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THE MIRROR OF LITERATURE, AMUSEMENT, AND INSTRUCTION.

VOL. 14, No. 394.] SATURDAY, OCTOBER 17, 1829. [PRICE 2d.




LORD GROSVENOR'S GALLERY, PARK LANE.


[Illustration: THE GROSVENOR GALLERY, PARK LANE.]

At the commencement of our Twelfth Volume, we took occasion to allude to
the public spirit of the Earl of Grosvenor, in our description of his
splendid mansion - Eaton Hall, near Chester. We likewise adverted to his
lordship's munificent patronage of the Fine Arts, and to the erection of
the Gallery which forms the subject of the annexed Engraving.

The Gallery forms the western wing of Lord Grosvenor's spacious town
mansion in Park Lane. It is from the designs of Mr. Cundy, and consists
of a colonnade of the Corinthian order, raised upon a plain joined
stylobate. Over each column of the principal building is an isolated
statue with an attic behind them, after the manner of the ancient
building called by Palladio the Forum Trajan at Rome. On the acroteria
of the building are vases on a balustrade, and between the columns is a
series of blank windows with balustraded balconies and triangular
pediments, which Mr. Elmes thinks are so introduced as to disfigure the
other grand parts of the design. Above these are sunk panels, with swags
or garlands of fruit and flowers. Mr. E. is likewise of opinion that,
"but for the stopped-up windows, and the overpowering and needless
balustrade over the heads of the statues, this building would rank among
the very first in the metropolis; even with these trifling drawbacks,
that can easily be remedied before the whole is completed, it is grand,
architectural, and altogether worthy of its noble proprietor."

The reader need not be told that the above Gallery has been erected for
the reception of the superb Grosvenor collection, the first effectual
foundation of which was laid by the purchase of the late Mr. Agar's
pictures for 30,000 guineas, and it has since been gradually enlarged
until it has become one of the finest collection in England. It is not
confined to works of the old masters, but embraces the best productions
of some of the most celebrated modern painters. The Earl of Grosvenor
has, for some years, been in the habit of admitting the public in the
months of May and June, to inspect his pictures, under certain
restrictions.

The Picture Gallery is but a portion of the improvements contemplated by
Lord Grosvenor. The mansion, in the distance of the Engraving is, we
believe, to be rebuilt in a correspondent style with the Gallery, and
the whole when completed, will be one of the most splendid
establishments in the metropolis.

Indeed, the recent embellishment of several mansions in Park Lane is
already indicative of the improved taste of their distinguished
occupants. A few years since the Lane for the most part consisted of
unsightly brick fronts; but stone and plaster encasements have given it
the appearance of a new neighbourhood.

* * * * *


HENRY JENKINS.

_(For the Mirror.)_


A table showing the various changes in his religion, which by the
statute were required of Henry Jenkins, of Ellerton-upon-Swale, in the
county of York, in compliance with the principle, that the English
Constitution is essentially identified with the religion of the state,
and making it his bounden duty (as that of every subject) to conform to
it. Henry Jenkins was born in 1501, and died at the age of 169, in 1670.
He consequently was required by law, to adopt the following changes in
his religious creed and practice: -

Henry Jenkins
The Constitution should have been
Reigns of being essentially during

1st from Henry VII. and VIII. Catholic 33 years.
1501 to 1534
2nd from Henry VIII. {Between Catholic & } 13
1534 to 1547 {Church of England }
3rd from Edward VI Church of England 6
1547 to 1553
4th from Mary Catholic 5
1553 to 1558
5th from {Elizabeth, James I.} Church of England 91
1558 to 1649 {Charles I }
6th from Interregnum Fanatic 4
1649 to 1654
7th from Protectorate Presbyterian 7
1654 to 1660
8th from Charles II Church of England 10
1660 to 1670
169 years, the
age of Henry Jenkins.

Jenkins was buried at Bolton-upon-Swale. A handsome pyramid marks his
grave, as the oldest Englishman upon record, and in the church is a
monument to his memory, with the following inscription, written by Dr.
Thomas Chapman: -

Blush not marble!
To rescue from oblivion
The memory of
Henry Jenkins,
A person obscure in birth,
But of a life truly memorable,
For
He was enriched
With the goods of nature
If not of fortune;
And happy
In the duration
If not variety
Of his enjoyments,
And tho' the partial world
Despised and disregarded
His low and humble state,
The equal eye of Providence
Beheld and blessed it
With a Patriarch's health and length of days
To teach mistaken man
These blessings
Were entailed on temperance,
A life of labour, and a mind at ease.
He lived to the amazing age of
169 years,
Was interred here the 6th December,
1670,
And had this justice done to his memory,
1743.

