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The Mirror of Literature, Amusement, and Instruction Volume 14, No. 387, August 28, 1829 online

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of the island is less known than any other British possessions abroad;
but, from the exertions of the above Society, more information has been
collected concerning the natives, than has been obtained during the two
centuries and a half in which Newfoundland has been in possession of
Europeans. The last journey was undertaken by W.E. Cormack, Esq.,
president of the Society. His report has appeared in a recent Number of
the _Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal_, and will, we are persuaded, be
interesting to our readers:

"My party," says Mr. Cormack, "consisted of three Indians, whom I procured
from among the other different tribes, viz. an intelligent and able man of
the Abenakie tribe, from Canada; an elderly Mountaineer from Labrador; and
an adventurous young Micmack, a native of this island, together with
myself. It was my intention to have commenced our search at White Bay,
which is nearer the northern extremity of the island than where we did,
and to have travelled southward. But the weather not permitting to carry
my party thither by water, after several days' delay, I unwillingly
changed my line of route.

"On the 31st of October, 1828, last, we entered the country at the mouth
of the River Exploits, on the north side, at what is called the Northern
Arm. We took a north-westerly direction, to lead us to Hall's Bay, which
place we reached through an almost uninterrupted forest, over a hilly
country, in eight days. This tract comprehends the country interior from
New Bay, Badger Bay, Seal Bay, &c.; these being minor bays, included in
Green or Notre Dame Bay, at the north-east part of the island, and well
known to have been always heretofore the summer residence of the Red
Indians.

"On the fourth day after our departure, at the east end of Badger
Bay-Great Lake, at a _portage_ known by the name of the Indian Path, we
found traces made by the Red Indians, evidently in the spring or summer of
the preceding year. Their party had had two canoes; and here was a
_canoe-rest_, on which the daubs of red ochre, and the roots of trees used
to fasten or tie it together appeared fresh. A canoe-rest, is simply a few
beams supported horizontally about five feet from the ground, by
perpendicular posts. A party with two canoes, when descending from the
interior to the sea-coast, through such a part of the country as this,
where there are troublesome portages, leave one canoe resting, bottom up,
on this kind of frame, to protect it from injury by the weather, until
their return. Among other things which lay strewed about here, were a
spearshaft, eight feet in length, recently made and ochred; parts of old
canoes, fragments of their skin-dresses, &c. For some distance around, the
trunks of many of the birch, and of that species of spruce pine called
here the Var (_Pinus balsamifera_) had been rinded; these people using the
inner part of the bark of that kind of tree for food. Some of the cuts in
the trees with the axe, were evidently made the preceding year. Besides
these, we were elated by other encouraging signs. The traces left by the
Red Indians are so peculiar, that we were confident those we saw here were
made by them.

"This spot has been a favourite place of settlement with these people. It
is situated at the commencement of a _portage_, which forms a
communication by a path between the sea-coast at Badger Bay, about eight
miles to the north-east, and a chain of lakes extending westerly and
southerly from hence, and discharging themselves by a rivulet into the
River Exploits, about thirty miles from its mouth. A path also leads from
this place to the lakes, near New Bay, to the eastward. Here are the
remains of one of their villages, where the vestiges of eight or ten
winter _mamatecks_, or wigwams, each intended to contain from six to
eighteen or twenty people, are distinctly seen close together. Besides
these, there are the remains of a number of summer wigwams. Every winter
wigwam has close by it a small square-mouthed or oblong pit, dug into the
earth, about four feet deep, to preserve their stores, &c. in. Some of
these pits were lined with birch rind. We discovered also in this village
the remains of a vapour-bath. The method used by the Boeothicks to raise
the steam, was by pouring water on large stones made very hot for the
purpose, in the open air, by burning a quantity of wood around them; after
this process, the ashes were removed, and a hemispherical framework
closely covered with skins, to exclude the external air, was fixed over
the stones. The patient then crept in under the skins, taking with him a
birch-rind bucket of water, and a small bark-dish to dip it out, which, by
pouring on the stones, enabled him to raise the steam at pleasure.[5]

"At Hall's Bay we got no useful information, from the three (and the only)
English families settled there. Indeed we could hardly have expected any;
for these, and such people, have been the unchecked and ruthless
destroyers of the tribe, the remnant of which we were in search of. After
sleeping one night in a _house_, we again struck into the country to the
westward.

