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Vernon L. (Vernon Lyman) Kellogg.

Darwinism to-day; a discussion of present-day scientific criticism of the Darwinian selection theories, together with a brief account of the principal other proposed auxilary and alternative theories of species-forming online

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Online LibraryVernon L. (Vernon Lyman) KelloggDarwinism to-day; a discussion of present-day scientific criticism of the Darwinian selection theories, together with a brief account of the principal other proposed auxilary and alternative theories of species-forming → online text (page 38 of 38)
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with beans bred in pure lines,

72
Jordan. Karl, criticism of Ver-

non's tKeory of reproductive

divergence, 249 ; on mechanical

selection, 246
Jordan, D. S., on geographic

isolation, 237

Kallima, case of, explained by
Plate, 175 ; over-specialisation
of, 53

Klebs, G., experiments on plants,.
392

Korschinsky, H., radical anti-
selection position of, 91 ;
theory of heterogenesis, 333

Kramer, P., classification of sec-
ondary sexual characters, 107

Lamarck, references to his life
and writings, 290

Lamarckism, 263 ; Burbank's be-
lief in, 272; favoured by Red-
field, 305 ^ Plate's discussion- . ^
of. 273 ; unable to explain all
adaptations, 272; Weismann's
attack on, 266

Lankester, R., answer to objec-
tion to selection, based on in-
sufficient time, 55; upholding
of Darwinism, 389

Law, Delboeuf's, Delage's criti-
cisms of, 72 ; of chance, varia-
tion according to, 32, 59; of
regression, Gallon's, 71 ; of
regression, statement of Gal-
ton, 97

Le Dantec, F., chemical theory
of protoplasm, 225

Lizards, experiments on, 123

Loeb, J., attitude toward the
problem of species-forming,
393



4 oo



INDEX.



Mallophaga, effects of isolation

on, 240

Mayer, A. G., experiments on
Promethca, 121: experiments
on sexual selection, 120
Mendel, G., references to life and

work, 356

Mendelism, references to discus-
sions of, 357
Merriam, C. H., criticism of

mutations theory, 367
Metakinesis, Jaeckel's theory of,

289
Mimicry of Anosia by Basi-

larchia, 49

Montgomery, Th., explanation
of inheritance of acquired
characters, 306

Morgan, C. L., statement of con-
ception of organic selection,
230; theory of orthoplasy, 145,
208; answer to objections to
sexual selection theory, 149
Morgan, T. H., antagonism of
species-forming by selection,
93 ; criticism of Weismann's
method of argument, 229; dis-
cussion of de Vries's theory,
345 ; objections to sexual se-
lection theory, 118; summation
of the advantages of the muta-
tions theory, 350
Mutation, as used by Waagen,
324; de Vries's theory of, 337
Mutations theory, American
opinion of, 362; attitude of
naturalists toward, 348; con-
trasted with Lamarckism, 349;
contrasted with the isolation
factor, 349; discussion of, by
Castle. 364; discussion of, by
Davenport, 366, 367 ; Mer-
riam's criticism of, 367; Mor-
gan's summation of the ad-
vantages of, 350; Plate's
criticism of, 368; references
to discussions of, by . de
Vries, 362



Niigeli, Ch.. seven objections to
species-forming by selection,
62; theory of orthogenesis,
277 ; theory of ultimate struct-
ure of protoplasm, 219



Neo-Darwinians, concessions of,

134
Neo-vitalism, 226

Organisms, number of living, 10
Orthogenesis, 274; Cope's belief

in, 323 ; Cope's theory of, 285 ;

Cunningham's discussion of,

326; Eimer's theory of, 282,

320; Nageli's theory of, 277;

palaeontologists in favour of,

288; Pfeffer's theory of, 320;

Plate's resume of evidence for,

279; Whitman's declaration in

favour of, 288
Orthoplasy, 208; references to

discussions of, 229
Orthoselection, contrasted with

orthogenesis, 276
Osborn, H. F., championship of

the unknown factors, of, 391 ;

theory of orthoplasy, 208

Palaeontologists favouring ortho-
genesis, 288

Panmixia, example of ineffect-
ive, 99 ; Weismann's theory of,
188; Wolff's criticism of, 98

Parallelism in variation, 279

Parthenogenesis, variation in in-
sects produced by, 58

Pearson, K., discussion of varia-
tion according to the law of
chance, 61 ; theory of repro-
ductive selection, 249

Pedagogy, relation of, to theory
of descent, 21

Pfeffer, G., objection to selec-
tion, based on the smallness of
species-change, 75 ; statement
of the fundamental difference
between natural and artificial
selection, 88; theory of ortho-
genesis, 320

Philosophy, relation to biology,
references for, 24; relation to
theory of descent, 20
Phryganidia calif arnica, lack of
adaptation in egg-laying habit,
68

Piepers, M. C., antagonism to
selection explanations of
colour and pattern in insects,
69



INDEX.



