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The encyclopaedia of the kennel : a complete manual of the dog, its varieties, physiology, breeding, training, exhibition and management, with articles on the designing of kennels online

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when grooming long-coated dogs. It is oval in form, with
a handle like an ordinary hairbrush ; its peculiarity being
that the bristles in the centre are the longest, the outer
ones gradually becoming decreased in length as they
approach the edges. (See Brushes ^ Groomijtg.)

Bandaging. — In applying bandages to a fracture or
wound it is in most cases best to use a strip of rolled linen,
such as may be obtained of any chemist. The way to
apply a bandage is io roll it up and then to wind it tightly
round the part, fixing it either by means of a safety-pin or
by splitting it down the last few inches and tying the
divided ends securely. In cases of fracture the bandage
may be soaked in starch before being applied.

Bandogge. — An ancestor of the bulldog and mastiff,
now extinct. (See Bulldog, Mastiff.)

Basset Hound. — This is a most valuable breed of
French sporting hound which has attained great popu-
larity in this country since its introduction towards the
end of the 'seventies. The chief peculiarity of the breed
is its short legs, which are in the case of most basset
hounds more or less crooked in front, though there
are some perfectly straight-legged specimens of the breed,
but these are not appreciated. The short, contorted legs,
moreover, possess their advantages, as they prevent their
possessors from travelling over the ground too fast when
tracking a wounded animal, and consequently the hunters
are better able to keep up with them. In this country
there are people who are apt to associate the basset
hound with the German Dachshund, probably because
the forelegs of each variety are short and bent. The
French variety, however, is totally distinct from the
German one, being unquestionably a hound, whereas the
latter is more closely allied to the terrier family, as



will be seen by referring to the description of the breed
upon another page. The scenting powers of the basset
hound are extremely high, and his admirers in this
country have succeeded in deriving some very good sport
from the fact, as the pack of drag-hounds which was
established some years ago fulfilled all expectations.

The head of the basset hound resembles that of the
English foxhound in many points, being long and narrow,
with a somewhat lengthy and powerful muzzle, and well-
developed flews. The occipital protuberance is strongly
developed ; there is some wrinkling of the skin of the
skull on the forehead, the eyes being of fair size, and
the red inner lining or haw being displayed in the smooth-
coated variety. The ears are very long and velvety in
texture, the tips curling inwards a little ; the neck rather
short, very powerful, and carrying a heavy dewlap ;
the shoulders not very long, but sloping ; the chest
exceptionally deep, with the chest-bone prominent in front ;
the front legs extremely short, very muscular, not out
at the elbows, but turning inwards at the pasterns ; the
feet being large, splayed, and turned outwards, so as to
give the desired crook of the limb. The body is of extreme
length, but powerful and well ribbed up at the loin ; the
tail or stern being of fair length and carried upwards, like
that of a foxhound ; the hind legs short and bent at the
stifles and hocks. The skin all over is inclined to be
loose, the coat being short, fine, and glossy in the
smooth-coated variety, and thick and harsh in the rough-
coated breed, the forelegs of the latter being less crooked
than those of the former. The average height is about
12 inches, and the weight about 50 lbs. In colour the
black white and tans are mostly favoured, but red and
white is often seen, and any hound colour is allowable.

Beagle. — This engaging little hound has attained a
high popularity of late years, the result being that there
are many more packs in existence than was formerly the



case. It is indeed somewhat surprising that there are not
even more of these now that the merits of the delightful
little beagle have become better known, as the members
of the hunt could easily divide the hounds between them
and thereby save expense, whilst the enjoyment of the
periodical runs and the value of the exercise derived from
following a foot pack cannot be overestimated.

