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white, and white is also to be seen on the chest, the tip of
the tail and toes, but though tolerated in these parts, it is
not liked. Average height about 27 inches, and weight
from 80 lbs. to no lbs.

Blood Poisoning may result from various causes, such
as a wound or bite, a dead puppy remaining in the womb
of a brood bitch, or diseased kidneys — in fact, the sources
from which it springs are so many that dog-owners may
with justice be suspicious of its existence in cases where the
preliminary symptoms of a dog's illness are not clearly
defined. Symptoms. — Bad breath, frequent shivers, with a
high temperature, accompanied by vomiting and occasion-
ally by extreme thirst. This is not a form of canine ill that
the average amateur is competent to deal with success-
fully, and therefore professional advice should at once be
obtained, but should the patient appear weak, restoratives
in the form of spirits — brandy preferably — may be ad-
ministered at frequent intervals.

Blotch. — The term applied to a form of eczema, which
causes nasty sores to break out on various parts of the dog.



Treatment, a mild course of cooling medicine and the
application of Spratt's eczema lotion, which usually proves
efficacious in the most obstinate cases.

Blue Eye. — When old age creeps over dogs their eyes
frequently become obscured by a bluish film. For this
there is no cure, but in the case of young animals the evil
may arise from causes which are amenable to medical
treatment if attended to at once.

Blue Paul. — An old breed of blue-coloured dog of the
bull-mastiff type which has become practically extinct.
The last stronghold of the variety was the south-west of
Scotland, the Blue Pauls being cultivated by the patrons
of dog-fighting in that part of the world for gladiatorial

Bob-tailed Sheep-dog, or old English sheep-dog, has
of late established itself as a popular breed amongst those
who take an interest in the exhibition of dogs. The actual
origin of the variety is lost in obscurity, but there can be
no denying the fact that the hardiness and intelligence of
the dog, combined as they are with a perfect genius for
herding sheep and cattle, have for many years rendered
him a favourite amongst drovers in every part of the

In addition to the claims upon the regard of the com-
munity above referred to, the bob-tailed sheep-dog cannot
fail to attract friends by the picturesqueness of his appear-
ance, as he possesses attractions which are peculiarly his
own. His head is large and rather square, arched over the
eyes and profusely covered with hair, which in case of
show specimens somewhat obscures his vision. The jaws
are of fair length and very powerful, thus conveying the
massive appearance to the head which is so much desired,
and the nose is large and teeth very powerful. The eyes
are usually dark hazel in colour, excepting in the case of



the blue-coloured dogs, when one or both of them are
usually ''china" or "wall" — i.e. blue in shade. The ears
are small ; the neck fairly long, but very powerful ; the
shoulders sloping and the body rather short, but very
compact, and higher at the loins than at the shoulders,
thus producing the roach or wheel-back formation, as in
the greyhound and bulldog. The fore-legs are straight,
big, and muscular ; the feet rather small, round, and com-
pact ; and the coat profuse, hard, and rather shaggy, but
quite free from curl, the underjacket being very dense and
sealskin-like. All old English sheep-dogs are not born
tailless, but the majority are, and those which are not
usually have their caudal appendages removed in early
puppyhood. The usual colours are blue, grey, and grizzled,
either self-colour or mixed with white, the average weight
being about 60 lbs., and height 22 to 24 inches.

