The Mirror of Literature, Amusement, and Instruction Volume 13, No. 367, April 25, 1829 online

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Produced by Jonathan Ingram, Elaine Walker and PG Distributed


VOL. 13, No. 367.] SATURDAY, APRIL 25, 1829. [PRICE 2d.

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Is said to have been erected from the designs of Mr. Nash, but is
considered as one of the least successful of his productions. It was among
the earliest of the terraces in the Park, and its whimsical contrast with
the chaster beauties of the adjoining structures soon became the signal for
critical pasquinade.

It consists of an extensive range of residences, a centre with a pediment,
with two octagonal towers, and wings with four other towers in each, all
the towers being finished with cupola tops and minarets. Probably the
architect was tempted to this introduction for the sake of picturesque
variety, since it is not justifiable on the score of architectural beauty
or good taste. Indeed, it is an attempt at magnificence which, on so small
a scale, is not deserving of imitation, and has not been followed. The
general effect is far from pleasing; but the eye of the landscape painter
will probably enjoy an assemblage of picturesque outlines in grouping
Sussex Place with its adjacent scenery and accessories. The gardens to this
terrace are tastefully disposed, and the situation commands some of the
most fascinating prospects of the Park. Before the facade the lake spreads
its silvery sheet, and reflects the oriental cupolas with charming effect;
and the varied plantations of the Park, especially on the opposite margin
of the lake, group with peculiar felicity, and render Sussex Place one of
the most delightful sites in this paradisaical region.

* * * * *


_(To the Editor of the Mirror.)_

The original deed, of which the subjoined is a translation, was found among
some old records in Birmingham Tower, Castle of Dublin, when that building
was taken down in the year 1772. It is in Irish, neatly written on a long
scroll of parchment; forty-two seals are attached to the side, but the only
signature is that of the chief at bottom. This document, among other
curious matter, furnishes us with a proof, that the chiefs of clans were
_elective_, contrary to the opinions of modern authors, and more especially
of our modern historical novelists; which latter speak of them as
_hereditary feudal lords_, and even talk of their estates descending to
their daughters; although under the system of clanship, females could not
inherit, and no man could have more than a life interest in his estate.
Here we have an instance of a chief divesting himself of the dignity of
office, and joining in the transfer of it to another, when such transfer
was considered likely to further the interests of the clan. It is also
interesting, as showing the manner in which the English government in
Dublin proceeded in the subjugation of Ireland, by embroiling its septs
with one another.

The _Mac Ranalds_, or _Magranals_, (as the name was usually written,) in
English, Reynolds, the principal parties to the deed, were a clan who
possessed the territory of _Munterolish_, in the county of Leitrim,
subordinate to O'Rourke, who was lord paramount of the county; and the
lords justices having, by this deed, detached them from the interest of the
latter, immediately marched an army into his country. O'Rourke, after a
protracted, but ineffectual resistance, was made prisoner and sent to
London, where he was executed, in the early part of the reign of Queen
Elizabeth; "going to death," says Camden, "with as little concern as if he
had been merely a spectator." The county was then declared a forfeiture to
the crown, and the estates of its old proprietors (including those of the
Magranals among the rest) parcelled out among a colony of English settlers,
then for the first time seated in the county. This is the first document
known, in which Leitrim is spoken of as a county; and it is generally said
not to have been made such till the time of James I.; it was more anciently
known as the territory of _Briefné O'Rourke_.

Although Henry II. is said to have conquered Ireland, the dominion of the
English monarchs there was little better than nominal prior to the reign of
James I. Great pains had been taken by different sovereigns to reduce the
Irish to a perfect submission to the English crown; and English colonies
had, from time to time, been planted, with that view, in different parts of
the country; these colonies, however, in a generation or two, had uniformly
"degenerated," as the phrase was; that is, had become Irish, both in
manners and feelings, using the Irish tongue, and even coining for
themselves Irish surnames, as if desirous of forgetting their English
origin. Henry VIII. was the first English monarch who assumed the title of
_king of Ireland_; and his daughter Mary set about the conquest of the
country in earnest, by reducing the countries of _Ive Faily and Leix_,
which were formed into the King's and Queen's Counties, so called in
compliment to the queen, and her husband, Philip of Spain. Her lord deputy,
Sir Anthony Bellingham, writing on this occasion to her highness, says that
he "had made good progress in _civilizing_ the barbarous inhabitants of
those counties, having reduced their numbers to less than one hundred
fighting men."