ARTHUR EBOR.

* * * * *


VENERATION OF CATS IN ANCIENT DAYS, AND VALUE OF KITTENS, &c.

_(For the Mirror.)_


The cat was held in high veneration by the ancient Egyptians. When a cat
died in a house, the owner of the house shaved his eye-brows; they
carried the cats when dead into consecrated houses to be embalmed, and
interred them at Bubastis, a considerable city of Lower Egypt. If any
killed a cat, though by accident, he could not escape death. Even in the
present day they are treated with the utmost care in that country, on
account of their destroying the rats and mice. They are trained in some
of the Grecian islands to attack and destroy serpents, with which those
islands abound.

In the time of Howel Dha, _Howel the Good_, Prince of Wales, who died in
the year 948, laws were made both to preserve and fix the prices of
different animals; among which the cat was included, as being at that
early period of great importance, on account of its scarcity and
utility. The price of a kitten before it could see, was fixed at one
penny; till proof could be given of its having caught a mouse,
two-pence; after which it was rated at four-pence, a great sum in those
days, when the value of specie was extremely high. It was likewise
required, that the animal should be perfect in its senses of hearing and
seeing, should be a good mouser, have its claws whole, and if a female,
be a careful nurse. If it failed in any of these qualifications, the
seller was to forfeit to the buyer the third part of its value. If any
one should steal or kill the cat that guarded the prince's granary, the
offender was to forfeit either a milch ewe, her fleece, and lamb, or as
much wheat as when poured on the cat suspended by its tail, (its head
touching the floor) would form a heap high enough to cover the tip of
the tail. From these circumstances (says Pennant) we may conclude that
cats were not originally natives of these islands, and from the great
care taken to improve and preserve the breed of this prolific creature,
we may with propriety suppose that they were but little known at that
period.

When Mr. Baumgarten was at Damascus, he saw there a kind of hospital for
cats; the house in which they were kept was very large, walled round,
and was said to be quite full of them. On inquiring into the origin of
this singular institution, he was told that Mahomet, when he once lived
there, brought with him a cat, which he kept in the sleeve of his gown,
and carefully fed with his own hands. His followers in this place,
therefore, ever afterwards paid a superstitious respect to these
animals; and supported them in this manner by public alms, which were
very adequate to the purpose. Browne, in his _History of Jamaica_, tells
us, "A cat is a very dainty dish among the negroes."

P.T.W.

* * * * *


ST. DUNSTAN'S, FLEET STREET.

_(To the Editor of the Mirror.)_


In your account of this church, in No. 388, I perceive you state that
the clock and figures were put up in 1761, whereas I find by reference
to works on this subject, that they were so placed in 1671.[1]

[1] Occasioned by a transposition of figures. In vol. xi.
referred to in the above page, the date stands 1671.

There are many curious monuments in this church, and among others, is
the beautiful one to the memory of Sir Richard Hoare, Knt. who was Lord
Mayor of London in the memorable year 1745, at which "alarming crisis,"
in the words of the inscription, "he discharged the great trust reposed
in him with honour and integrity, to the approbation of his sovereign
and the universal satisfaction of his fellow citizens." He died in 1754,
and was buried in this church. The monument, which is of marble,
consists of a sarcophagus, above which is a cherub in the act of
crowning a beautiful bust of Sir Richard with a laurel wreath, above is
a shield of arms, within an orb ar. sa. a spread eagle of the first
bearing an escutcheon of pretence ar. a lion ppr. in chief in base a
chev. gu. charged with three escallop shells of the first, impaling a
saltire sa. between four crosses fitche of the same. Crest, a griffin's
head erased ar. An inscription on the base informs us the monument was
restored in 1820, at the expense of the parish, "in testimony of their
grateful sense of obligation to a family whose eminent virtue and
munificence it is intended to perpetuate."

In the vestry of this church is preserved a finely executed portrait of
the "Virgin Queen," in stained glass; and there is also another window
consisting of the effigy of St. Matthias, but this is not to be compared
with the other for execution.