Bone. — Most dog-breeders seek for a liberal amount of
bone in the fore-legs of their dogs, as a heavy-boned animal
is naturally stronger in his limbs, and more calculated to
get through hard work than one whose fore-legs are slender
and weak. Hence the necessity for providing puppies with
such food and exercise as will assist in the development of
bone. (See Feedingy Rearing Puppies.^

Bones. — All dogs derive both pleasure and benefit from
being given bones to gnaw ; but it should be a care of their
owners to see that all the bones are of such a size and
description as not to be injurious to them. Small, hard
bones, such as those of poultry, game, or rabbits, are
particularly dangerous, as if pieces with sharp edges are
swallowed they are apt to cause internal injuries. On the
other hand, large bones with not too much meat on them
will amuse a dog for hours, and are useful in the way of
promoting the secretion of saHva, and thereby assisting
digestion. If more than one dog is in the kennel there is
always a prospect over a fight when bones are served out,



and therefore all the debris should be collected and taken
away after a sufficient time has been allowed the dogs to
enjoy them. It should be remembered, too, that dogs
often hide a bone under the straw on their bench, and will
fight for its possession if one of their companions go near
it. (See Feeding.)

Borzoi, or Russian wolf-hound, as he is also called, is
beyond a doubt one of the most beautiful of all breeds,
and certainly no variety of the canine race possesses
more illustrious patrons, as he is a favourite of Queen
Alexandra, of the imperial house of Russia, and of leading
members of the aristocracy of both countries. In general
appearance the borzoi somewhat resembles an elegantly
built, silken-coated, light-coloured deerhound, but he is
of an altogether more fragile formation, and his skull is
much narrower than that of the Scottish hound. Though
not by any means a brainy dog, the borzoi possesses plenty
of courage, and has quite sense enough to perform all the
work that is required of him. His duty is to follow
wounded wolves as they break covert, and to hold them
at bay until the hunters arrive upon the scene and
administer the coup de grace.

The head of the borzoi is long, narrow, and refined
looking, flat on the top, the muzzle being long and tapering,
which gives the dog the appearance of being Roman-nosed
when he is regarded in profile. The eyes are dark, set
rather close together, and possess an attractive languishing
look, the ears being carried with the tips backwards, so as
to show the inteiior. The neck is long and graceful; the
shoulders laid well back ; the chest being narrow but excep-
tionally deep ; and the back muscular, of considerable
length, arched at the loins, which are powerful, though
slender. The fore-legs are long and straight, but not very
heavy in bone when the size of the dog is considered, the
feet being long, the hind-legs being nicely bent at the
hocks, but not so much so at the stifles as in the case of



the Greyhound. The tail is long, well feathered, and
carried rather low ; whilst the coat is long and rather wavy
on the chest and body, with a kind of frill on the neck, but
the head is smooth. The usual colour is white with fawn
markings, the average height being about 28 inches and
weight 90 lbs.

Boston Terrier. — This is entirely an American breed,
its origin no doubt being a cross of the terrier upon the
bulldog. It may therefore be accepted as being practically
a bull terrier of the old style, and in many respects similar
to the bull and terrier which is to be still met with in some
parts of the midland counties, and which is simply a thick-
headed bull terrier. The Boston terrier is a most fashion-
able and deservedly popular breed in America, but it is not
commonly met with in this country ; its importation being
doubtless restricted by the rigour with which the Quaran-
tine Act is enforced. The colour most preferred is brindle
with white markings, and the weight varying from 15 lbs.
to 30 lbs., but 22 lbs. is about the average.

Brace is the term used to denote two dogs of any
variety, excepting hounds, which are referred to as

Breaking". — Dog-breaking is an art which is not as
much practised as it might be so far as non-sporting
dogs are concerned, as the natural intelligence of the
canine race renders it a comparatively easy matter to
educate most varieties more highly than is usually the
case. Of course some breeds are more easily broken
than others, and individual animals differ widely in their
possession of a capacity for imbibing instruction, but as
general rule most dogs are capable of being taught to
carry out their master's will.

