT GLOVER BEARDSLEY, Auburn, New York, asks: 1, if one can
use a ruby light safely when putting a plate in the holder; 2, if
a plate should be left in the water after being taken from the
hypo, or if it can be washed off and put to dry at once; 3, in the
formula for making blue prints, where it says add one and one-half
ounce of citrate of iron and ammonium, if it means three-quarters
ounce each, and does it mean the ammonium in a liquid or solid
form. 1. One may use a ruby light with safety in filling
plate-holders. It is wise not to hold the plate too near the
light. 2. Negatives should be washed at least half an hour in
running water, and one hour if one has not running water, changing
the water four or five times. 3. "Citrate of iron and ammonium" is
a double salt formed of ferric citrate and citrate of ammonium,
and comes in brown shining leaflets. Ask for "citrate of iron and
ammonium" when buying the ingredients for the formula.

SIR KNIGHT A. SMITH, Trenton, New Jersey, asks for a good
developing solution, how to polish ferrotype plates, and how to
keep films from curling when drying. Makers of dry plates always
put in each box of dry plates formulas for developing, with full
directions for preparation and use. These will always be found
reliable. In No. 786 will be found a simple developer for
instantaneous pictures, and we shall shortly publish a set of
formulas with full directions for use. In Nos. 797 and 805 will be
found directions for preparing a ferrotype plate so that prints
will not stick. If the prints are trimmed before toning, they can
be pasted before removing from the ferrotype, and thus most of the
gloss made by the plate will be retained. Films may be kept from
curling by soaking the film, after fixing and washing, in a
solution of one-quarter ounce of glycerine and 16 ounces of water.
Pin them at the corners to a flat board, removing all drops of
water with a soft cloth. Set the board in an upright position till
the films are dry. Do not use any more glycerine than the
proportions given, as it will make the negatives sticky.

* * * * *

RECALLED STORMY TIMES.

"Well, that looks natural," said the old soldier, looking at a can of
condensed milk on the breakfast-table in place of ordinary milk that
failed on account of the storm. "It's the Gail Borden Eagle Brand we
used during the war." - [_Adv._]




ADVERTISEMENTS.




[Illustration: Columbia Bicycles ad]




Walter Baker & Co. Limited,

[Illustration]

The Largest Manufacturers of

PURE, HIGH GRADE

COCOAS and CHOCOLATES

On this Continent, have received

HIGHEST AWARDS

from the great

Industrial and Food

EXPOSITIONS

IN EUROPE AND AMERICA.

* * * * *

=Caution:= In view of the many imitations of the labels and wrappers on
our goods, consumers should make sure that our place of manufacture,
namely, =Dorchester, Mass.= is printed on each package.

* * * * *

SOLD BY GROCERS EVERYWHERE.

* * * * *

WALTER BAKER & CO. LTD. DORCHESTER, MASS.




[Illustration]

Noah's Ark

with animals, will be sent postpaid to any address on receipt of three
2-cent stamps. The animals are on cardboard - two and three inches high,
naturally-colored, and will stand alone. They can be arranged in line or
groups, making an interesting object lesson in natural history. This
offer is made solely for the purpose of acquainting mothers with the
merits of

WILLIMANTIC

Star Thread.

Send for a set for each of the children. Address

WILLIMANTIC THREAD CO.,

Willimantic, Conn.




WANTED.

Short stories and articles for the Boys', Girls', and Ladies'
Departments of a Weekly Magazine; also contributions of all important
subjects, all to be written by experts.

P. F. COLLIER, Publisher, 521 W. 13th St., N. Y.




Postage Stamps, &c.




[Illustration]

=STAMPS!= =300= fine mixed Victoria, Cape of G. H., India, Japan, etc.,
with fine Stamp Album, only =10c.= New 80-p. Price-list =free=. _Agents
wanted_ at =50%= commission. STANDARD STAMP CO., 4 Nicholson Place, St.
Louis, Mo. Old U. S. and Confederate Stamps bought.




[Illustration]

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Hawaii, etc., only 50c. Ag'ts wanted at 50 per ct. com. List FREE!

=C. A. Stegmann=, 2722 Eads Av., St. Louis, Mo.




=25c. per 100= paid for cancelled postage stamps. For particulars, send
10c. silver, and get 20 foreign stamps free. Approval sheets at 50%.

H. P. HALBRAN, 101 CLINTON STREET, OLEAN, N. Y.




[Illustration: If afflicted with SORE EYES USE Dr. ISAAC THOMPSON'S EYE
WATER]




Notice to all members.