"In five days we were on the high lands south of White Bay, and in sight
of the high lands east of the Bay of Islands, on the west coast of
Newfoundland. The country south and west of us was low and flat,
consisting of marshes, extending in a southerly direction more than thirty
miles. In this direction lies the famous Red Indians' Lake. It was now
near the middle of November, and the winter had commenced pretty severely
in the interior. The country was every where covered with snow, and, for
some days past, we had walked over the small ponds on the ice. The summits
of the hills on which we stood had snow on them, in some places, many feet
deep. The deer were migrating from the rugged and dreary mountains in the
north, to the low mossy barren, and more woody parts in the south; and we
inferred, that if any of the Red Indians had been at White Bay during the
past summer, they might be at that time stationed about the borders of the
low tract of country before us, at the _deer-passes_, or were employed
somewhere else in the interior, killing deer for winter provision. At
these passes, which are particular places in the migration lines of path,
such as the extreme ends of, and straights in, many of the large lakes -
the foot of valleys between high and rugged mountains - fords in the large
rivers, and the like - -the Indians kill great numbers of deer with very
little trouble, during their migrations. We looked out for two days from
the summits of the hills adjacent, trying to discover the smoke from the
camps of the Red Indians; but in vain. These hills command a very
extensive view of the country in every direction.

"We now determined to proceed towards the Red Indians' Lake, sanguine that,
at that known rendezvous, we could find the objects of our search.

"In about ten days we got a glimpse of this beautifully majestic and
splendid sheet of water. The ravages of fire, which we saw in the woods
for the last two days, indicated that man had been near. We looked down on
the lake, from the hills at the northern extremity, with feelings of
anxiety and admiration: - No canoe could be discovered moving on its placid
surface, in the distance. We were the first Europeans who had seen it in
an unfrozen state, for the three former parties who had visited it before,
were here in the winter, when its waters were frozen and covered over with
snow. They had reached it from below, by way of the River Exploits, on the
ice. We approached the lake with hope and caution; but found to our
mortification that the Red Indians had deserted it for some years past. My
party had been so excited, so sanguine, and so determined to obtain an
interview of some kind with these people, that, on discovering from
appearances every where around us, that the Red Indians - the terror of the
Europeans as well as the other Indian inhabitants of Newfoundland - no
longer existed, the spirits of one and all of us were very deeply affected.
The old mountaineer was particularly overcome. There were every where
indications, that this had long been the central and undisturbed
rendezvous of the tribe, when they had enjoyed peace and security. But
these primitive people had abandoned it, after having been tormented by
parties of Europeans during the last eighteen years. Fatal rencounters had
on these occasions unfortunately taken place."

(_To be concluded in our next_.)


[5] Since my return, I learn from the captive Red Indian woman
_Shawnawdithit_, that the vapour-bath is chiefly used by old people,
and for rheumatic affections.

_Shawnawdithit_ is the survivor of three Red Indian females, who were
taken by, or rather who gave themselves up, exhausted with hunger, to
some English furriers, about five years ago, in Notre Dame Bay. She is
the only one of that tribe in the hands of the English, and the only
one that has ever lived so long among them.

* * * * *



THE SELECTOR, AND LITERARY NOTICES OF _NEW WORKS_.


AN HONOURABLE "INDEPENDENT" FAMILY.


The Honourable Mister Augustus Headerton, who lived once in yonder villa,
was the youngest of eleven children, and consequently the junior brother
of the noble Lord of Headerton, nephew of the Honourable Justice
Cleaveland, nephew of Admiral Barrymore, K.C.B., &c. &c. &c.; and cousin
first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, or seventh remove - to all the
honourables and dishonourables in the country.

When the old earl died, he left four Chancery suits, and a nominal estate
to the heir apparent, to whom he also bequeathed his three younger
brothers and sisters, who had only small annuities from their mother's
fortune, being assured that (to use his own words), "he might _depend_ on
him for the honour of the family, to provide for them handsomely." And so
he did (in his own estimation); his lady sisters had "the run of the
house," and Mr. Augustus Headerton had the run of the stables, the use of
hunters and dogs, and was universally acknowledged to possess "a proper
spirit," because he spent three times more than his income. "He bates the
world and all, for beauty, in a hunting jacket," exclaimed the groom. "He
flies a gate beyant any living sowl I iver seed, and his tallyho, my
jewel - 'twould do y'er heart good to hear his tallyho!" said my lord's
huntsman. "He's a generous jontleman as any in the kingdom - I'll say that
for him, any day in the year," echoed the coachman. "He's admired more nor
any jintleman as walks Steven's Green in a month o' Sundays, I'll go bail,"
continued Miss Jenny Roe, the ladies' maid.

