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The Great Round World And What Is Going On In It, Vol. 1, No. 22, April 8, 1897 A Weekly Magazine for Boys and Girls online

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[Illustration: THE GREAT ROUND
WORLD
AND WHAT IS GOING ON IN IT.]

VOL. 1 APRIL 8, 1897. NO. 22


* * * * *

The President has sent his first message to Congress. In it he says that
he is very sorry to call an extra session of Congress, but he feels it his
duty to do so, because he finds the money affairs of the country in a very
bad condition, and thinks it is necessary for Congress to take some
immediate steps to find a remedy.

It would seem that since June, 1893, the yearly, and even the monthly,
expenses of the country have been greater than the receipts.

We all know what a statement of that sort means in our own homes and
families. It means that bankruptcy is coming, unless something be done to
prevent it. If a man spends more than he earns, he is obliged to borrow to
make up the difference; and when he can no longer borrow, he has to fail
and turn all he owns over to his creditors.

This means that the people to whom he owes the money - his creditors, as
they are called - will take his home and his furniture, and everything he
possesses away from him, and divide it all up between them, and that he
must begin life again as best he can.

Sometimes when a man has a good business that will enable him in time to
pay everything he owes, the creditors will allow him to keep his business
going taking the greater part of his earnings for his debts until he has
paid them all off. But whichever way his affairs are settled, the man who
owes money is the unhappy slave of his creditors until his last debts are
paid.

The affairs of a country are precisely the same as those of an individual,
and President McKinley, understanding well what must happen unless some
change is made, is doing his best to save us from the unhappy position of
a poor debtor.

He is prudently trying to stop the trouble before it gets the mastery of
us.

A country is different from an individual in the fact that there are
certain expenses that are not exactly necessary, and yet which must be
provided for, for the honor of the country. A man who is in money
difficulties can cut down his expenses to the mere cost of food, house,
and clothes. In this way a man is better off than a country. But, on the
other hand, a man can only earn just so much money; he cannot force people
to buy his goods, or pay him better prices; he has to do the best he can
with what he can earn; while a country can, by taxes, force people to give
it the money it needs, and so it is better off than an individual.

Some of the expenses of a country that must be met are the salaries of all
the officers who preserve law and order, the judges, soldiers, sailors,
and the police; the pensions of the old soldiers, and of their families;
the building of forts and warships, and of the guns to arm them; the
making and issuing of money, and the handling and delivering of letters.

Enormous sums of money are necessary to meet these expenses, and they are
raised by taxes. A country has no right to spend more than it earns, any
more than a man has, but there may come times in the history of a country
when extra expenses are necessary, and then the Government taxes the
people to meet them.

This is what President McKinley proposes to do now.

The new tax proposed is to be a revenue tariff on all articles of foreign
manufacture that are brought into this country.

The extra session of Congress is to consider, and, if possible, pass the
Tariff Bill, which it is desired shall go into effect May 1st of this
year.

The bill is being introduced by Congressman Nelson Dingley of Maine, who
is Chairman of the Ways and Means Committee in the House of
Representatives. It is known as the Dingley Bill, and, it is said, will
increase the income of the Government over one hundred millions.

It is said by people who are against the bill, that, if it passes, the
cost of living will become much greater. People who are in favor of it say
that by preventing goods of foreign manufacture from being brought into
the country, our own industries will greatly increase and our trade be
much benefited.

There is one section of the bill which will make it very unpopular to many
of our citizens.

This paragraph states that tourists and people visiting foreign countries
shall only be allowed to bring one hundred dollars' worth of wearing
apparel into the country free of duty.

When you think that you can get little more than a whole change of
costume, hat, boots, and gloves complete, for a hundred dollars, and that
people who are rich enough to travel in foreign countries give three and
four times that sum for a single outfit, you can understand just how much
that paragraph is going to be liked.

It is true that the law says that people may bring back with them the
articles they take away, provided they can prove that they took them out
of the country. But think of the worry and annoyance of arguing with the
Custom House officers as to where and when each garment in your trunk was
bought.