A.P.D.

* * * * *


CONSTANTINOPLE.

_(For the Mirror.)_


One of the finest buildings in Constantinople is a fountain in an open
square, near the seraglio gate; it is a place built and maintained by
the Grand Vizier, for the people to come and draw water, who have it
served out to them in great jugs by people who are constantly in
attendance to fill them; the jugs are chained to the place, and stand in
rows about four feet from the ground, between gilt iron bars in front of
the building. There are men always ready inside to draw the water and
fill the jugs, which till people come are kept full; these men receive a
yearly salary.

The houses are chiefly built of wood, and reach so far over the top that
in some of the streets it would be very possible to get from the windows
of one house to another across the street. By this manner of building,
any one who has seen the place will not wonder at the frequent and fatal
conflagrations there, for if once a fire break out it must burn till it
comes to some garden or large vacant place to stop at. The Bussard is
the most regular part of the city, and has a number of parallel streets
crossing one another, and covered at the top with planks which keep out
the rain and sun. Here all the richest and finest goods in
Constantinople are put out to show, as a pattern or sample of the
merchants' stock, for sale in their warehouses at home. Every street has
its particular trade, so that there is no mixture of shops as in other
capitals. One street is occupied by goldsmiths, another by silk and
brocade merchants; grocers and tailors have also different streets to
themselves. The city is always shut up at ten at night, so that no one
can have entrance or get out after that time. Indeed there is scarcely
any one in the streets after dusk, for every one then goes to rest, so
that when daylight is gone no business can be transacted; but the people
are obliged to pray every night one hour and a half after dark, when the
priests go up into the towers of the mosques, and in a loud voice call
crowds to prayers in these words: - "God is great; (three times) give
testimony there is but one God, yield yourselves to his mercy, and pray
to him to forgive your sins. God is great (three times more) there is no
other God but God."

INA.

* * * * *



THE NOVELIST.


* * * * *


THE BACHELOR'S REVENGE.

_(For the Mirror.)_


Mr. Hardingham, or as some of his very intimate friends used to call
him, Jack Hardingham, lived in a dull looking house in - - Square, his
profession (the law) was dull, his fire and fireside were dull; and as
he sat by the former one dull evening, in the dullest of all his dull
humours, and of such the lonely bachelor had many, he sighed, kicked his
shins, and looked into his books; but as that was like gazing upon a
very ugly face, he shut them again, and rang the bell. It was answered
by a portly dame, whose age might be about some four or five and forty,
whose complexion was fair, whose chubby cheeks were brilliantly rosy,
and whose black eyes were so vividly lustrous, that one might have
fancied the delicate cap-border near them, in danger from their fire.
Over her full-formed bust, she wore a clear, and stiffly-starched muslin
habit-shirt of purest white, a beautiful lace-edged ruff around her
throat, over her ample shoulders was thrown a fawn-coloured shawl, and
she wore also, a silver gray gown of the material called Norwich crape,
with an apron rivalling in whiteness cap, habit-shirt, and ruff. We are
particular in describing the costume of this fair creature, because when
_dress_ is invariably the same, it has unity with _person_; it is
identified with its wearer, and our affections even are caught and
retained by it, in a manner of which few are aware. On the exterior of
the lady whom we have endeavoured to portray, "housekeeper" was as
indelibly stamped as the effigy of our king on the coin of the realm;
and in a most soft and insinuating tone, she said, "Would you be pleased
to want any thing, sir?"

"Yes, Mrs. Honeydew - go and ask if they can't let me have De Vere."

"Yes, sir."

"Or the Chronicles of the Canongate."

"Yes, sir."

"Or Anne of Geierstein."

"Yes, sir."

"Or the Loves of the Poets."

"Yes, sir."

"Or, d'ye hear, hang it, tell Mr. Mason there are seven or eight other
new works, the names of which I have forgotten, and he must recollect."

"Certainly, sir."

"Stop, stop - don't be in such a hurry - tell him, he has never ordered
for me the Quarterly, as I desired - that I want to see the United
Service Journal, and Blackwood for the month; and that if he chooses to
charge four pence a night for his new novels, I'll not read one of
them."

"Of course, sir; I'll tell him, for 'tis a shame, a real shame, for any
body to _repose_ on, as one may say, a gentleman like yourself. Never
fear, but I'll tell him."