The skull of a beagle is slightly domed, rather wide,
the occipital protuberance, or peak, and the stop between
the eyes being well defined. The muzzle should be of
a good length, showing plenty of substance, and the flews
must be deep, the eyes being dark in colour, rather large,
but not obtruding, and intelligent in their expression ;
the ears, which are set on low, being thin, long, and carried
close to the sides of the head. The neck, which carries a
slight dewlap, is fairly long and arched, the shoulders laid
back, the chest being of moderate width and very deep,
the body short, with nicely rounded ribs and strong loins ;
whilst the forelegs are dead straight, heavy in bone, and
set on well under the body, with round, compact feet, the
knuckles being considerably arched. The hind legs are
bent at the stifles and hocks, whilst the tail or stern is
rather long and coarse, and should be carried upwards,
though free from any tendency to curl. Both smooth and
rough coats are to be found amongst beagles, but the
former predominate. In either case they should be dense,
close, and harsh, whilst any recognised hound colour is
allowable. Average height about 15 inches ; average
weight, 26 lbs. ; but " pocket beagles " should not exceed
10 inches in height.

Bedding. — Opinions differ a good deal on the subject
of bedding, some people contending that, excepting during
very cold weather, the larger varieties are better if they
rest on bare boards, whilst others favour all sorts of
material. Taken all round, however, there is nothing to
be found that is better than clean straw spread upon a



wooden bench. Hay is not good, as it is easily beaten
down flat by the dogs lying on it, and the same observation
applies to shavings. The latter, however, forma very good
summer bedding, especially as the odour of pine, which
is associated with those most usually available, discourages
insects. Sawdust and peat-moss are not to be recom-
mended, as they work their way into the coats, and often
into the eyes, noses, and water-troughs as well ; but dried
bracken is not at all a bad bed for the large breeds if it
is spread thickly on the bench. (See Kenne/s.)

Bedlin^on Terrier. — This is a most popular breed in
Northumberland and other parts of the north, but it is
not held in very high favour amongst exhibitors, owing
to the majority of those who show Bedlingtons indulging
freely in the objectionable practice of plucking the
coats of their dogs and other forms of trimming. Hence
classes provided for the breed at shows are rarely well
filled, and are often omitted from the schedules of im-
portant fixtures altogether. Consequently, the popularity
enjoyed by the Bedlington terrier may be regarded as
due to his courage, which is very great, and his ability
for hunting vermin, especially in w^ater. He possesses,
moreover, a strong individuality of his own, and even if
his temper is at times uncertain, his merits so far out-
number his tailings that he deserves mere support than
he receives.

In general appearance the Bedlington terrier is rather
a leggy, lathy-built dog, a peculiarity about him which
strikes the observer at once being his flat sides, as the ribs
are not at all rounded. The head is domed at the top
and narrow ; the muzzle is long and tapering, but well
filled up under the eyes, and powerful ; the eyes are
small, sunken, and set obliquely ; whilst the nose is large,
its colour in the case of blues being black, and in the
livers flesh-coloured. The ears are long and lie flat to
the cheeks, the neck long and graceful, the shoulders



laid well back, the chest narrow and deep, whilst the loins
are powerful, and the back rather arched. The forelegs
are rather long and quite straight, and the hind ones
slightly bent at the stifles, the tail being about ten inches
long and scimitar-shaped. The coat is a mixture of soft
and hard hair, crisp to the touch and rough, whilst the
best colours are blue and liver, or these mixed with tan.
Average weight about 23 lbs. ; height, 16 inches. (See

Beetroot is a very useful addition to a dog's food if
well boiled, and forms an acceptable change, as it assists
in keeping the bowels open and in adding flesh when an
animal has lost condition. (See Feedifig.)

Benches. — It is always a bad thing for dogs to have
to lie on the floor of their kennels, and therefore, excepting
in the case of young puppies and pregnant bitches, a
raised wooden bench should always be provided for them
to sleep upon. These should be about eighteen or twenty
inches above the floor, but
the height and width of
the bench must of course
depend upon the breed
kept. It is desirable, how-
ever, to have them high
enough to prevent the
dogs from wetting the bed-
ding if they lift their legs
against the front of the

benches. The fronts of the latter should be boarded down
to the ground, so that the animals cannot creep under
them in order to conceal bones ; and there should be a
strip of wood about four inches wide along the edge to keep
the bedding from falling out. The benches should also be
portable, so that they can be moved for cleansing purposes.

The accompanying illustration shows a very well-


Portable Bench.


designed bench, with a hinged back to let down, if neces-
sary, during the day. It is admirably adapted for puppies
after weaning, but for adult dogs might be a little higher
from the ground. (See Kennels.)