It is desired to correct the Order's records, especially all changes in
addresses. The new Patent is now ready, and all will want it. It is far
handsomer than the old certificate. We make a special request,
therefore, to all Founders and members to send us at once their names
and permanent addresses. Use English capital letters, which you can
easily make with your pen, and spell out in full at least one Christian
or given name.

A "given" name is the name given you by your parents, as distinguished
from your last name, which you have from your father. Use a postal card,
not a letter, and put no other matter upon it. Address the card Messrs.
Harper & Brothers, Publishers, New York, and put in the lower left-hand
corner the words "Round Table." On the back of the card write the letter
"A," and follow it with name, as directed, and address in full - street
and number if any, town or city, and State. If you are a Founder, write
that word in full anywhere on the card. Your new Patent will then bear
that word. If you were not a Founder, do not use the word.

Remember that if a certificate was ever issued to you, you are still a
member, no matter if you have now passed your eighteenth birthday.
Chapter officers are asked to send, on postal cards, names and addresses
of their Chapter members. They are also asked to send names of any
grown-up friends of the Chapter whom they may wish to honor by making
them Patrons of the Round Table Order.

All who have not passed their eighteenth birthday, even if not formerly
members, are urged to send postal cards as directed. So, too, are grown
folks interested in the Order. If you have passed your eighteenth
birthday, and have not previously held a certificate of membership, send
your name and address and use the letter "D." Members are urged to send
names and addresses of their friends, that we may give Patents to them.
Your teacher may be made a Patron.

To all who comply with these suggestions we will send Patents in the
Order, bearing their names, creating them Founders, Knights, Ladies, or
Patrons. The advantages of belonging to the Order will be attached - and
there are many. We will also send our prize offers for 1895-6, in which
money incentives are to be offered for pen-drawing, story-writing,
poems, nonsense verses, entertainment programmes, photography, and music
settings, and for distributing some advertising matter about Harper's
Round Table.

This matter consists of announcements and a Handy Book. The latter is a
neat memorandum-book, which, besides blank pages, contains lists of
words often misspelled, interscholastic sport records, a calendar, list
of books to read, hints about amateur newspapers, how to get into West
Point, values of rare stamps and coins, and a great number of other
useful facts.

Of course no member or Patron is required or even asked to undertake
this work any more than they are asked to compete for prizes. Many
members wish to earn the rewards offered by the Table, and to all such
we desire to offer the first chance. These rewards consist of Order
badges in silver and gold, rubber stamps bearing your name and address,
fifty visiting cards with the copper plate, and a very limited number,
because we have only a few copies, of bound volumes of HARPER'S YOUNG
PEOPLE for 1893 or 1894. These rewards are offered, not for
subscriptions, but for giving printed matter to your friends. The offer
is limited, since we can allow only one member or Patron to accept it in
each town or neighborhood.

We repeat that the Order has no "have to's." But it has many literary
and prize advantages. We want the names and permanent addresses again in
order to correct our records. To all who send us such we forward the
Order's new Patent and our prize offers. Use a postal card - and write as
soon as convenient.




Who can give Us a Morsel on This?


An experience I once had with a garter-snake leads me to believe
that the family to which it belongs consists of more than one
variety. One warm day in May, while scouring the woods in search
of something of interest, I came upon a small pool at the edge of
the woods, seemingly a drinking-place for cattle. Yet the water
was black with a myriad of tadpoles, presided over by a monster
frog - the largest I have ever seen. I was interested in the queer
little wigglers, and did not notice the approach of a large snake,
making its way to the pool, till it had taken its fill of water,
as I then supposed. I quickly picked up a stone and killed the
snake, at first thinking it to be a water-adder. A second glance
showed it to be an unusually large garter-snake, less brilliantly
striped than any I had before seen.

I was about to leave the pool when I saw that the reptile's paunch
was considerably swollen, and that in it some live creature was
imprisoned. This aroused my curiosity, and in another moment I had
opened the paunch. To my astonishment seven squirming tadpoles
wriggled out upon the ground. I placed them in the pool, and all
swam off as briskly as before they had, Jonah-like, been swallowed
by a hungry monster.

Since this experience I have questioned in vain whether or not
there is a separate variety of the garter-snake which lives in or
near the water; or whether the snake was of the common variety,
and simply forced by hunger to make a meal of tadpoles. Can some
one enlighten me?