As a matter of course, the various varieties of field-dogs
are those which mostly come under the control of the



breaker, and it naturally follows that their education is con-
ducted on more advanced principles than that of animals
which are only taught to retrieve or to behave themselves
in an obedient manner in the streets. At the same time, the
preliminary principles are similar in all cases when a dog
is being brought under proper control, the first step to be
taken being to teach the puppy to come to heel when
ordered to, and not to run riot. In order to accomplish
this the best course to take is to take a long thin line of
about ten or a dozen yards in length and to fasten one
end in a running noose round the pupil's neck, the other
end being secured to the owner's wrist, with the slack
coiled up loosely and carried in his hand. Then if the
dog bolts and pays no attention to the command to return,
he is pulled up sharply when he gets to the end of the
line, and the running noose tightening round his neck
adds to the discomfort of the position, with the result that
after a few lessons most dogs abandon the practice of
bolting. The check line should not be stouter than is
necessary, and its thickness must depend upon the size
and strength of the dog ; but it may be pointed out that
the thinner it is the more effectively the slip-knot w^ill run,
and hence the severer the lesson it teaches.

Thrashing a dog which possesses a disposition to bolt
is a form of correction which is calculated to defeat its
object, as the animal is likely to become afraid of his
owner and to associate him with punishment ; whereas
in the case of the check line being used, he will connect
the discomfort he experiences with the offence of dis-
obedience, and be rather inclined to regard his owner,
who loosens the cord round his throat, in the light of a
friend in need.

When the pupil has been brought completely under
control, and yet on friendly terms with his breaker, it will
be time to instruct him in the art of finding birds. This,
however, is best left to a professional breaker, as few
amateurs are capable of the task.



Breeching. — The term applied to the tan -coloured
hairs which sometimes appear on the thighs of a black-
and-tan terrier, and constitute a serious fault. (See Black-
and-Tan Terrier.)

Breeds. — It is unnecessary to give a detailed list of
the various varieties of dogs here, as all of the important
breeds are dealt with under their respective headings. It
may be mentioned, however, that the canine race is
divided for the purposes of classification into two cate-
gories — the sporting and the non-sporting ; and speaking
generally, there is not much objection to be taken to the
arrangement, although in some instances the classification
might be amended with advantage.

Breeding. — Most dog-lovers at one time or another
develop into breeders, as the temptation to raise a few
puppies is too great for them to resist. It may be there-
fore suggested, if it is possible so to arrange matters, that
the spring is the best time of the year for the brood bitch
to visit the stud dog, as the period of gestation being sixty-
three days, the puppies then get all the summer to grow
strong in ; whereas, if they come into the world in the
autumn or winter, their health and development are liable
to become affected by the cold. It must be borne in mind,
however, that the bitch is not at all times willing to receive
the dog, the periods of her doing so being usually at in-
tervals of six or four months, but they are irregular. The
preliminary symptoms are unmistakable, the organ of sex
in the first instance becoming swollen, and this being
followed by a discharge tinged with blood. At the end
of three or four days the latter will gradually subside,
and immediately the discharge ceases is the best time for
mating. Of course the bitch is willing to receive the dog
before this, but if the dog is kept away until the discharge
has ceased better results are likely to be secured.

As a general rule, it is unwise to mate two old animals ;



there should be youth on the other side if a dog or bitch of
four or five years old is being bred from ; but, on the other
hand, two middle-aged animals may be put together with-
out any harm coming of it. If this advice is not followed
there is always a chance of the puppies being weak, and
in the case of an old bitch, the yield of milk may be scanty
or deficient in nutriment. In such a case the services
of a foster-mother may be secured, and if so, it is neces-
sary that she should have whelped at about the same date
as the dam of the puppies, as the yield and quality of the
milk becomes altered as time goes on. At all events, she
should not have had her puppies a week or two before her
foster-children are born.

The puppies come into the world blind, and remain so
for several days, and their noses are almost invariably pink,
becoming spotted at first and finally black in most cases,
but not always so. If the mother has plenty of milk for
them, the owner can easily satisfy himself upon this point,
and if the quality of it is good, as the condition of the
puppies will soon show, they will not require any extra
feeding at first, and the more quiet they get the better. If,
on the other hand, it is obvious that they are not thriving,
and a foster-mother cannot be procured, they may be fed
from an ordinary feeding-bottle on Spratt's Patent Orphan
Puppy Food, or Spratt's Malt Milk with excellent results.
In the case of the larger varieties, the services of a goat
may be found useful, the writer having employed these
animals with most satisfactory results in the case of grey-
hounds, by laying the goat on her side and holding her
down while the youngsters sucked her, two at a time.

