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Notes and Queries, Number 62, January 4, 1851 online

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edition, alluding to Plato's _Republic_, More's _Utopia_, and Bacon's _New
Atlantis_, not to be found in the original English edition, is introduced.
This volume is entitled -

"The History of the Sevarambians, a people of the south continent, in
five parts, containing, &c. Translated from the Memoirs of Capt. Siden,
who lived fifteen years amongst them."

The work is included in the collection of _Voyages Imaginaires_, tom. v.,
where the editor speaks of the distinguished place which it holds among the
fictions of that class; but he says that its authorship was unknown or
uncertain. An account of another fictitious voyage to the Terra Australis,
with a description of an imaginary people, published in 1692, may be seen
in Bayle's _Dict._, art. SADEUR, _Voyages Imaginaires_, tom. xxiv.

According to the account given by Marchand, Vairasse began life by serving
in the army in Piedmont, and he afterwards studied the law. Subsequently he
went to England, where he is stated to have attempted to penetrate the
intrigues of the court, and to discover the maxims of the English
Government. In 1665, he was in the ship commanded by the Duke of York
against the Dutch; and some years afterwards, having been regarded as an
accomplice in the designs of a public minister (apparently Lord Clarendon),
he was forced to retire with him, and follow him to Paris. He re-entered
the military service, and was with the French army which invaded Holland in
1672. Afterwards he taught English and French at Paris; he likewise
published a French Grammar, and an abridgment of it in the English language
(1683). He was of the reformed religion.

It is possible that Vairasse's visit to England may have been connected
with his religion. He appears, during his residence here, to have acquired
the English language; but it is difficult to understand what are the
designs of Lord Clarendon in which he was an "accomplice." Lord Clarendon's
exile took place in 1667; which hardly accords with the expression "some
years" after 1665. No person of the name of Vairasse is mentioned as having
accompanied Lord Clarendon in his banishment.

The first part of the _History of the Sevarambians_ was published in
English in 1675, two years before the French edition of the first part. The
second parts were published at London and Paris in the same year. Even if
Vairasse did not leave England with Lord Clarendon, he had left it before
the year in which the first part of this {6} work appeared in English: for
he is stated to have been with the French army in Holland in 1672. It is
therefore difficult to account for the publication of the English version
of the _History of the Sevarambians_ before its publication in France, upon
the assumption that Vairasse was the author. The writer of the life of
Vairasse (art. ALLAIS) in the _Biographical Dictionary of the Society of
Useful Knowledge_ thinks that he may have been only the translator: but the
facts collected by Marchand show that he claimed the authorship; and there
is no trace of its composition by any Englishman. Besides, its prior
publication in England is just as inexplicable upon the assumption of his
being the translator, as upon that of his being the author.

Query, Is Vairasse's residence in England mentioned by any English writer?
And can any light be thrown upon the authorship of the _History of the
Sevarambians_ from any English source?

L.

* * * * *

ORIGINS OF PRESENT PENNY POSTAGE.

Many of your readers have, I doubt not, perused with interest the vivid
sketch of the origin of the Penny Postage System, given by Miss Martineau
in her _History of England during the Thirty Years' Peace_, vol. ii. p.
425., and have seen in the incident of the shilling letter delivered to the
poor cottager, somewhere in the Lake district - refused by her from
professed inability to pay the postage - paid for by Mr. Rowland Hill, who
happened most opportunely to be passing that way - and, when opened, found
to be blank (this plan being preconcerted between the woman and her
correspondent, to know of each other's welfare without the expense of
postage). A remarkable instance of "how great events from little causes
spring," and have bestowed much admiration on the penetration of Mr. Hill's
mind, which "wakened up at once to a significance of the fact," nor ever
rested till he had devised and effected his scheme of Post-office Reform;
though all the while an uncomfortable feeling might be lurking behind as to
the perfect credibility of so interesting a mode of accounting for the
initiation of this great social benefit.

I confess to having had some suspicions myself as to the trustworthiness of
this story; and a few days since my suspicions were fully confirmed by
discovering that the real hero of the tale was not the Post-office
Reformer, but the poet Coleridge; unless, indeed, which is surely out of
the range of ordinary probabilities, the same event, _corresponding exactly
as to place and amount of postage_, happened to two persons at separate
times.