The territory of Leitrim, though as yet uninvaded, was at the same time
declared a county; and the Magranals, who had probably no wish to be
"civilized" on Sir Anthony's plan, appear to have endeavoured to avert the
coming storm, by employing an agent in Dublin, at an immense expense,
considering the scarcity of money in Ireland in those days, "to advocate
their cause with the lords justices and council:" or, in plain English, to
crave permission to be allowed to remain in quiet. The person chosen was
one of their own sept, John Magranal, a soldier of fortune, who, having
served in the English army in the subjugation of the King's and Queen's
counties, had been rewarded with a grant of the forfeited lands of Claduff,
in the former county, and was supposed to stand well with the lords
justices. Him they elected their chief. With what success he advocated
their cause has been already stated.

The late George Nugent Reynolds, the dramatist, was a member of the sept of
the Magranals; as was the notorious Tom Reynolds, the informer, well known
in the history of the rebellion of 1798.

There is a copy of this deed in the library of the Duke of Buckingham, at



This is the deed of gift of the two[1] Mac Ranalds; to wit, Cahal,
son of Conachar Mac Ranald, Toraylach and Gerald Magranal, heads
and chiefs of their kindred, with the consent of their brethren
and followers in Munterolish, to John Magranal, of Claduff, in the
King's county, and to his heirs: -

[1] The preamble speaks of _two_ Mac Ranalds, (chiefs,) and then
enumerates _three_. It is probable there were two families who
had been usually elected to the chieftaincy, and that Cahal, the
son of Conachar, represented one family, Toraylach and Gerald
the other. I give this, however, only as a conjecture. Perhaps
the safest way will be to set it down as an _Irish bull_, the
earliest upon record.

Know all men, now and in the time that is yet to come, that we,
Cahal, son of Conachar Magranal, of the Hill of Innis Morrin, in the
county of Leitrim; Toraylach Magranal, of Drumard, _chiefs of our
kindred_; Ferdorcha Magranal, of Drumsna, and of Lochdaw; Melachlin,
son of Hubert Magranal, of Corsparrow; Moroch, son of Teig, of
Cloondaa; Ir, son of Donal, of Dulach; Teig, son of William, of
Screbach; Toraylach Magranal, of Loch Connow; Owen Magranal, of Loch
Scur; Toraylach O'Mulvey, of Loch Crew, _chief of his kindred_;
Teig, son of John, of Acha Cashel; Dermid Magranal, of Cool Cadarna;
Cormac Magranal, of Loch Cool da 'Iach; Dermid Magranal, of
Mongoarsach; Edmond Magranal, of Mohill; Jeffrey, son of Conachar,
of Anagh Kinca; Toraylach Magranal, of Loch Irill; Brian Gruama, the
son of Hugh, of Drumlara; Farrell Duff, the son of Hugh, of Corleih;
Donacha Grana, son of Giolla Gruama, of Stookisha; Conachar, son of
Giolla Gruama, of Duffcarrick; Rurie Og O'Moran, of Ty Rurie;
Toraylach O'Beirne, of Mullanmoy; Gerald, son of Moylan Magranal, of
Clooncalry; Melachlin, son of Conachar Magranal, of Cloonclyfa;
Cahal, son of Dermid Magranal, of Rusc, _alias_ Gort an Yure; Ir,
son of Edmond, of Rathbeh; Melachlin Modara Magranal, of the Point;
Edmond Mac Shanly, of Drumode Mac Shanly; Moroch, son of Melachlin,
of Drumkeely; Dermid, son of the Prior, of Clonee and of Innis Rusc;
Moroch Magranal, of Drumherk; Teig O'Histellan, of Drumeen; Teig Roe
Magarry, of Towlag; with the consent of our kinsmen and followers in
Munterolish, for many reasons, for ourselves and our heirs, HAVE
GIVEN to John Magranal, of Claduff, in the King's county, and to his
heirs for ever, the yearly sum of forty-two pounds, money of
England, to be raised and levied upon our aforesaid lands in
Munterolish, and upon any other lands claimed by us, or in our
occupation, to be paid at two terms in the year, to wit, one half on
the first of May, _(Beiltin,)_ and the other half at All
Hallowntide, _(Samhan;)_ and in case of any delay occurring as to
the full payment of the aforesaid sum at the time specified, then
this is our agreement with the said John, for ourselves and our
heirs, with John and his heirs, that he and they, or the attorneys
sent by them, shall have power to enter into our said country of
Munterolish, and into our aforesaid lands, and to levy a distress,
(pledge,) and to take the same with them, and to keep it until full
payment is made, to wit, of forty-two pounds, and of arrears, if any
such should be - ON CONDITION, that he, the said John, shall be our
protector _and chieftain over us;_ and also that he shall repair
from time to time to Dublin, to advocate our cause before the lords
justices and council, at our sole charge, over and above the
aforesaid sum, which we give him on account of his services; and on
condition that the said John shall not put any of us out of our
lands; and we promise to behave ourselves most dutifully to him, and
_not to adhere to any of the O'Rourkes_. In witness whereof we have
put our hands and seals to this writing the 5th day of December.