The lady retired, the door closed, and Mr. Hardingham sighed, "A worthy
creature is Martha Honeydew." "Come in," cried the gentleman in a most
amiable tone, as he presently recognised his housekeeper's tap at the
parlour door, and with a curtsey she entered.

"O law, law! Mr. Hardingham, sir - Mr. Mason says - but I don't like to
give you all his message, indeed I don't - Mr. Mason says - but I hope
you'll never send me on such an _arrant_ again - he says, sir - O but I'm
sorry for it, that I am - he says then, that the _Quarter_ you _ax'd_
for, ar'n't come yet, and there's time enough for you to read it in when
it _do_; that the Blackwood and the Officers' Magazine are _hout_; that
you may go without your new novels afore he'll let you have 'em
_chaiper_ than other folks, (and there's a shocking shame, sir!) and as
for the works you mentioned, there's fifty new ones at least to choose
from; but he can't remember what you don't be pleased to recollect
yourself. Dear heart! to think of a gentleman like you, sir, being
_trated_ thus; why, my blood _biled_ within me; and I wouldn't demean
myself to bring back any thing for you from that place; but I took the
liberty, sir, to get you 'Damon and Dorinda,' a sweet pretty thing, from
another."

"Ah!" sighed the bachelor, "I see there's nobody in this world cares for
poor Jack Hardingham, but Martha Honeydew;" and he felt sorry that his
housekeeper had departed ere his lips had emitted this grateful praise.
Yes, Mr. Hardingham felt vexed he scarcely knew why; and uncommonly
discontented he knew not wherefore; but had he troubled himself to
analyze such feelings, he would have discerned their origin to be
solitude and idleness. Mrs. Honeydew brought tea; she had buttered a
couple of muffins superlatively well; and making her master's fire burn
exceedingly bright, placed them on the cat before it, and a kettle,
which immediately commenced a delicate bravura, upon the glowing coals;
then, modestly waiting at the distance of a few paces from her master
until the water quite boiled, she fixed her brilliant eyes upon his
countenance with an expression _intended_ to be _piteous_.

"Mrs. Honeydew - Martha," said Hardingham in a low querulous tone, "I
fancy I'm going to have a fit of the gout, or a bilious fever."

"_Fancy_, indeed, sir; why, I never saw you looking haler."

"Ay, Ay, so much the worse; a fit of apoplexy then maybe."

"Lauk, lauk! sir; a fit of the blue devils more likely. How can you talk
so? A fit of _perplexity_! Dear, dear! how some men do go on to be
sure;" pouring the steaming water upon the tea.

"You are a kind comforter, Martha; nobody ever raises my spirits like
you. Get me my little leathern trunk."

"Why, then, that I won't;" getting it down from a closet-shelf as she
spoke. "I wish it was burnt with all my heart, that I do; making you so
_lammancholy_ as it always _do_."

And well might this trunk make Mr. Hardingham melancholy, for it was the
receptacle of letters and little gifts of a lady who had jilted him in
early life; and upon whom he had often vowed vengeance. She was yet
unmarried; but - no - her once devoted admirer was resolved to follow the
lady's advice, and place his "affections upon a worthier object than
Caroline Dalton;" and, thought he to himself, she shall at last see that
I have _found one_; nor shall wild Tom, my graceless nephew, who lives
upon my fortune, ever more touch one penny of it. The postman rapped,
and in a few minutes his housekeeper appeared with many apologies for
bringing to him her own newspaper, but perhaps in it he might be able to
find the names of some of the new novels that he wished to have.

"Martha Honeydew," cried Hardingham with a smile, the first he had
sported that week, "I am, as you know, a man of but few words, and
straight-forward in my dealings; say that you can fancy me, and I'll
marry you tomorrow."

Mrs. Honeydew's reply will be surmised; Caroline Dalton saw who was
preferred before her, and the bachelor's revenge ruined wild Tom; for
Hardingham settled all his property upon his wife, and a pretty life the
amiable creature led him.

M.L.B.

* * * * *



RETROSPECTIVE GLEANINGS.


* * * * *


LETTER OF LORD STRAFFORD.

_(For the Mirror.)_


The following is literally copied from an original autograph of the
unfortunate Lord Strafford, and may prove interesting to your numerous
readers.

C.J.T.