If it goes into effect, this law will certainly prevent a great many
people from travelling, for the hours of heated argument with the
officials on the dock, on the traveller's return, would undo all the good
of their trip.

The present Custom House system is about as trying to a person's nerves as
anything can be, and not a little of the trouble comes from the fact that
you must not show the slightest annoyance when the officer dives into your
trunk, and punches at the corner which contains your best hat, or feels in
the folds of a delicate silk skirt, leaving marks of dusty fingers behind
him. The least show of temper from you will result in the officer's
claiming his right to have the whole contents of your various trunks
dumped out on the wharf and repacked under his eye.

It is to be hoped that the $100 paragraph may be changed; but with or
without it, it seems as if the passage of the Dingley Bill may be the best
thing for the country.

The bill is called "An Act to provide revenue for the Government, and
encourage the industries of the United States."

* * * * *

The Powers have not sent any further word to Greece.

They have been waiting to hear what France has to say.

As we told you last week, the people of France were not willing to take
part in any severe measures against Greece; the Government was quite
willing, but dared not make any promises without the consent of the
Chamber of Deputies (the French Congress).

The Powers decided to wait until the Prime Minister had had time to ask
the Chamber of Deputies if it was willing to support the Government.

At the last meeting the Minister put the question to the Chamber - saying
that the Government had decided that the proper course for France would be
to remain in the concert of the Powers, and insist that Greece withdraw
her troops from Crete.

Much discussion followed the Minister's speech. It had been expected that
the Chamber of Deputies would refuse, and insist upon a change in the
Government. To the surprise of everybody, a vote was passed, approving the
policy of the Government, and agreeing to uphold it.

So France joins her voice with those of the other Powers, and calls on
Greece to give in.

After the Chamber of Deputies adjourned, orders were sent to Toulon, a
seaport on the Mediterranean Sea, at the south of France, ordering
soldiers at once to Crete.

[Illustration: Warships on the Harbor of the Piræus Seaport of Athens.]

The Admirals of the allied fleets have received orders to blockade the
ports of Crete; and if this fails to make the Greeks obedient to the
wishes of the Powers, the Piræus and the ports of Greece are also to be
blockaded.

On receipt of these orders the Admirals proceeded to put them into effect,
and the Cretan ports are now blockaded.

It is said that the Greek fleet has withdrawn from Turkish waters.

The Greek Cabinet Ministers had a very long and serious talk over the
present state of affairs. It was decided that on no account would the
Greek troops be withdrawn from Crete, and that if the Powers tried to
force Greece into obedience she must take active measures.

These active measures are understood to mean the declaration of war
against Turkey.

It is said that two bands of Thessalians have invaded Macedonia.

Thessaly is that part of Greece which borders on Turkey, and Macedonia is
a part of the Turkish Empire bordering on Greece, that at one time formed
part of the Greek Empire.

There are many Greeks in Macedonia, and if war is declared it is expected
that they will rise and go to the aid of their mother country.

The invasion of Turkey by the Thessalians does not mean that war is
declared. It is merely a rising of the border peoples against their
neighbors, and has nothing to do with the Greek Government.

The Crown Prince of Greece, Constantino, Duke of Sparta, is leaving
Athens, to take command of the Greek forces in Thessaly, and be ready to
lead them if war is declared.

The news that the Greek ports are to be blockaded has made the Greeks
hasten their preparations. The troops are being hurried off to Thessaly
with all possible despatch.

[Illustration: CRETAN SOLDIERS RETREATING INTO THE MOUNTAINS.]

There are reports that the Greeks are so enraged against the Emperor of
Germany for his behavior over Crete, that the priests have openly said in
the churches that it is a great misfortune that the future King of Greece
is married to the sister of Greece's worst enemy.

In 1889 the Crown Prince married the Princess Sophia of Germany, sister of
the young German Emperor.

The Greek statesmen are openly urging the Prince to divorce his wife,
because of her relationship to the German Emperor.

Does not this seem terrible!