VINCENT V. M. BEEDE, R.T.F.
EAST ORANGE, N. J.




One Way to Learn.


One of the best ways to broaden one's mental horizon, to make one think
of more than the familiar things about him, is to enter into
correspondence with persons who live in distant States and countries.
You can find such correspondents in a variety of ways. Look in your
geography and see the name of a town in a far distant part of the
country. Perhaps it is a small village. It has a principal of a public
school. Write him a letter, briefly stating your purpose, and ask him
for the name of a pupil who wishes to correspond with you.

Are you interested in stamps, bugs, butterflies, minerals, rocks,
plants, autographs, cameras, amateur papers - anything? Enclose in your
letter a good specimen. It will interest somebody and hardly fail to
bring you a response. You can also find addresses through Sunday-school
teachers, Round Table Chapters, etc. Or you can, upon meeting a friend,
ask him or her for names of relatives who might like to correspond,
trade specimens, etc.

Use your ingenuity to find persons with the same hobby as your own. When
you find them, write them a really good letter; that is, treat them
well, not ill. Do not ask any one to excuse blots in letters. Busy
business men even do not do that. They write the letter over again, and
their time is more valuable than yours. Never say, "That isn't the best
I could do, but it is good enough." Only the best is good enough. Treat
your correspondents well, and you will derive much of both knowledge and
pleasure from them.




A Fire by the Esquimaux Method.


I read about the Esquimaux method of lighting fires in _Snow-shoes
and Sledges_. I had read about the method before, but had always
been somewhat sceptical on the subject. But as the directions were
plainer than any I had previously seen, I thought I would try it
myself. I procured a piece of soft pine and worked a hole in it
with my knife. The pencil I made of oak, and the piece that went
on top of the pencil I made of whitewood.

I then took an old bow, and taking the string off, put on a larger
one about an eighth of an inch in diameter. I took a turn of this
around the oak pencil, and drew the bow back and forth. At first I
could perceive no fire, but before long, to my surprise, the wood
began to smoke, and when I took the pencil out I found it was
somewhat charred. I have tried it several times since with more or
less success. I would like to know whether any one else has tried
this experiment, and how they have succeeded.

I would like some correspondents.

CASSIUS MORFORD.
BANFIELD, MICH.




Questions and Answers.


Avis K. Smith, Box 84, San Luis Obispo, Cal., wants to hear from a
Chapter that admits corresponding members. Gérasime Dubois, 21 Chaussie
du Vouldy, Troyes, Champagne, France, is a French Knight of the Order,
and wants to correspond in French, German, or English, to improve his
own and his correspondents' language construction. He will write in any
or all of the languages. O. Prussack, R. T. K., 84 Norfolk Street, New
York, wants to join a literary Chapter.

* * * * *

Elizabeth A. Hyde, 1458 Euclid Place, N. W., Washington, D. C., wants to
hear from other Washington members willing to help her get up an
entertainment in that city in aid of the School Fund. S. L. Barksdale, a
Mississippi Knight, says he has a good many correspondents. It is their
custom, besides describing places each may have visited, to propound
questions. They differ about answers sometimes, and so they send us five
questions, agreeing to abide by our decisions. What is the Flower City
and what the Flour City? Springfield, Ill. and Rochester. N. Y.
respectively. How does a spider get his web from one tree to another?
How does he spin a round web? How does he keep lines the same distance
apart? And what keeps him from falling?

The spider possesses no special ability to get from one tree to another.
He depends upon the wind generally. He spins a single thread long enough
to reach across and then trusts to the wind. If the end attaches itself
at what he deems the wrong place, he goes over it where it is, or around
by way of the ground and adjusts it. He makes the web regular, both in
size and distances apart, because he possesses mathematical and
mechanical instinct, just as does the bee, only in less degree. He keeps
from falling by clinging to his web. He possesses no peculiar power in
this respect over other insects. We cannot express an opinion whether a
certain firm is reliable or not. The price of Abbott's _Life of
Napoleon_ is $5 in cloth.

* * * * *

The rules of knucks up, with marbles, vary greatly. Here is one way to
play it: Dig three holes in the ground three inches in diameter and four
feet or more apart. The first player starting at the first hole tries to
get his marble into the second hole. If he succeeds he takes a span with
his hand and proceeds to the third; if he fails, the next player
follows. Should he manage to get into the hole, he plays again, and can
either try for the third hole or try to knock his opponent further away
from the hole. He also has the privilege of a span. If he should hit his
opponent's marble, the hit counts another hole for him, but he must put
his marble into the hole he was playing for before he can shoot at his
opponent's marble. There is a point to be gained in carrying your
opponent's marble from hole to hole. You can finish the game in this
way.