As the puppies become older, it is necessary that they
should be supplied with food by their attendant, in order
that they may learn to feed by themselves before they are
weaned, and to prevent their taxing the strength of their
dam too much. The best food for them in this connec-
tion is Spratt's puppy biscuits, given as directed, or Spratt's
*' Ovals " mixed with gravy or broth ; but in any case the



feeds should be small and frequent, the precaution being
taken to leave nothing standing by them lest it should turn
sour and upset their stomachs.

No doubt many puppies suffer in their youth from being
allowed to roam about on a cold floor, and in order to
avoid trouble in this respect the low bench upon which
their bed is placed should be of wood, and the floor of their
shed should be covered with peat-moss or sawdust to keep
them warm. It may here be observed that it is always
best for the bitch to be confined in a warm and dry, but
well-ventilated shed whilst she is devoting her attention
to maternal duties ; and if the window is so placed that the
sun can enter the place it will be all the better, as sunshine
and fresh air are both great factors in the development of
puppies. (See Brood-Bitchy In-breeding, Puppies, Selecting a
Stud Dog.)

Breeders' Societies. — Of late years most breeds of dogs
are honoured by having a Society — some favoured varieties
have two or more — devoted to their interests, and beyond all
doubt these bodies work hard in favour of their protegees,
who owe much of the popularity they enjoy to the good
offices of their friends. Whether the best interests of the
canine race are advanced by the existence of specialist
clubs is, however, another matter, upon which opinions
differ, and there is certainly justification for the belief that
some of the good old English breeds have suffered severely
from the support given to foreign varieties which have
been favoured by the influence of powerful clubs. There
is, moreover, always the prospect of a specialist society
developing into a clique, and by its influence compelling
breeders to accept their views regarding the alteration of
the points of an old-established variety which had existed
and flourished long before the would-be reformers ever
owned a dog at all.

Brick Paving. — This is a thoroughly bad form of paving
for kennels, as not only does the porous nature of the



bricks absorb the moisture, but unless they are very care-
fully laid their surface soon becomes uneven, and thus
allows the water to accumulate and not run off as it
should. (See Floors.)

Broken Colour. — A dog is said to be broken in colour
when his otherwise dark coat is marked with white

Broken Ribs are matters of not infrequent occurrence
amongst dogs, and may be caused by a blow or kick.
They should be attended to promptly, and pending the
arrival of a veterinary surgeon may be treated by winding
a wide linen bandage very tightly round the dog's body,
and fastening it with safety-pins. (See Fractu7xs,)

Bronchitis. — Many dogs which are confined in damp
and draughty kennels lose their lives through an attack of
bronchitis, the existence of which can be detected by a
wheezy rattling in the throat and laboured breathing,
accompanied by efforts to cough up phlegm. In such
cases the patient should be removed to a warm — not hot —
and airy shed or room, and if possible a kettle should be
kept as long as possible on the boil in it, so that the atmos-
phere will be rendered moist, as in cases in which human
beings are the subject of attack. This disease is fully dealt
with by Mr. Sewell in ''The Dog's Medical Dictionary."
(See Hospital.)