Coleridge relates the story himself, in one of his "conversations," of
which memoranda are preserved in the interesting volumes published by Moxon
in 1836 (ii. 114.). "One day,"

"when I had not a shilling to spare, I was passing by a cottage at
_Keswick_ where a carter was demanding _a shilling_ for a letter, which
the woman of the house appeared unwilling to give, and at last declined
to take. I paid the postage, and when the man was out of sight, she
told me that the letter was from her son, who took that means of
letting her know that he was well. The letter was not to be paid for.
It was then opened and _found to be blank_."

Now, while so many copies of "NOTES AND QUERIES" pass through the
Post-office, it is to be hoped one at least may remain there, and be the
means of inducing Mr. Hill to inform us whether Miss Martineau had any
authority for fathering this story upon him; and whether the Post-office
Reform is really indebted to any such trivial incident for its original
idea.

E. VENABLES.

* * * * *

RED BOOK OF THE IRISH EXCHEQUER.

On one of the vellum leaves of which the Red Book of the Irish Exchequer is
composed, there is depicted a pen and ink sketch of that court. In the
centre of the picture is the table, which is covered (as it is at this day)
with a chequered cloth, whereon are placed a bag upon which are the words
"Baga cum rotulis," a book with a clasp, five large pieces of money, and a
strip of parchment, upon which is written, "Ceo vous, &c." The table is
surrounded on its four equal sides by thirteen human figures, namely, six
at the top of the picture, three on the left hand, three on the right, and
one at the bottom. Of the six figures at the top of the sketch, all of whom
wear robes, he who is on the right hand holds a wand, bears upon his head a
cap, and is in the act of leaving the court, exclaiming, "Ademayn." To the
right of this man, who is probably the crier of the court, is one of the
officers carrying a piece of parchment, upon which is written in contracted
law Latin, "Preceptum fuit Vicecomiti per breve hujus Scaccarii." To the
right of the last-named figure is another officer of the court, who is in
the act of examining his pen by placing its nib at a short distance from
his eyes; and this person carries in his left hand a piece of parchment
upon which are written, in like character, the words "Memorandum quod x die
Maii, &c." To the right of this officer, who is probably the Chief
Remembrancer, is placed another officer, wearing a cap, who is in the act
of writing upon a piece of parchment bearing the words "Henricus dei
gratia." The two remaining figures at the top of the picture are apparently
conversing together: to one of them are applied the words, "Eynt bre vic.,"
with another word following the last which {7} is scarcely decypherable;
and to the other the word "Elgyn" seems to have reference; such word being
placed upon the ample sleeve of his gown. The three figures on the left of
the picture are probably the three Barons. The head-dress of the judge who
is sitting at the extreme right of the bench, varies in its form from that
which is worn by the baron who is seated in the centre; and the third
baron, who is sitting at the left, has his head uncovered. The first-named
baron seems in the act of counting or reckoning the pieces of coin which
are placed before him upon the table, and says "xx d.;" the baron in the
centre, who wears a cap similar in form to the night-cap now commonly used,
says "Voyr dire;" and the third baron says "Soient forfez." Opposite to the
judges, and to the right of the picture, are three persons wearing gowns,
and standing at the bar of the court. One of these points towards his face
with the first finger of his right hand, and says, "Oy de brie;" the figure
to his left extends his right arm towards the bench, and exclaims, "Soit
oughte;" and the third figure says, "Chalange." This man, the handle of
whose sword is distinctly visible on his right side, whose outer sleeves
are wide and flowing, whose under garment is buttoned tightly at the wrist,
and whose boots are in shape similar to ladies' boots of modern times,
closely laced to the leg, has placed the thumb of his left hand between the
thumb and first finger of his right. And, lastly, at the bottom of the
picture is seated the sheriff, bearing upon his head a hood or cap, upon
which the words "Vic. tot & unit" are written. Query, Are the persons here
represented the barons and officers of the Exchequer? and, more especially,
who are the persons who exclaim "Oy de brie," "Soit oughte," and
"Chalange"?

J.F.F.

* * * * *

MINOR QUERIES.

_Abbey of Shapp, or Hepp._ - I shall be much obliged to any of your readers
who can inform me whether the Chartulary of the Abbey of Shapp, or Hepp, in
Westmoreland, is now in existence; and if so, where it is. In the
_Monasticon_, vol. vi. p. 869., it is stated that in 1638 it was in the
possession of Lord William Howard, of Naworth; but though a search has been
made among Lord William's papers and MSS. in the possession of his
descendant, the Earl of Carlisle, at Castle Howard, the Chartulary is not
now to be found among them.