The Crown Prince and Princess have three children, the youngest a baby not
yet a year old. For the sake of politics the Greeks would like to have the
Crown Prince send his wife back to her own country, and separate her from
her children.

It cannot be a happy thing to come of a race of kings, and be such a great
personage, that even the happiness of home must be sacrificed for the
interests of State.

* * * * *

Our friend Weyler is in a heap of trouble.

It seems that affairs in the Philippines look worse for Spain than was at
first supposed.

The Spanish troops have been very severely beaten lately near Manilla, and
the rebellion is so strong and so well organized that unless fresh troops
can be sent immediately, the Philippines will be lost to Spain.

The insurgents are so successful that they are even venturing to offer
pardons to all Spaniards, except the Captain-General, who will lay down
their arms and peacefully obey the new government.

Spain does not, however, intend to give up the Philippines yet a while,
and as she is not in a position to spare more men from home, for fear of
the Carlists rising, she has sent to Weyler, and ordered him to dispatch
20,000 men to the Philippines without delay.

This is what is troubling Weyler.

Some months ago word was sent to the Spanish Government that Weyler was
robbing the treasury by drawing full pay for numbers of men who had been
killed by the Cubans, but whose names were still on the pay-rolls.

The matter was inquired into, but before it could get very far Weyler made
such indignant denials, and protested his innocence so strongly, that the
Prime Minister cabled a message assuring him of his confidence in him, and
the matter was allowed to drop.

At the time of these accusations Weyler assured the Government that he had
160,000 men in his army.

When the Carlist and Philippine troubles began to be serious, the Spanish
Government decided to take 20,000 men from Cuba, and send them on to the
Philippines, at the same time issuing a call to the loyal Spaniards in
Cuba to take up arms and fill the places of the men drafted to the other
war.

The plan was a good one, and would have worked well enough, if Weyler had
spoken the truth about the number of men under his command.

The fact was that his statement was altogether false.

His force in Cuba consisted of but 100,000 men. The other 60,000 had
either been killed by the Cubans, or were lying sick in hospitals.

Weyler had no 20,000 men to spare, but he did not dare tell the truth lest
the facts of his knavery might come out.

He made up his mind to send the troops, and then if things went wrong in
Cuba, to declare that the withdrawal of the soldiers had paralyzed him,
and cost him Cuba.

Some one, however, sent word to Señor Canovas of the true state of
affairs, and some very plain messages have been passing between Spain and
Cuba.

The men are to go anyhow; but with only a force of 80,000 men left behind,
Spain has little hope of pacifying Cuba.

The insurgents have, or will have when the Spanish troops are sent away,
as many men at their command as the Spaniards have, and they feel very
confident of success, because the men under them are well fed, healthy,
and hopeful, while the poor Spanish soldiers are hungry, sick, and
despairing.

[Illustration: GEN. WEYLER and COL. FONDEVIELLA, Gen. Weyler's Chief
Assistant.]

It seems as if the Cubans have now a better chance of winning their
freedom than they have ever had, and if they fail, it will be their own
fault.

A pleasant piece of news in connection with all the rest, is that the
infamous Fondeviella has been removed from the command in Guanabacoa. His
resignation has been asked for from Madrid, and another officer has been
appointed in his place.

Fondeviella is the bloodthirsty Spanish soldier who, while acting as Mayor
of Guanabacoa, caused the murder of so many innocent persons, Dr. Ruiz
among the number.

This savage man is declared to have said that for every account of Spanish
cruelty published in American newspapers, he would have an American life.

It is said that the examination of the body of poor Dr. Ruiz has revealed
the fact that he was beaten to death, and so Fondeviella has been removed.

The dispatches that mention him now speak of him as Colonel Fondeviella.
When he went to Guanabacoa his rank was only that of Major. It would seem
that his atrocious conduct has not prevented the Spaniards from promoting
him.

It is reported that the _Laurada_ has safely landed her cargo and
passengers in Cuba, and that the expedition which sailed from these
shores, under the command of Colonel Roloff, has joined the force of
General Garcia.