Biscuits form an ideal food for dogs, but every care
should be taken by owners to ensure their getting full
value for their money. A badly baked biscuit, and still
more so one that is composed of inferior materials, such
as low-class meat and the sweepings out of granaries
which have been ground up into meal, is not a proper
food for any dog, and its use in a kennel is unprofitable
in every way. On the other hand, a high-class biscuit
made of the best materials, and containing a guaranteed
percentage of sound flesh, is a most useful food, as it
can be given both dry and soaked, and possesses the great
advantage of being easily carried in an owner's pocket,
so that dogs can be fed on journeys or when working
away from home. It may be pointed out, too, that dry
biscuits to a very great extent supply the place of bones,
as if given in this form they require a good deal of gnaw-
ing, and thereby not merely keep the dogs occupied, but
promote the secretion of saliva, and thus assist digestion.
Reports are occasionally heard that some dogs do not Hke
biscuits and cannot be made to eat them, but such state-
ments are nothing more nor less than reflections upon
the strength of will of those who make them. A dog
can be made to eat anything by the exercise of a certain
amount of firmness, but he naturally will endeavour to
hold out for delicacies if he thinks that his owner is weak
enough to give him what he likes and not what is good
for him. (See Feeding.)

Bites. — As everybody must be aware, bites are a very
common source of trouble to the owners of dogs, and the
successful treatment of such injuries often causes a great
deal of anxiety. Of course a great deal must depend upon



the nature and seat of the wound; but, speaking generally,
the first thing to do is to cleanse it thoroughly, and to
stop the bleeding. When this has been accomplished the
extent of the injury can be ascertained, and then the proper
course of treatment can be decided upon. (See Bandaging,

Black-and-Tan Terrier. — This very beautiful variety
has unfortunately become almost extinct, owing to the
lack of support it has received from dog-breeders, but
happily a few enthusiastic admirers are attempting its
resuscitation, and it is to be hoped that their efforts will
be crowned with success. Lancashire was at one time
a great stronghold of the breed, and hence some people
are in the habit of referring to this dog as the Manchester
terrier ; but this is an absurd misnomer, as the black-and-
tan terrier is a national and not by any means a local
variety, and is never referred to in Manchester as the
Manchester terrier. There is very little doubt that sup-
porters of this dog fell away when the practice of cropping
the ears was pronounced illegal ; and it must be admitted
also that the black-and-tan is not so thoroughly game as
are some other members of the terrier family, which fact
may have had something to do with his loss of popularity.
On the other hand, he is a most beautiful and engaging
dog, a first-rate companion, and an excellent indoor guard
for a house, as he is alert, and disinclined as a rule to
make friends with strangers.

The head of the black-and-tan terrier is long, lean,
flat, and narrow, the muzzle being also long and nicely
filled in under the eyes, a snipey face being a nasty fault.
The teeth must be white and regular, an undershot jaw
being a disqualification ; the eyes small, almond-shaped,
rather deeply and obliquely set, and very dark in colour ;
the ears, which used formerly to be cropped, being small,
and carried close to the sides of the head, with the tips
slightly forward. The neck is rather long, and free from

17 B


all loose skin ; the shoulders sloping ; the chest rather
narrow ; the ribs nicely rounded ; the back short, and
the loins not too much tucked up. The forelegs, which
are an important point, must not be out at the elbows,
they should be dead straight and heavy in bone, the feet
being long. The tail must be fine, rather short, and
carried straight out, and the thighs should show plenty
of muscle ; whilst the coat is short and close, and not too
fine. Colour, however, is the most important point in
connection with this breed, and should consist of a rich
raven black relieved by rich, warm tan distributed as
follows — under the lower jaw, along the throat, over each
eye and upon each cheek, in the form of spots, with larger
ones on the front of the breast. The legs are tanned up
to just above the pasterns, but there are black lines,
termed pencillings, running up the top of each toe, and
a black spot called the thumb-mark on the forelegs above
the pasterns. The insides of the thighs are also tanned,
and so should be the hair at the vent, but the latter must
not be profuse, as the tan should be hidden entirely if the
tail is pressed down. Very frequently tan hairs appear
behind the ears, or on the outside of the thighs — the dog
is said to be breeched in the latter case — but if so, it is
regarded as a serious fault, as the black hairs should be
quite free of any tan at all.