There were present at this agreement, when it was ratified, and when
it was interchanged, and when the seals were put upon it, to wit,
God in the first place; Richard O'Hivganane; Anlan O'Molloy;
Toraylach Mac Ranald; the two sons of Teig, the son of Ayan, to wit,
Owen and William; Kiruah Mac Manus; Gerald, deacon of Feana; Cormac,
deacon of Cloon; Conachar Mac Giolla Sooly; Manus Mac Giolla Roe;
Owen O'Colla.

* * * * *

From the avowed object of the above deed, to detach the Magranals from the
interest of O'Rourke, against whom war was at that time in preparation, as
well as from the deed itself having been found _in the Castle of Dublin_,
more than two hundred years afterwards, there can be little doubt that the
whole affair was got up by the lords justices, and that Magranal of Claduff
was an agent in their pay. The Magranals, however, _took nothing by their
motion_; for although they were arrayed under their new chief against
O'Rourke in the war which followed, their estates were confiscated at the
same time with his, the lawyers having discovered, that as O'Rourke was
their feudal lord, they were partakers in the guilt of his rebellion,
although they had been fighting against him.

* * * * *



_(For the Mirror.)_

Oh, go not yet, my lord, my love, lie down by Zenia's side,
And think not for thy white men friends, to leave thy Indian bride,
For she will steer thy light canoe across Ozuma's lake,
To where the fragrant citron groves perfume the banyan brake;
And wouldst thou chase the nimble deer, or dark-eyed antelope,
She'll lend thee to their woody haunts, behind the mountain's slope,
And when thy hunter task is done, and spent thy spirit's force,
She'll weave for thee a plantain bower, beside a streamlet's course,
Where the sweet music of the leaves shall lull thee to repose.
Hence in Zenia's watchful love, from harmful beast, or foes,
And when the spirit of the storm, in wild tornades rides by,
She'll hide thee in a cave, beneath a rocky panoply.

Look, Zenia look, the fleecy clouds move on the western gales,
And see the white men's moving home, unfurls her swelling sails,
So farewell India's spicy groves, farewell its burning clime,
And farewell Zenia, but to love, no farewell can be mine;
Not for the brightest Spanish maid, shall Diez' vow be riven,
So if we meet no more on earth, I will be thine in heaven.

Oh, go not yet, my godlike love, stay but a moment more
And Zenia's step shall lead thee on, to Hayna's golden shore,
No white man's foot has ever trod, the vale that slumbers there,
Or forced the gold bird from its nest, or Gato from his lair;
But cradled round by giant hills, lies many a golden mine,
And all the treasure they contain, shall be my Diez thine,
And all my tribe will be thy friends, our warrior chief thy guard,
With Zenia's breast thy faithful shield, thy love her sweet reward.

The valley's won, the friends are true, revealed the golden tide.
And Diez for Hispania's shore, quits not his Indian bride.


* * * * *


_(For the Mirror.)_

For the following details respecting a city, accounts of which,
(although so many are already before the public,) are always
interesting, I am indebted to the oral communication of a friend
which I immediately committed to paper.