401



Plant-breeding, references for,
105

Plants, amelioration of, refer-
ences for, 105

Plate, L., admission of the need
of acquired characters to aid
selection, 170, 178; answer to
the claimed improbability of
timely appearance of varia-
tions needed in co-adaptive
structures, 176; answer to the
objection concerning the de-
pendence of selection on
chance, 170; answer to the ob-
jection to selection based on the
slightness of Darwinian varia-
tions, 165 ; claim that correla-
tion may aid slight variation,
167; claim that same selective
value may be obtained in dif-
ferent ways, 172; claim that
selection works with plural
variation, 172; classification of
secondary sexual characters
by, 107 ; conciliatory defence
of Darwinism, 164; criticism
of mutations theory, 368;
criticism of organic selection,
210; criticism of Roux's
theory of intra-selection, 203 ;
discussion of Lamarckism,
273 ; disbelief in Weismann's
principle of germinal selection,
180 ; explanation of character
fixity in domestic animals, 163 ;
explanation of the case of
Kallima, 175 ; Lamarckian ex-
planation of degeneration,
147 ; recognition of the weight
of certain objections to Dar-
winism, 181 ; resume of facts
tending to prove orthogene-
sis, 279; reviewer of criticisms
of Darwinism, 30

Podocoryne and hermit crab,
symbiosis of, 23

Polyp and hermit crab, symbiosis
of 23

Promctlica, Mayer's experiments
on, 121

Protoplasm, micromeric theo-
ries of structure of, 215;
physical and chemical struct-
ure of, 194; theories of ulti-
mate structure of, 214; Weis-



mann's theory of the ultimate
structure of, 195

Quetelet, discoverer of variation
according to the law of chance,
61

Redfield, C., favouring Lamarck-
ism, 305

Regression, Galton's law of, 71 ;
statement of Galton's law of,
07

Romanes, G. J., discussion of
Gulick's work and conclusions,
250 ; on physiological selection,
245

Rosa, D., theory of progressive
reduction of variability, 322

Roux, W., theory of intra-
selection or battle of the parts,
201

Secondary sexual characters,
Cunningham's explanation of,
354 ; Emery's theory of the
origin of, 353; references to
exposition of theories, 373 ;
Wallace's suggested explana-
tion of, 354

Seebohm's criticism of physio-
logic selection, 247

Selection, artificial, defined, 15 ;
artificial, natural selection
resting too largely on an anal-
ogy with, 86 ; based on varia-
tion, 30; cannot explain com-
plete degeneration, 77 ; co-
efficient, Wolff's discussion of,
101 ; Darwin's theory of sex-
ual, in; Delage's estimate of,
390; de Vries's discussion of
species-forming by, 389; de
Vries's estimate of, 93 ; diffi-
culty of explaining complex
relations among body-parts by,
51 ; difficulty of explaining
inter-species sterility by, 76;
difficulty of explaining repeated
identical structures by, 47; ex-
ample of persistence of trivial
differences in face of, 103;
example of progressive degen-
eration, not explicable by, 100;
final arbiter in descent, 374 ;
geologic time too short to



402



INDEX.



give it opportunity to do its
work, 54 ; hindering rather
than promoting species change,
56 ; Korschinsky's radical posi-
tion against, 91 ; may produce
continuous change, but not dis-
continuous series of species,
73; Morgan's antagonism of
species-forming by, 93; natu-
ral, defined, 13; natural, needs
sexual selection theory for
support, 125; natural, rests top
largely on analogy with arti-
ficial selection, 150; needs the
support of the sexual selection
theory, 85 ; not able to explain
complex adaptation, 144; not
able to explain degeneration,
146; not able to explain over-
specialisation, 146; not able
to produce many-branched de-
scent and discontinuity in
series, 142; objection to, based
on the linear and quantitative
character of fluctuating varia-
tions, 70; objections to based
on over-specialisation, 53 ; per-
sonal, how real, 82; Pfeffer's
objection, based on the small-
ness of species change, 75 ;
rests too largely on an analogy
with artificial selection, 86;
rigour of. questioned, 148;
theories, Wigand's criticism
of, 387; theory of, dis-
tinguished from theory of de-
scent, 17

Selection, germinal, objection to
theory of, 200 ; germinal, Weis-
mann's theory of, 188, 193;
germinal, resulting in deter-
minate variation, 198
Selection, mechanical, 246
Selection, ontogenetic, 208
Selection, organic, 208; organic,
Delage and Plate's criticisms

of, 2IO

Selection, physiological, criti-
cisms of, 247

Selection, reproductive, Pear-
son's theory of, 249

Selection, sexual, 106, 120; al-
ternative explanations of, 124;
answers to objections to, 148;
criticism of, by Wolff, G., 126;



criticism of theory of, 113;
Darwin's basis of theory, 112;
defined, 16; Morgan's objec-
tions to, 118; other theories to
replace theory of, 123; refer-
ences to discussions of, 125