J.C.

"_Talk not of Love._" - Do any of your musical correspondents know the
author of the following song, and whether it has ever appeared in print? I
have it in manuscript, set to a very fine tune, but have never seen or
heard it elsewhere.

"Talk not of love, it gives me pain,
For love hath been my foe;
He bound me with an iron chain,
And plunged me deep in woe.

"But friendship's pure and lasting joys
My soul was form'd to prove,
Then welcome, win, and wear the prize,
But never talk of love."

A.M.

_Lucy and Colin._ - Can you tell me who was the author of "Lucy and Colin,"
so beautifully translated by Vincent Bourne, and by him entitled "Lucia et
Corydon"?

In Southey's _Common-place Book_, 3d series, I found the following in p.
712.: -

"Of the wretched poem _Colin and Lucy_ (Tickel?) published as a
fragment of Elizabeth's age, the reviewer says, 'Is this the language
of Q. Elizabeth's time, or something better? But to whatever age, or to
whatever author we are indebted for this beautiful piece, it must be
allowed an honour to both, and therefore worth contending for on behalf
of our own time.'"

I wonder whether this be the "Colin and Lucy" that V. Bourne translated.

I have not Tickel's works, and therefore cannot discover whether he be the
author of that beautiful (whatever Southey may say) ballad beginning with -

"In Leinster famed for maidens fair," &c.

A.B.

_Chapel, Printing-office._ - Is there any other authority than Creery's
_Press_ for the statement that printing-offices are called chapels?
Whatever may have been the case, at present the word "chapel" is applied to
the persons, or companionship, employed in the office, not to the office
itself.

GOMER.

[_Moxon_, in his _Mechanick Exercises_, vol. ii. p. 356. 4to. 1683,
says: "Every printing-house is by the custom of time out of mind called
a chappel; and all the workmen that belong to it are members of the
chappel: and the oldest freeman is father of the chappel. I suppose the
style was originally conferred upon it by the courtesie of some great
Churchman, or men, (doubtless, when chappels were in more veneration
than of late years they have been here in England), who, for the books
of divinity that proceeded from a printing-house, gave it the reverend
title of chappel."]

_Cockade_ is a ribband worn in the hat, as defined by Dr. Johnson. Query,
What is the origin of its use by officers of the army and navy; who are
privileged to wear it; when was it first introduced; and by what authority,
if any, is it sanctioned or confined to the army and navy?

A.E.

_Suem, Ferling, Grasson_ - In a copy of Court Roll, dated the 40th year of
Elizabeth, and relating {8} to the manor of Rotherfield, co. Sussex,
these words occur: -

"R. K. cepit extra manus domini unam suem tr[~e] nat' de ferling," &c.

I shall be obliged to any of your correspondents who will explain the words
_suem_ and _ferling_.

What is the etymology of _grasson_, a word used in some north-country
manors for a fine paid on alienation of copyhold lands?

C.W.G.

_Cranmer's Descendants._ - Being much interested in everything that concerns
the martyrs of the Reformation, and not the less so from being descended
(in the female line) from the father of Archbishop Cranmer, I should be
very glad if any of your correspondents could inform me whether there are
any of his male descendants still in existence. Gilpin, in his _Lives of
the Reformers_, says that the Archbishop's wife and children lived in great
obscurity. This was probably on account of the prejudice, which had hardly
passed away, against the marriage of the clergy; but surely the descendants
of so great a man, if there be such, have not lost the records or pedigree
by which their descent can be verified.

C.D.F.

_Collections of Pasquinades._ - Can any of your correspondents inform me
whether a collection has ever been published of the satirical verses
affixed to the _torso_ of Menelaus, at the corner of the Palazzo Braschi at
Rome, and commonly known as _Pasquinades_, from the name of a tailor whose
shop stood near the place of its discovery? (See Nibby _Itinerario di
Roma_, ii. 409.) I send you a specimen which I do not remember to have seen
in print. It was occasioned by the Pope Pius VI. (Braschi) having placed
his own coat of arms in various parts of St. Peter's. They consisted of the
double-headed eagle, two stars, a lily, and the head of a boy, puffing at
it.

"Redde aquilam imperio; Gallorum lilia regi;
Sidera redde polo; cætera Brasche tibi."