The players continue in this way until one or the other has gone up and
down three times. The player who has lost the game places his clinched
fist on one side of any of the holes, with his marble in front of his
fist. The winner gets on the opposite side. He then takes aim, closes
his eyes, and shoots. He does this three times, his eyes closed, and
every time he misses, or hits his opponent's marble, he has to put his
knuckles up on his side of the hole while the loser shoots at them.
These are called the "blind" shots. Then he shoots three times at the
loser's knuckles with his eyes open. These shots he very seldom misses.
It is best not to have too many players, because there is likely to be
confusion in the marbles and the holes. You can also play partners in
the same way.

* * * * *

The largest city in the United States is New York, and its population,
recently enumerated, is only a little below 2,000,000. The following
States fought for the Southern cause of 1861, passing secession
ordinances on dates in the order named: South Carolina, Mississippi,
Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, North
Carolina, and Tennessee. The States of Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and
Delaware refused to secede, but passed ordinances declaring themselves
to be neutral.




A VILLAGE OF CHESS-PLAYERS.


We learn from a foreign journal that the village of Stroebeck is known
throughout the whole of Germany as the "chess-playing village." For
centuries every native of that village, from the prosperous freeholder
down to the poor shepherd, has been an enthusiastic and a more or less
efficient chess-player.

From time immemorial the knowledge and love of the game have been handed
down from one generation to another, and parents are still in the habit
of teaching it to their children as soon almost as they are able to
walk. It is one of the regular subjects taught at the village school.

Once a year, at Easter, the children's knowledge of the game is tested
by a kind of examination conducted by an examining committee of
peasants, of which the clergyman is the president and the school-master
the vice-president. Forty-eight of the scholars are selected by lot, and
matched against each other by a similar method. The twenty-four winners
in the series of single combats then enter upon a second struggle among
themselves, and the remaining twelve on the third. The six winners in
the threefold contest are declared the champion players of the school.
They each receive a prize, consisting of a chess-board and chessmen, and
are escorted home by their parents and friends after the manner of the
Olympian victors among the ancient Greeks. Afterwards a feast is given
in their honor to which all the friends and relations are invited.




MARSHMALLOW PASTE AND CANDIES.


Dissolve five ounces of best white gum-arabic in twenty table-spoonfuls
of water, and strain it. Put it with a pound of powdered sugar into a
basin, and place this basin in another containing water. A farina or
double boiler is especially good to use for this cooking. Stir
constantly till the mass is very stiff and very white. Divide the paste
while still hot into parts, flavoring one with vanilla, another with
rose and a few drops of pink coloring matter, and another with
orange-flower water, if strong and fresh. Then pour the paste into tin
dishes dusted with corn-starch. When cool divide into squares with a
sharp knife, using it with a quick stroke. A variety of candy can be
made with this paste by dipping the squares when perfectly cold in
fondant. The fondant should be melted in small quantities, and each
portion differently colored and flavored. From marshmallow paste is made
another attractive candy, called Neapolitan nougat. Make the marshmallow
paste as before, but when thick and white add the well-beaten white of
an egg. When well blended remove the mass from the fire, flavor with
vanilla, and add a pound of blanched, chopped almonds, and an ounce of
pistache nuts, also blanched and chopped. When well mixed press into a
box, and when cold cut into bars and wrap each bar in double waxed
paper. As this candy will not keep long put it into an airtight box.




[Illustration: Ivory Soap]

Elisabeth R. Scovil in her book, "The Care of Children," recommends the
use of Ivory Soap for bathing infants, and says: "There is no particular
virtue in Castile Soap, which has long been consecrated to this
purpose."

THE PROCTER & GAMBLE CO., CIN'TI.




[Illustration]

EARN A TRICYCLE!

We wish to introduce our Teas, Spices, and Baking Powder. Sell 30 lbs.
and we will give you a Fairy Tricycle; sell 25 lbs. for a Solid Silver
Watch and Chain; 50 lbs. for a Gold Watch and Chain; 75 lbs. for a
Bicycle; 10 lbs. for a Beautiful Gold Ring. Express prepaid if cash is


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Online LibraryVariousHarper's Round Table, August 27, 1895 → online text (page 6 of 7)