"Choose a profession!" Oh! no; impossible. An Irish gentleman choose a
profession! But the Honourable Mr. Augustus Headerton chose a wife, and
threw all his relations, including Lord Headerton, the Honourable Justice
Cleaveland, Admiral Barrymore, K.C.B., and his cousins to the fiftieth
remove, into strong convulsions, or little fits. She, the lady, had sixty
thousand pounds; that, of course, they could not object to. She had eloped
with the Honourable Mr. Augustus Headerton; - mere youthful indiscretion.
She was little and ugly; - that only concerned her husband. She was proud
and extravagant; - those (they said) were lady-like failings. She was
ignorant and stupid; - her sisters-in-law would have pardoned that. She was
vulgar; - that was awkward. Her father was a carcass butcher in Cole's Lane
market - death and destruction!

It could never be forgiven! the cut direct was unanimously agreed on, and
the little lady turned up her little nose in disdain, as her handsome
barouche rolled past the lumbering carriage of the Right Honourable Lord
Headerton. She persuaded her husband to purchase that beautiful villa, in
view of the family domain, that she might have more frequent opportunities
of bringing, as she elegantly expressed it, "the proud beggars to their
trumps; - and why not? - money's money, all the world over." The Honourable
Mister Augustus _depended_ on his agent for the purchase, and some two
thousand and odd pounds were consequently paid, or said to have been paid,
for it, more than its value. And then commenced the general warfare; full
purse and empty head - _versus_ no purse, and old nobility. They had the
satisfaction of ruining each other - the full purse was emptied by
devouring duns, and the old nobility suffered by its connexion with
vulgarity.

"I want to know, Honourable Mister Augustus Headerton" - (the lady always
gave the full name when addressing her husband; she used to say it was all
she got for her money), - "I want to know, Honourable Mister Augustus
Headerton, the reason why the music master's lessons, given to the Misses
Headerton (they were blessed with seven sweet pledges of affection), have
not been paid for? I desired the steward to see to it, and you know I
_depend_ on him to settle these matters."

The Honourable Mrs. Augustus Headerton rang the bell - "Send Martin up."

"Mister Martin," the lady began, "what is the reason that Mr. Langi's
account has not been paid?"

"My master, ma'am knows that I have been anxious for him to look over the
accounts; the goings-out are so very great, and the comings-in, as far as
I know" - The Honourable Mister Augustus Headerton spilt some of the
whiskey-punch he was drinking, over a splendid hearth-rug, which drew the
lady's attention from what would have been an unpleasant _eclaircissement_.

"I cannot understand why difficulties should arise. I am certain I brought
a fortune large enough for all extravagance," was the lady's constant
remark when expenditure was mentioned. Years pass over the heads of the
young - and they grow old; and over the heads of fools - but they never grow
wise.

The Honourable Mister and Mistress Augustus Headerton were examples of
this truth; - their children grew up around them - but could derive no
support from their parent root. The mother had _depended_ on governesses
and masters for the education of her girls - and on their beauty,
connexions, or accomplishments, to procure them husbands. The father did
not deem the labours of study fit occupation for the sons of an ancient
house: - "_Depend_ upon it," he would say, "they'll all do well with my
connexions - they will be able to command what they please." The Honourable
Mistress Augustus could not now boast of a full purse, for they had long
been living on the memory of their once ample fortune.

The Honourable Mister Augustus Headerton died, in the forty-fifth year of
his age, of inflammation, caught in an old limekiln, where he was
concealed to avoid an arrest for the sum of 180 guineas, for black Nell,
the famous filly, who won the cup on the Curragh of Kildare - purchased in
his name, but without his knowledge, by his second son, the pride of the
family - commonly called dashing Dick.

All I know further of the Honourable Mistress Augustus Headerton is, that

"She played at cards, and died."