My object in visiting Naples was to view that celebrated relic of
antiquity - the city of Pompeii, of which, about one half is now supposed to
be cleared. The workmen proceed but slowly, nevertheless something is
always being done, and some new remnant of antiquity is almost daily
brought to light; indeed, a fine statue was discovered, almost immediately
after my visit to this interesting place, but as I had quitted Naples I
could not return to see it. A stranger, is I think, apt to be much
disappointed in the size of Pompeii; it was on the whole, not more than
three miles through, and is rather to be considered the model of a town,
than one in itself. In fact, it is merely an Italian villa, or properly, a
collection of villas; and the extreme smallness of what we may justly term
the citizens' _boxes_, is another source of astonishment to those who have
been used to contemplate Roman architecture in the magnificence of
magnitude. Pompeii however, must always interest the intelligent observer,
not more on account of its awful and melancholy associations, than for the
opportunity which it affords, of remarking the extreme similarity existing
between the modes of living _then_, and _now_. "'Tis Greece, but living
Greece no more!" for in truth, we are enabled to surmise, from the relics
of this buried and disinterred town, that manners and customs, arts,
sciences, and trades, have undergone but little change in Italy since the
period of its inhumation until now. In Pompeii, the shops of the baker and
chemist are particularly worthy of attention, for you might really fancy
yourself stepped into a modern _bottéga_ in each of these; but, the museum
of Naples, wherein are deposited most of the articles dug from Pompeii,
Herculaneum, and Pæstum, is a most extraordinary lion, and one which cannot
fail to affect very deeply the spectators; there you may behold furniture,
arms, and trinkets; and the jewellery is, I can assure you, both in
materials, pattern, and workmanship, very similar indeed to that at present
in fashion, and little injured by the lapse of years, and the hot ashes
under which it was buried.[2] There too, you may behold various domestic
and culinary utensils; and there it is quite curious to observe various
jars and bottles of fruits, and pickles, evidently preserved then, the same
as they are by our notable housekeepers now; of course they are blackened
and incinerated, nevertheless, the forms of pears, apples, chestnuts,
cherries, medlars, &c. &c. are still distinguishable. Very little furniture
has been found in Pompeii; probably, because it was only occasionally
resorted to as a place of residence, like our own summer haunts of the
drinkers of sea and mineral waters; or, the inhabitants might have had
warning of the coming misfortune, and conveyed most of their effects to a
safer place; a surmise strengthened by the circumstance of so few human
skeletons having been found hitherto in the town; in the museum, however,
is a specimen of the inclined couch or sofa, used at meals, with tables,
and other articles of furniture. The method of warming apartments by flues,
and ventilating them, as now practised, was known to the inhabitants of
Pompeii. Of this town, amongst public buildings, the Forum, the Theatre,
and the Temple of Isis, have been discovered; and the latter has revealed,
in a curious manner, the iniquitous jugglery of the heathen priests. The
statue of Isis, was, it seems, oracular, and stood on a very high pedestal,
or kind of altar in the temple of the goddess. Within this pedestal a
flight of steps has been discovered, ascending to a metal tube or pipe;
which, fixed in the hollow body of the statue, and attached to its lips,
the priest of Isis was enabled by speaking through this tube, to make the
poor deluded multitude believe that their idol gave articulate answers to
their anxious queries! We have heard of similar delusions being practised
by _Christian_ priests, in days comparatively modern! But, only let us
conceive, the shame and dismay which would _now_ suffuse the countenance of
one of these worshippers of Pompeian Isis, could he but behold the
deception which had been practised upon him unsuspectedly! I have said,
that but few skeletons have been found in Pompeii; all that have been met
with are covered with ornaments, and appear as in the act of escaping from
their hapless town, with what they could carry off of their most valuable
possessions; from which death would not relinquish his hold. More wealth is
supposed to have been buried in Herculaneum, from that which has already
been found therein; but owing to the excessive difficulty, time, and
expense, which the attempt to bring it to light would occasion, excavations
in this city, are now almost, if not entirely, abandoned; for it is to be
remembered, that Herculaneum was destroyed by a flood of liquid lava, which
as it cools, hardens into solid and impenetrable _rock_; whereas the hot
ashes of Vesuvius overwhelmed Pompeii, and consequently it is much less
difficult to clear.

[2] "Witness," said my friend, "the bracelets which I am now
wearing; they are modelled from a pair found in Pompeii." These
were made of gold, quite in the fashion of the present day;
beautifully chased, but by no means of an uncommon pattern.