Selectionists, concessions of, 90

Sexual differences, classification
of secondary, 107; secondary,
106; significance of, no

Snodgrass, R. E., studies on bills
of Galapagos birds, 323 ;
studies on biologic selection,
245

Sociology, relations to biology,
references for, 24; relation to
theory of descent, 21

Species-forming, causes and
means of segregation the chief
factors in, 377; determinate
variation as a factor, 33 ; de
Vries's discussion of, by selec-
tion, 389; Loeb's attitude to-
ward the problem of, 393 ; on
a basis of fluctuating varia-
tion, 35; theories of, 187;
Tower's experiments and con-
clusions, 309, 394

Spencer, H., example of the
femur of the whale, 38; pic-
ture of the inutility of ad-
vantage in a single direction,
48; theory of ultimate struct-
ure of protoplasm, 216

Sport in cattle, recent example
of, 358

Sterility, inter-species, difficulty
of explaining by selection, 76

Struggle for existence, actual
rigour of, 79; defined, 13

Symbiosis of hermit crab and
polyp, 23



Tayler, J. L., answer to objec-
tion to selection " based on
linear variation, 141 ; Darwin-
ian explanation of degenera-
tion, 147 ; explanation of de-
generation by natural selec-
tion, 162; general defence of
natural selection, 153

Theology, relation of, to theory
of descent, 20

Tower, W. L., experiments and



INDEX.



403



conclusions on species-form-
ing, 309, 394

Ultra-Darwinism, reaction

against, 130
Utility, many species characters

of no, 38

Variation according to the law
of chance, 32, 59; causes of, and
means of segregation the chief
factors in species-forming,
377 ; determinate, apparent
cases of, 319; determinate, as
a species-forming factor, 33;
determinate, produced by
germinal selection, 198 ; de-
terminate, Whitman's belief
in, 325; discontinuous, 33,
328 ; favourable, swamped by
inter-breeding, 44; fluctuating,
as a basis for species-forming,
35 ; fluctuating, insignificance
of, 36; fluctuating, of linear
and quantitative value only,
139; fluctuating, too slight to
be of selective value, 138; gen-
eral, Delage's theory of, 289;
how cumulated, 379 ; in in-
sects, 62 ; in parthenogenetic
insects, 58; natural selection
based on, 30; necessity for co-
incident appearance of other,
to make a certain one effect-
ive, 46; non-correlated in bi-
laterally repeated organs, 65 ;
occurrence of needed coin-
cident, 45 ; orthogenetic, in
palaeontology, 319; parallelism
in, 279; references for, 57;
suggestion concerning the
cause of, 384

Vejodoysky, example of pro-
gressive degeneration not ex-
plicable by natural selection,
100

Vernon, H. M., theory of repro-
ductive divergence, 248; theory
of the ultimate structure of
protoplasm, 225

Vestigial structures, explanation



of, by panmixia, 190; La-
marckian explanation of, 192
Von Kolliker, R., proposal of a
theory of heterogenesis, 330

Waagen, use of term mutation,
324

Wagner, M., formulation of
Separations -theorie, 236 ;
founder of theory of species-
forming by geographic isola-
tion, 234

Wallace, A. R., criticism of Ro-
manes's theory, 247 ; suggested
explanation of secondary
sexual characters, 354

Weismann, A., admission of ob-
jections to selection, 45; at-
tack on Lamarckism, 266; dis-
cussion of degeneration, 77;
principle of amphimixis, 180 ;
references to evolution writ-
ings of, 212; theory of germi-
nal selection, 188, 193 ; theories
of neo-Darwinism and neq-
Lamarckism, 133 ; theory of
panmixia, 188

Weldon, selection experiments
on Carcinus, 158

Whitman, C. O., belief in deter-
minate variation, 325; favour-
ing orthogenesis, 288

Wolff, G., attack on the assump-
tion by selectionists of the ap-
pearance at the right time of
the needed variation, 64;
criticism of panmixia by, 98;
criticism of sexual selection,
126; discussion of selection, co-
efficient, 101 ; objections to ex-
planation by selection of com-
plex related body-parts, 51 ;
objection to natural selection,
based upon its dependence on
sexual selection theory, 125 ;
objections to sexual selection
theory, 126; objection that
selection can concern only
quantitative changes, 70; ob-
jection to the assumption by
selectionists of identical and
coincident variation, 67



11 4 14



AMERICAN INSECTS

BY VERNON L. KELLOGG

PROFESSOR IN LELAND STANFORD, JR., UNIVERSITY

WITH 812 figures and n colored plates; 647 pp.
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Online LibraryVernon L. (Vernon Lyman) KelloggDarwinism to-day; a discussion of present-day scientific criticism of the Darwinian selection theories, together with a brief account of the principal other proposed auxilary and alternative theories of species-forming → online text (page 38 of 38)