Black Field Spaniel. — The popularity of the black
field spaniel has increased very much of late years, and
certainly the breed is entitled to all the praises bestowed
upon it by its admirers, as in addition to its being a very
beautiful, it is a most valuable field dog. There can be
no doubt that this variety of spaniel, which is compara-
tively speaking a modern production, has been crossed
with the Sussex by some breeders to the detriment of
the latter's purity ; nor is there any difference as regards
its shape and make from other varieties of field spaniels,
from which it is divided only by colour.



The head is long, rather narrow, with the occipital
protuberance well developed and slightly rising at the
eyebrows. The muzzle is also narrow, of good length,
and square ; the nose large and black ; the eyes dark
brown in colour, rather large, and neither too prominent
or too deeply sunken ; whilst the ears, w^hich are set on
low, are of fair length, nicely fringed with feather, and
hang flat against the sides of the head. The neck is
powerful and long ; the shoulders long and sloping ; the
body long, well let down at the chest, and very powerful
about the loins, the chest being wide and the forelegs
short, which makes the body appear even longer than it
really is, and extremely heavy in bone, wdth large round
feet. The hind-quarters should be powerful, the stifles
being well bent, and the hocks let down ; whilst the tail,
w^hich is always docked, is set on low and carried straight.
The coat, which must be absolutely free from curl, though
a slight waviness is allowed, is of fair length, dense and
soft, the backs of the legs and tail carrying a good amount
of feather. The average weight is about 35 lbs., and height
about 15 inches. (See Field Spaniel,)

Blaze. — The term applied to the white streak, more or
less wide, which runs up the faces of some dogs.

Bleeding. — Dogs are liable to many accidents which
cause hemorrhage, and in some cases, unless the injuries
receive immediate attention, a valuable animal may bleed
to death. In cases in which arteries are severed — these
can be detected by the blood spurting and not trickling
from the wound — professional advice should be secured
at once, as it is usually beyond the power of the ordinary
amateur in surgery to attend to such cases. The best way
to check bleeding in the case of a simple wound is to
apply either very hot or very cold water to it, remem-
bering that lukewarm water is likely to increase the flow
of blood. If this course does not succeed, and the neces-



sary appliances are not at hand, an impromptu tourniquet
may be fastened above and below the seat of injury, and
this can be done by fastening bandages round the parts
an inch or so from the wound, and twisting them tight
with a piece of stick, which can be kept in its place by
another bandage or piece of cord. Should the wound be
situated in such a position that a tourniquet cannot be
applied, or if it is not considered desirable to adopt the
latter arrangement, the bleeding may be stopped by placing
a flat piece of wood, cork, or even stone wrapped up in
part of a handkerchief, which has been saturated in water,
over the cut, and wrapping a bandage tightly round it to
close the wound. Temporary bandages can be made by
cutting a stocking (a cotton one preferably, as it does not
stretch) lengthways into two strips, and if one is not long
enough a second can be attached to its end by safety or
other pins. This, of course, can only be regarded as
emergency treatment ; but as it usually happens that
serious cases occur when no proper appliances are avail-
able, it is best to know how to act with promptitude.
The bleeding, unless the injury is a severe one, in which
case professional assistance had better be secured, will
usually be stopped by such means as those suggested,
but the bandages should not be removed for six hours,
when the injury can be properly attended to. (See
Bandaging, Stitching Wounds,)

Blenheim Spaniel. — This is one of the most beautiful
and engaging of all the toy varieties, and has been a
favourite amongst the dog-owners of England for many
years. In general shape it very closely resembles the
King Charles, but it is of rather a more fragile and lathy
build, and somewhat flatter ribbed. The main point of
distinction between the two breeds lies, however, in their
colours — that of the Blenheim being white, with markings
of a lovely golden-lemon hue, neither too pale nor yet too
dark in shade, and fairly distributed over the body, though



'§?'* - ;^'~'*>'«»~'^-^"~~ s - '




Photo by Topical]


[Face p. 20


the white should preponderate. The ears should be of the
golden-lemon colour, and there should be a spot of it on the
centre of the forehead. This used to be regarded as a great
point for breeders to secure, but it is difficult to produce,
and hence modern admirers of the Blenheim Spaniel, who
object to difficulties, profess to attach less importance to
this spot than their predecessors did. As in the case of
the King Charles, the Blenheim was not at one time so
short in the face as he is now, and it may be added that
specimens of the longer or so-called pleasant-faced family-
are still to be found in the neighbourhood of the Duke of
Marlborough's seat at Blenheim, from which the variety
derives its name. (See King Charles Spaniel.)