Miss Georgiana - the beauty, and greatest fool of the family, who
_depended_ on her face as a fortune, did get a husband - an old, rich West
India planter, and eloped, six months after marriage, with an officer of
dragoons.

Miss Celestina was really clever and accomplished. "Use her abilities for
her own support!" Oh, no! not for worlds - Too proud to work, but not too
proud to beg, she _depended_ on her relations, and played toady to all who
would.

Miss Louisa - not clever; but in all other respects, ditto - ditto.

Miss Charlotte was always very romantic; refused a respectable banker with
indignation, and married her uncle's footman - for love.

Having sketched the female part of the family first (a compliment by the
way they do not always receive from their own sex) - I will tell you what I
remember of the gentlemen.

"The Emperor," as Mr. Augustus was called, from his stately manner and
dignified deportment, aided by as much self-esteem as could well be
contained in a human body, _depended_, without any "compunctuous visitings
of conscience," on the venison, claret, and champagne of his friends, and
thought all the time he did them honour: - and thus he passed his life.

"Dashing Dick" was the opposite of the Emperor; sung a good song - told a
good story - and gloried in making ladies blush. He _depended_ on his
cousin, Colonel Bloomfield, procuring him a commission in his regiment,
and cheated tailors, hosiers, glovers, coach-makers, and even lawyers,
with impunity. Happily for the world at large, Dashing Dick broke his neck
in a steeple chase, on a stolen horse, which he would have been hanged for
purloining, had he lived a day longer.

Ferdinand was the bonne-bouche of the family: they used to call him "the
Parson!" Excellent Ferdinand! - he _depended_ on his exertions; and, if
ever the name of Headerton rises in the scale of moral or intellectual
superiority, it will be owing to the steady and virtuous efforts of Mister
Ferdinand Headerton, merchant, in the good city of B - - .

_Sketches of Irish Character, by Mrs. S.C. Hall_.

* * * * *


PURSUIT OF KNOWLEDGE UNDER DIFFICULTIES.


We quote the following from the portion of the _Library of Entertaining
Knowledge_, with the above title - to show the mode in which the heads of
the respective chapters are illustrated:

_Obscure Origin_.

"The parents of SEBASTIAN CASTALIO, the elegant Latin translator of the
Bible, were poor peasants, who lived among the mountains in Dauphiny.

"The Abbé HAUTEFEUILLE, who distinguished himself in the seventeenth
century, by his inventions in clock and watch making, was the son of a
baker.

"PARINI, the modern satiric poet of Italy, was the son of a peasant, who
died when he was in his boyhood, and left him to be the only support of
his widowed mother; while, to add to his difficulties, he was attacked in
his nineteenth year by a paralysis, which rendered him a cripple for life.

"The parents of Dr. JOHN PRIDEAUX, who afterwards rose to be Bishop of
Worcester, were in such poor circumstances, that they were with difficulty
able to keep him at school till he had learned to read and write; and he
obtained the rest of his education by walking on foot to Oxford, and
getting employed in the first instance as assistant in the kitchen of
Exeter College, in which society he remained till he gradually made his
way to a fellowship.

"The father of INIGO JONES, the great architect, who built the
Banqueting-house at Whitehall, and many other well known edifices, was a
cloth-worker; and he himself was also destined originally for a mechanical
employment.

"Sir EDMUND SAUNDERS, Chief Justice of the Court of King's Bench in the
reign of Charles II., was originally an errand boy at the Inns of Court,
and gradually acquired the elements of his knowledge of the law by being
employed to copy precedents.

"LINNAEUS, the founder of the science of Botany, although the son of the
clergyman of a small village in Sweden, was for some time apprenticed to a
shoemaker; and was only rescued from his humble employment by accidentally
meeting one day a physician named Rothman, who, having entered into
conversation with him, was so much struck with his intelligence, that he
sent him to the university.

"The father of MICHAEL LOMONOSOFF, one of the most celebrated Russian
poets of the last century, and who eventually attained the highest
literary dignities in his own country, was only a simple fisherman. Young
Lomonosoff had great difficulty in acquiring as much education as enabled
him to read and write; and it was only by running away from his father's
house, and taking refuge in a monastery at Moscow, that he found means to
obtain an acquaintance with the higher branches of literature.