Gomez is said to be waiting for the cannon and supplies that Roloff brings
him, before he advances farther to the west to join Ruis Rivera.

* * * * *

War clouds are hanging low over South America.

Two rebellions have broken out there.

The first is in Brazil.

Brazil is the largest of the South American countries. The Amazon, which
you all remember is the greatest river in the world, flows through Brazil.

Until 1889 Brazil was a monarchy, the only monarchy in South America. In
November of that year there was a revolution, the Emperor was dethroned,
and forced to leave the country. It has been a republic ever since, under
the name of the United States of Brazil.

In February last a rebellion broke out which it was found had been started
by the monarchists.

Monarchists are people who would rather be ruled by a monarch than by the
will of the people. In Brazil there is quite a large party of these
monarchists, who would gladly see an emperor on the throne again.

The news from Brazil states that there has been some heavy fighting
between the two parties, and that the government troops have been
defeated, and one of the favorite generals killed.

The people are so indignant over this, that they are mobbing houses and
places of business belonging to people who sympathize with the
monarchists.

The Government has sent 10,000 troops to Bahia, where the fighting is at
present going on, and is determined to put the war down with a firm hand.

* * * * *

The other war is in Uruguay.

Uruguay is a small republic just south of Brazil.

This is another civil war.

The President has become unpopular with the people, and they are trying to
get rid of him and put some one else in his place.

This little war is hardly worth speaking of at all. Toy revolutions are
constantly occurring first in one and then another of the South American
republics, and people have grown so accustomed to them that they hardly
notice them now.

Uruguay, though a very small country, is particularly fond of these
disturbances. The entire population of the whole country is no larger than
that of the city of Brooklyn, but this handful of people manage to have
enough revolts and disturbances to keep the country in constant
excitement.

This present tempest is receiving more attention than is usual because it
is supposed that the monarchists of Brazil are stirring the people of
Uruguay to rebellion, with the hope of overthrowing both governments at
the same time, joining the two countries together, and uniting them under
the one emperor.

If this report is true the matter is worthy of serious attention, because
Brazil is not one of the little insignificant republics whose perpetual
disturbances affect no one but themselves, but a large and important
country, and changes in the government of Brazil would be liable to affect
all the other countries which trade with it.

* * * * *

A party of wealthy Chinese merchants arrived in New York the other day
from San Francisco. They were on their way to Washington, to see the
Chinese Minister and ask him to intercede for them with the Emperor of
China.

Their trouble is that the Emperor has kindly invited ten of them to visit
China without delay: two to have their heads chopped off, and the other
eight to be imprisoned for life.

Of course none of the Chinamen are going to accept the Emperor's
invitation, and so they are not seeking the help of the Minister for
themselves. Their anxiety is on account of their relatives.

It would seem that one of the curious little customs they have in China is
to arrest all the relatives of a man accused of crime, as well as the
criminal himself. These unfortunate people they cast into prison, taking
away from them their property, and everything of value they possess. This
punishment is for no known reason but that they have had the misfortune to
be members of the same family as a rascal.

The consequence is that when a Chinaman gets into trouble, his relatives,
instead of standing by him, and trying to help him, desert him with the
greatest possible speed, and do their best to hide themselves in less
dangerous districts.

While the Chinamen who are now in this country are able to laugh at the
Emperor's decree, and have no intention of going where he can make things
unpleasant for them, they are horror-struck at the way their poor
relatives have been stampeded. A number of these have been thrown into
jail, and only the nimblest have managed to escape the imperial vengeance.

The Chinese merchants feel that this is very hard, because they have never
been tried and convicted of any crime, and this punishment has fallen upon
them because of a report of the Consul in San Francisco, which they say is
absolutely false.

It seems that the Consul sent word to the Minister in Washington that
these ten men were "rebels and full of treason," that they were plotting
the overthrow of the Emperor of China, and were collecting arms for that
purpose.

The Minister sent the report on to the Emperor, and his Celestial Majesty,
fearful lest these ten men might overthrow his kingdom, instantly ordered
them to come right home and have their heads chopped off.