Blistering. — It is not often necessary to bHster a dog,
and when it is, the operation is not by any means a simple
one to perform — nor is it easy to find something that will
act as desired. Mr. A. ]. Sewell, however, in his admirable
work, ^^ The Dog's Medical Dictionary," published by
Messrs. George Routledge & Sons, advocates the use of
a liquid known as liquor epipasticus, which may be recom-
mended with confidence when suggested by so eminent an
authority as he. It may be mentioned, however, that this
liquid is poisonous, and it must consequently be used with
the greatest possible care.

The way to blister a dog, be the selected agent what it
may, is to clip the hair closely from the part, which should
then be thoroughly washed with warm water and soap,
and dried ; then the blistering liquid or ointment may be
rubbed on with a brush or piece of stick, and afterwards
a piece of grease-proof paper may be put over it, and the
whole carefully bandaged, else the patient will get it off,
and have his mouth blistered, or possibly poison himself.
To prevent the latter danger, it is wise to keep a bucket-
muzzle on the dog during the period (about two days)
the blister is on him — excepting, of course, when he is
being fed. When the blister is taken off, the place should



be carefully washed and dried, after which it may be
dressed with boracic ointment. (See Bandaging^ Bucket-
muzzle, Muzzles^

Bloodhound. — It is greatly to be regretted that this
picturesque variety of hound should be in so few hands,
as were he to be better understood, his merits would be
appreciated as they deserve, and absurdly exaggerated
stories of his ferocity would not be circulated as they
often are. No doubt the bloodhound is not exactly a
dog for a child to play with in all instances, but his
name is derived from his remarkable powers as a tracker,
and not because of the savageness of his disposition. The
bloodhound is practically identical with the St. Hubert
hound of France, a breed which for centuries has been
valued by the huntsmen of that country ; but English
bloodhound owners do not use their hounds as the con-
tinental sportsmen do, probably because the opportunities
are not forthcoming. At the same time, it may be ob-
served that there have been such things as bloodhound
packs used in this country for hunting purposes within,
comparatively speaking, recent years, and of these that
hunted by the late Lord Wolverton was by far the most

The head of the bloodhound is long and very narrow,
heavily wrinkled, and tapering slightly from the strongly
pronounced occipital protuberance, or peak, towards the
muzzle, which is of considerable depth. The eyes are very
deeply sunk and small ; they also show the red haw or
inner membrane at the corners, and appear diamond-
shaped — this in a great measure being due to the weight of
the flews or skin of the lips, and they should be of a hazel
colour, a yellow eye, though often seen, being objection-
able. The ears, which are fine in texture, should be set on
low. They are very long, so long indeed that the ends lap
over if brought together in front of the animal's nose, and
they should lie close to the sides of the head, with the



ends turning slightly inwards. The neck is long and carries
a heavy dewlap ; the shoulders are sloping and of a good
length ; the chest fairly wide and very deep, with well-
rounded ribs. The fore-legs are set on well under the
body, and are straight and extremely heavy in bone ; the
feet being large and round with thick soles, and the back
short ; the loins being both deep and powerful. The stern,
or tail, is long, not too fine, set on high and carried upwards,
but not over the back ; the thighs being muscular, and the
stifles well bent. The coat is short and hard, excepting on
the head and ears, and there is a great deal of loose skin on
all parts of the body. In colour the bloodhound is usually
a rich, warm tan, with a black saddle on the back, and
black sides and neck, there also being black on the top of
the head. Occasionally the black markings are flecked with

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Online LibraryVero Kemball ShawThe encyclopaedia of the kennel : a complete manual of the dog, its varieties, physiology, breeding, training, exhibition and management, with articles on the designing of kennels → online text (page 2 of 17)