The eagle being restored to the Holy Roman Empire, the lily to the Most
Christian King, and the stars to the firmament, there remained for the Pope
himself - an empty puff.

MARFORIO.

_Portraits of Bishops._ - Can any of your correspondents inform me of
portraits of John Williams, archbishop of York (previously bishop of
Lincoln); John Owen, bishop of St. Asaph; George Griffith, bishop of St.
Asaph; Lewis Bayley, bishop of Bangor; Humphrey Henchman, bishop of London
(previously bishop of Salisbury); Lord Chief Justice Glynne; and Sir Thomas
Milward, chief justice of Chester.

Cassan, in his _Bishops of Salisbury_, mentions one of Henchman; but I mean
exclusively of this.

Y.Y.

_The Butcher Duke._ - Can any of your readers furnish me with the rest of a
Scotch song of which I have heard these two couplets?

"The Deil sat girning in a nook,
Breaking sticks to burn the duke.
A' the Whigs sal gae to hell!
Geordie sal gae there hissel."

And who was the writer?

MEZZOTINTO.

_Rodolph Gualter._-I think I have somewhere seen it stated that Rodolph
Gualter (minister at Zurich, and well known as a correspondent of our
divines in the age of the Reformation) was a Scotchman. Will any of your
correspondents oblige me by supplying either a reference for this
statement, or a disproof of it - or both?

J.C.R.

_Passage in St. Mark._ - What Fathers of the early Christian Church have
annotated that remarkable text, Mark xiii. 32., "[Greek: oude ho hyios],"
"Neither the Son?"

As this subject has certainly engaged the attention of many of your
readers, it will be a great favour conferred on the present writer, if
their replies should indicate the authors' names, the date and place of the
edition, the page, and such other distinctive marks as shall lead to a
prompt investigation of the subject: among them, whether the authors quoted
are in the library of the British Museum.

CALMET.

"_Fronte Capillatâ," &c._ - On the Grammar School at Guilsbro, in
Northamptonshire, is inscribed the following hexameter: -

"Fronte capillatâ post est Occasio calva."

I suppose it alludes to some allegorical representation of _Occasio_; and
is intended to convey the same meaning as our English proverb, "Seize time
by the forelocks." From what author is this inscription taken?

E.H.A.

* * * * *


REPLIES.

"GOD SPEED THE PLOUGH."

(Vol. i., p. 230.)

L.S. asks, in what rebellion was the banner carried with the motto "God
speed the plough?" - (_Homily against Wilful Rebellion._)

Probably in the rebellion of the Earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland
in the north of England, during the autumn of A.D. 1569. In the passage of
the homily which immediately follows the one quoted by L.S., occur these
words: -

"And though some rebels bear the picture of the five wounds painted,
against those who put their only hope of salvation in the wounds of
Christ ... and though they do bear the image of the cross painted in a
rag ... yet let no good and godly subject ... follow such
standard-bearers of rebellion."

Again: just _before_ the quotation cited by L.S. {9} is an allusion to the
"defacing or deformation" which the rebels have made, "where through they
tarry but a little while they make such reformation, that they destroy all
places, and undo all men where they come."

Collier, in his _Eccles. History_, vol. vi. p. 469. edit. Straker, 1840,
part ii. b. vi., says, -

"However, the insurrection went on, and the rebels made their first
march to Durham. And here going into the churches _they tore the
English Bible_ and the _Common Prayer_. They officiated in the service
of the mass, _had the five wounds of Christ represented in some of
their colours_, and a chalice in others. One Richard Norton, an ancient
gentleman, carried the standard _with a cross in it_."

In this passage we have three out of four facts enumerated: 1st. The
defacing of places; 2d. The banner with the five wounds; 3d. The standard
with the cross. It does not, therefore, seem unreasonable to infer, that
the other fact alluded to, viz. the banner with the motto, is to be
referred to the same rebellion.

It is not, however, impossible that the rebellion, which broke out A.D.
1549, first in the western counties, and then in Oxfordshire, Bucks,
Norfolk, Suffolk, and Yorkshire, may be also alluded to in the homily. For
Cranmer, in his answer to the Devonshire and Cornish rebels, urges this
amongst other reasons: -

"Fourthly, for that they let the harvest, which is the chief
sustentation of our life; and God of his goodness hath sent it
abundantly. And they by their folly do cause it to be lost and
abandoned." - Strype's _Mem. of C._, ed. Oxf. 1840, vol. ii. p. 841.