"_Sweete Harte_. - It is _longe_ since I _writt_ unto you, for I am here
in such a _troubel_ as gives _mee_ little or _noe respett_. The
_chardge_ is now _cum in_, and I am now _abel_ I _prayse_ God, to
_telle_ you that I _conceaue_ there is nothing _capitall_, and for the
_reste_ I _knowe_ at the _worste_ his _maty_ will _pardonne_ all without
hurting my fortune, and then _wee_ shall be _happie_ by God's grace.
Therefore _comfortt_ yourself, for I trust these _cloudes_ will away and
_thate wee_ shall have _faire weathere afterwarde_.

"Fare well, your _lovinge husbande_,
"Tower of _Londonne_,

"STRAFFORDE.

"4th Feb. 1640.

"My Wife."

* * * * *



STONE PILLARS AND CROSSES.

_(For the Mirror.)_


It appears from the accounts of the earliest historians, that single
stones, or rude pillars were raised on various occasions, in the most
remote ages. Of these we have frequent notices in the Old Testament, as
of that raised by Jacob at Lug, afterwards named Bethel; a pillar was
also raised by him at the grave of Rachel. The Gentiles set up pillars
for idolatrous purposes. The Paphians worshipped their Venus under the
form of a white pyramid, and the Brachmans the great God under the
figure of a little column of stone. Many large stones are found at this
day in Wales and Cornwall, which are supposed to have been raised by the
Phoenicians and Grecians, who frequently resorted thither for tin and
other metals.

In Ireland some of these large stones have crosses cut on them, supposed
to have been sculptured by Christians, out of compliance with Druidical
prejudices, that the converts from Paganism not easily diverted from
their reverence for these stones, might pay them a kind of justifiable
adoration, when thus appropriated to the use of Christian memorials, by
the sign of the Cross. Some signs of adoration are at this day paid to
such stones, in the Scottish Western Isles; they are called _bowing
stones_. In the Isle of Barra there is one about seven feet high, and
when the inhabitants come near, they take a religious turn round it,
according with ancient Druidical custom.

Stones were raised also as memorials of _civil contracts_; as by Jacob,
in his contract with Laban, when the attendants of the latter raised a
heap, to signify their assent to the treaty. Those conical, pyramidal,
and cylindric stones, perpendicularly raised, which are seen in the
British Isles, were formerly introduced in general, to ascertain the
boundaries of districts. On these, representations of the crucifixion
were frequently cut, and the name of crosses were given to the boundary
stones in general, though remaining without this symbol. Many instances
might be given of these termini. At High Cross, on the intersection of
the Watling Street and Foss Roman roads, there was formerly a pillar
which marked the limits of Warwickshire and Leicestershire - the present
column is of modern date; another distinguished the boundaries of
Asfordby and Frisby, in the latter county. One at Crowland, in the
county of Lincoln, the inscription on which has caused considerable
dispute amongst antiquarians, has been much noticed. A famous one near
Landoris, in Fifeshire, placed, as Camden says, as a boundary between
the districts of Fife and Stathern, was also a place of sanctuary.

Stone pillars, or crosses were also raised to record remarkable events;
as where a battle had been fought, or over persons of distinction slain
therein. Crosses were likewise erected where any particular instance of
mercy had been shown by the Almighty, or where any person had been
murdered by robbers, or had met with a violent death; where the corpse
of any great person had rested on its way to interment, as those
splendid ones erected by Edward I. in memory of his beloved Queen
Elinor; often in churchyards, and in early times at most places of
public concourse; in market-places, perhaps to repress all idea of undue
gain or extortion; and at the meeting of four roads.

Penances were often finished at crosses. Near Stafford stood one called
_Weeping Cross_, from its being a place designated for the expiation of
penances, which concluded with weeping and other signs of contrition. A
great number of sepulchral crosses were erected in Great Britain and
Ireland, soon after prayers for the dead came into use, by the desire of
individuals, at their places of interment, to remind pious people to
pray for their souls.

The ancient practice of consecrating Pagan antiquities to religious
purposes, has been continued to times comparatively modern; thus, Pope
Sixtus V. purified the Antonine column and that of Trajan, dedicating
them to St. Peter and St. Paul, whose statues, of a colossal size, he
placed on their summits. Succeeding Popes followed these examples,


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Online LibraryVariousThe Mirror of Literature, Amusement, and Instruction Volume 14, No. 394, October 17, 1829 → online text (page 1 of 3)