"The famous BEN JONSON worked for some time as a bricklayer or mason; 'and
let not them blush,' says Fuller, speaking of this circumstance in his
'English Worthies,' with his usual amusing, but often expressive
quaintness, 'let not them blush that have, but those that have not, a
lawful calling. He helped in the building of the new structure of
Lincoln's Inn, when, having a trowel in his hand, he had a book in his
pocket.'

"PETER RAMUS, one of the most celebrated writers and intrepid thinkers of
the sixteenth century, was employed in his childhood as a shepherd, and
obtained his education by serving as a lacquey in the College of Navarre.

"The Danish astronomer, LONGOMONTANUS, was the son of a labourer, and,
while attending the academical lectures at Wyburg through the day, was
obliged to work for his support during a part of the night.

"The elder DAVID PAREUS, the eminent German Protestant divine, who was
afterwards Professor of Theology at Heidelberg, was placed in his youth as
an apprentice, first with an apothecary, and then with a shoemaker.

"HANS SACHS, one of the most famous of the early German poets, and a
scholar of considerable learning, was the son of a tailor, and served an
apprenticeship himself, first to a shoemaker, and afterwards to a weaver,
at which last trade, indeed, he continued to work during the rest of his
life.

"JOHN FOLCZ, another old German poet, was a barber.

"LUCAS CORNELISZ, a Dutch painter of the sixteenth century, who visited
England during the reign of Henry VIII., and was patronized by that
monarch, was obliged, while in his own country, in order to support his
large family, to betake himself to the profession of a cook.

"Dr. ISAAC MADDOX, who, in the reign of George II., became bishop, first
of St. Asaph, and then of Worcester, and who is well known by his work in
defence of the Doctrine and Discipline of the Church of England, lost both
his parents, who belonged to a very humble rank of life, at an early age,
and was, in the first instance, placed by his friends with a pastrycook.

"The late Dr. ISAAC MILNER, Dean of Carlisle, and Lucasian Professor of
the Mathematics at Cambridge, who had the reputation of one of the first
mathematicians of that University, and who published some ingenious papers
on Chemistry and Natural Philosophy, in the 'Philosophical Transactions,'
was originally a weaver - as was also his brother JOSEPH, the well known,
author of a 'History of the Church.' Of the same profession was also, in
his younger days, the late Dr. JOSEPH WHITE, Professor of Arabic at Oxford.

"CASSERIO, a well known Italian anatomist, was initiated in the elements
of Medical Science by a surgeon of Padua, with whom he had lived
originally as a domestic servant.

"JOHN CHRISTIAN THEDEN, who rose to be chief surgeon to the Prussian army
under Frederick II. had in his youth been apprenticed to a tailor."

_Influence of Accident in directing Pursuits_.

"The celebrated Bernard Palissy, to whom France was indebted, in the
sixteenth century, for the introduction of the manufacture of enamelled
pottery, had his attention first attracted to the art, his improvements in
which, form to this time the glory of his name among his countrymen, by
having one day seen by chance a beautiful enamelled cup, which had been
brought from Italy. He was then struggling to support his family by his
attempts in the art of painting, in which he was self-taught; and it
immediately occurred to him that, if he could discover the secret of
making these cups, his toils and difficulties would be at an end. From
that moment his whole thoughts were directed to this object; and in one of
his works he has himself given us such an account of the unconquerable
zeal with which he prosecuted his experiments, as it is impossible to read
without the deepest interest. For some time he had little or nothing to
expend upon the pursuit which he had so much at heart; but at last he
happened to receive a considerable sum of money for a work which he had
finished, and this enabled him to commence his researches. He spent the
whole of his money, however, without meeting with any success, and he was
now poorer than ever. Yet it was in vain that his wife and friends
besought him to relinquish what they deemed his chimerical and ruinous
project. He borrowed more money, with which he repeated his experiments;
and, when he had no more fuel wherewith to feed his furnaces, he cut down
his chairs and tables for that purpose. Still his success was
inconsiderable. He was now actually obliged to give a person, who had
assisted him, part of his clothes by way of remuneration, having nothing
else left; and, with his wife and children starving before his eyes, and
by their appearance silently reproaching him as the cause of their
sufferings, he was at heart miserable enough. But he neither despaired,


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Online LibraryVariousThe Mirror of Literature, Amusement, and Instruction Volume 14, No. 387, August 28, 1829 → online text (page 2 of 3)