* * * * *


_(For the Mirror.)_

"A wreck of crime upon his stony bed."


He who would learn the true remorse for crime
Should watch (when slumbers innocence, and guilt
Or wakes in sleepless pain, or dreams of blood)
The convict stretched on his reposeless bed.
Then conscience plays th' accusing angel;
Spectres of murder'd victims flit before
His eyes, with soul-appalling vividness;
Hideous phantasma shadow o'er his mind;
Guilt, incubus-like, sits on his soul
With leaden weight, - types of the pangs of hell.
His memory to the scene of blood reverts;
He hears the echo of his victims' cry,
Whose agonizing eyes again are fixed
Upon his face, pleading for mercy.
See! how he writhes in speechless agony!
As morning dew-drops on the face of nature,
So hangs upon his brow the clammy sweat.
Each feature of his face, each limb, each nerve,
Distorted with remorse and agony,
Is fraught with nature's speechless eloquence,
And is a faithful witness to his sin.
It is not _all_ a dream, but memory holds
Before the sleeper's eyes her magic glass,
In which he sees the image of the past.

_Huddersfield_. S.J.

* * * * *


_(For the Mirror.)_

'Twixt the appointment and the day
Ages seem to roll away -
Lingering doubts and cares arise,
Fancy glows with sweet surmise;
Now a hope - and now a fear,
First a smile - and then a tear;
But that day may never come,
Death may seal thine earthly doom.
Or that day may prove unkind,
Thine anticipation blind!
The best pleasure thou wilt know
May be to brood upon thy woe:
Wailing happy days gone by,
When fancied pleasures mock'd thine eye:
Days that never shall return.
Mortal, then, this lesson learn -
Struggle not against thy fate,
For thy last day hath its date!
It is written in the skies,
And a guardian angel cries,
Dream no more of earthly joys,
They are fleeting, fickle toys.


* * * * *


* * * * *


Tourists will never cease to remember their obligations to Mr. Leigh, the
publisher of this pretty little volume. He has done so much for their
gratification in his New Pocket Road Books, (of which series the present
work is one,) that their success ought to be toasted in all the delightful
retreats to which they act as _ciceroni_. In his Road Book of England and
Wales, he has done what Mr. Peel is now doing with our old Acts of
Parliament - consolidating their worth, and rejecting their obsoleteness.
For our own part, one of the greatest bugbears of books is the Road Book on
the old system: it is all long columns of small type, in which we lose our
way as in the cross-roads of the last century - all direction-posts and
"_Vides_," puzzle upon puzzle, Pelion on Ossa, and Ossa on Pelion - crabbed
and complex abbreviations, with which we get acquainted at the end of our
journey. They contain nothing like direct information, and the only people
who appear to understand them are postmasters and innkeepers, and some
old-established bagmen, whose interests and heads will give you a clearer
view of the roads than all the itineraries ever printed. It was, however,
but reasonable to expect that the Macadamization of roads, or the mending
of ways, should be followed up by the improvement of Road Books, since
greater facilities and inducements were thereby afforded to the tourist for
the detection and exposure of blunders - such as placing a hall on the wrong
side of the road, or recording some relic which had never existed but in
the book.

The arrangement of the _Road Book of Scotland_ is clear and intelligible,
and, moreover, it is a book which may be read in the post-chaise or the
parlour, on or off the road, before or after the journey, with equal
pleasure. It is so portable, that the pedestrian will not complain of its
weight, for it bears the same proportion to an old Road Book that a Prayer
Book does to a Family Bible. The picturesque charms of Scotland, and its
connexion with eminent individuals, and memorable events of love, war, and
chivalric renown, all combine to render a Scottish Road Book attractive and
interesting; but the editor prudently observes, that "long descriptions of
scenery, except in some few cases, have not been introduced, as they are
totally inadequate to convey to the reader any definite idea of the
beauties they attempt to portray." Plans of Pleasure Tours are likewise
appended, together with a useful Appendix; and, what is indispensable in a
work of this description, a good Index, is added.

As might be expected, nearly every page bears the record of some spot

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Online LibraryVariousThe Mirror of Literature, Amusement, and Instruction Volume 13, No. 367, April 25, 1829 → online text (page 1 of 4)