An argument similar to the one used in the homily.

The insurrection, in fact, in the midland and north-eastern counties, began
with an attempt to redress an agricultural grievance; according to Fox
(_E.H._ vol. ii. p. 665. edit. 1641); "about plucking down of enclosures
and enlarging of commons." The date of the homily itself offers no
objection; for though it is said (Oxf. ed. Pref. p. v.) not to occur in any
collected edition printed before 1571, yet there exists a separate edition
of it printed in 4to. by Jugge and Cawood, probably _earlier_ than A.D.
1563. Collier does not quote his authority for the statement about the
banners, but probably it was either Camden or Holinshed, and a reference to
these authors, which I regret I have no means of making, might established
the particular point in question.

E.A.D.

* * * * *

"DEFENDER OF THE FAITH."

(Vol. ii., pp. 442. 481.)

I regret that my Note, inserted in your paper of Nov. 30th, was so
ambiguously written as to elicit such a reply as it has been favoured with
by MR. GIBSON of Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

What I meant to say in my last Note was simply this - that two persons, viz.
Messrs. Christopher Wren and Chamberlayne, have asserted that the title
"Defender of the Faith" had been used by our monarchs anterior to 1521; and
in support of their assertions, cite the Black Book of the order of the
garter, and several charters granted to the University of Oxford: that is,
each gives a distinct proof of his allegation.

Had MR. GIBSON understood my Note, as I trust he now will, he will see at
once that the expression "untrue" is totally inapplicable to their
statements, at least upon any showing upon his part; for he does not appear
to me to have consulted either the Black Book or the charters, on which
alone their assertions are based, to which alone we must in common honesty
refer, and by which alone their veracity must be judged.

That their "startling" statements do not appear in Selden, nor in Luder's
brief paper in the 19th vol. of the _Archæologia_, is conceded; but I think
it might have occurred to the mind of one of less acumen than MR. GIBSON,
that it was precisely because the allegations do not appear in these or any
other writers or authorities that I considered them not unworthy of the
attention of the readers of the "NOTES AND QUERIES". I am at a loss to
reconcile MR. GIBSON'S expression "startling," as applied to the assertions
of Messrs. Wren and Chamberlayne (and I need not add, that had they not
been startling to myself as to him, they would never have found their way
to your paper), with the following paragraph:

"In this sense, the sovereign and every knight became a sworn defender
of the faith. Can this duty have come to be popularly attributed as
part of the royal style and title?"

I do not allude to this statement in a critical point of view, but simply,
as, from the general tenor of his communication, MR. GIBSON appears to
labour under an impression, that, from ignorance of historical authorities,
I have merely given utterance to a _popular_ fallacy, unheard of by him and
other learned men; and, like the "curfew," to be found in no
contemporaneous writer. I beg, however, to assure him, that before
forwarding the note and question to your paper, I had examined not only the
Bulls, and our best historians, but also the works of such writers as
Prynne, Lord Herbert, Spelman, Camdem, and others, who have in any way
treated of regal titles and prerogatives.

I have only to add, that beyond the investigation of the truth of the
assertions of Messrs. Wren and Chamberlayne, I am not in any way
interested. I care not for the result. I only seek for the elucidation of
that which is at once "startling" and a "popular fallacy".

ROBERT ANSTRUTHER.

Bayswater.

* * * * *

{10}

BEATRIX LADY TALBOT.

In reference to the Query of SCOTUS (Vol. ii., p 478.) respecting Beatrix
Lady Talbot (so long confounded by genealogists with her more illustrious
contemporary, Beatrix Countess of Arundel), perhaps I may be permitted to
state, that the merit, whatever it may be, of having been the first to
discover this error, belongs to myself; and that the whole of the facts and
authorities to prove the non-identity of the two ladies were supplied by me
to the late Sir H. Nicolas, to enable him to compile the article on the
subject in the _Collectanea Topographica_, vol. i.; the notes to which also
were almost entirely written by myself. From the note of SCOTUS, one would
suppose that _he_ had made the discovery that Lady Talbot belonged to the
Portuguese family of _Pinto_; whereas he merely transcribes my words in p.
405. of the Addenda to vol. i. of the _Collectanea_.

I had originally supposed that this lady was a member of the house of


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