The accused Chinese merchants say that they are innocent, and that the
charge was made against them by their enemies; and of enemies they seem to
have an unlimited number.

It appears that Chinese society is a very complicated affair.

The Chinese, in their own country, live in families and clans, after the
manner of the Scotch, and like the ancient Scotch people there are
frequently terrible feuds or quarrels between the various clans. If one
man of a clan offends a man of another clan, the two entire clans take up
the quarrel, and every man of the one clan is ready to fight any man of
the other clan, and injure him as far as lies in his power.

In China, as in Scotland, families or clans consist of every living member
or connection of the family.

In China the affairs of every member of the family are managed by a
council. This council consists of the elders (men over sixty years of
age), and the scholars. We told you in No. 1 of THE GREAT ROUND
WORLD what severe trials a man has to go through in China before he
can be called a scholar.

It is the duty of this council to collect and save all moneys due to any
member of the family, to direct the business of their households, and to
manage the family and its affairs so completely that the members of the
family are like children under the guidance of a very careful parent; and
when they come to this country, and are obliged to think and act for
themselves, they are no more capable of doing so than they would be if
they were really children.

To meet this difficulty, and help the Chinamen, an organization called the
First Company was formed in San Francisco, which undertook the duties of
the elders of the families, and was a great comfort to the Chinamen in
America.

By and by, as more Chinamen came into the country, the First Company got
too large, and others were formed on the same principle, until finally
there were six companies altogether. Then other societies were formed by
the Chinamen, and among them the Sam Yup and the See Yup.

These two societies seem to have the true clannish spirit, and a hatred
and rivalry exist between them that remind one of the stories of the
Middle Ages.

Belonging to the Sam Yups was a Chinaman named Little Pete, and it is
indirectly through him that trouble has fallen upon the heads of the ten
Chinese merchants.

If what is said about him is true, Little Pete must have been a very great
rascal. He was a well-known character in San Francisco, and there was no
work too bad or too wicked for him to undertake.

Among his other crimes he bribed juries, and had a whole regiment of
witnesses ready to swear as he wished.

The See Yups knew all about this, and so, when a case was coming into
court against any of their members, they would go to Little Pete, and hire
his witnesses to swear for them, - well knowing that if they didn't do
this, Little Pete would have them there to swear against the See Yups.

By these means Little Pete grew very rich, and was as much hated by his
enemies of the See Yups, as admired by his friends of the Sam Yups.

Time passed on, and Little Pete, full of his power, began to make the tax
on the See Yups a little heavier than they could submit to. They appealed
to the Consul. He took no notice of them. They went to Washington, accused
the Consul of being in league with the Sam Yups, and asked that he be
dismissed.

The Minister would have nothing to do with them, and they went back to San
Francisco, vowing vengeance on Little Pete.

With the Chinese, murder is very lightly regarded, and Little Pete never
doubted that his enemies of the See Yups would try to murder him when they
got back from Washington. For weeks he went about wearing a coat of mail,
and followed by two sturdy Sam Yups, his hired guards.

One night he went into the barber's, and, feeling safe, sent his guards
away. The See Yups were watching for just such an opportunity, and rushed
into the shop and killed him.

Every effort was made to find the murderers. Several men were arrested,
but it was not possible to show that they were connected with the crime,
so nothing could be done.

The news of the murder was sent on to China, and there the matter should
have rested but that the two rival societies declared a boycott on each
other.

The Consul got tired of this, and insisted that it be stopped. The See
Yups obeyed, but grumbled, and gave the Consul a great deal of trouble.

The quarrelling still kept on, and finally the Consul sent the fatal
letter, accusing the ten See Yups of treason.

The See Yups declare that they can prove that the Consul is in league with
the Sam Yups, and that he has made this false accusation against them to


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Online LibraryVariousThe Great Round World And What Is Going On In It, Vol. 1, No. 22, April 8, 1897 A Weekly Magazine for Boys and Girls → online text (page 1 of 3)