Bronzed when tan-coloured hairs appear amongst the
black ones, as, for instance, they sometimes do behind the
ears of a black-and-tan terrier, the dog is said to be

Brood Bitch. — The selection of a brood bitch in cases
where a person desires to make money out of her puppies
is not so easy a task as the inexperienced may imagine. In



the first place, her robustness of constitution, freedom from
hereditary disease, present state of health and age, are all
matters which have to be seriously considered, and when
these are all satisfactory, her owner will have to exercise
care in providing her with a mate whose blood will ''nick"
with heVs. This is not always an easy matter, as it is well
known to breeders that some families never cross well with
each other, and it is far more important that the blood of
the dog should suit the bitch, than that he should possess
certain good points which she does not. Of course,
assuming that the breeding of the dog is satisfactory, it is
highly desirable that his perfections should be regarded
from the' point of view of their being likely to correct the
faults she may possess ; but it should always be remembered
that an animal may not be a true representative of the
family he belongs to, and if so, it is quite probable that
certain characteristics of his strain, which he does not dis-
play himself, may appear in his offspring, and hence the
importance of ascertaining what the parents and other
relations of the dog are like before deciding to breed from

Assuming that the brood bitch is safe in pup, it is
necessary to treat her carefully for the latter half of the
nine weeks' period of gestation. At no part of it, however,
ought she to have her energies overtaxed by too much
hard work, but during the last few weeks she requires
special attention. For instance, she ought not to be
allowed to jump on and off a high bench, and therefore
her bed should be made on the floor, care being taken to
place some boards, nailed to a piece of quartering, under-
neath the straw if the pavement is of any cold material,
such as concrete, brick, or asphalt. It is desirable also
that she should be placed in the kennel in w'hich it is
intended that she shall have her pups, some time before
the event is anticipated, as some animals take a long time
in settling down in new quarters. The breeding kennel
should be fairly roomy, w^ell lighted, and isolated, so that

33 c


the bitch will not be disturbed by other dogs, and if it
opens on to a sunny yard where the puppies can be let
run when they are strong enough so much the better.
Previous to the time of whelping the bitch will be all the
better for a little addition to her food, and she should be
allowed a reasonable amount of exercise every day.

The day before she is due to whelp a dose of sweet-oil
or of glycerine may be given to the bitch, and a plentiful
supply of clean straw may be placed on her bench on the
floor, so that she can prepare the bed for the expected
young. This she will do by turning round and round until
a circular nest is formed, with all the straw removed from
the bottom of it, so that the puppies actually lie on the
boards, this being no doubt an arrangement of nature to
facilitate cleansing operations. It moreover proves the
necessity of having a wooden floor beneath the puppies, as
stonework of any kind would be too cold for them.

Provided that all is proceeding as it should, the less the
bitch is interfered with at the time of labour the better ; but
she must be watched in case complications occur, in which
event professional assistance should be secured by the
amateur. A clean trough of fresh cold water should be
within easy reach of her, and when her troubles are over
she should be supplied with properly cooked gruel at
frequent intervals. If there are any dead puppies they
should be removed, this being a task of some difficulty, as
the mothers often resent the act, and there is always a
chance of an irritable bitch destroying her young if she is
not left quiet for a few days after they are born.

The above suggestions as to the management of the
brood bitch will meet any ordinary case, but it may be
pointed out that there are always chances of complications
arising which may lead to the loss of the bitch or her
puppies. Therefore, if there are any signs of difficulty, the
inexperienced owner should at once seek advice, profes-
sional if possible, if not that of some practical person.
(See Breedings Puppies^ Selecting a Stud Dog, Weaning.)



Broth is a form of nourishment to which dogs are
mostly very partial, and it possesses the additional advan-
tage of being good for them. Bullocks and sheeps' heads
are the best materials of which to make it. They should
be cooked very slowly, and afterwards turned out with
the broth into another vessel to cool, as if allowed to
remain in the copper or saucepan in which they were
boiled the whole mixture is likely to turn sour. (See

Bruises constitute a common cause of trouble amongst
dogs, and may be the result of intentional or accidental
injuries. In some cases the skin is broken, in which event
the part may be fomented to cleanse it and allay the
inflammation, and then a soothing dressing may be applied,
and if possible it should be bandaged. The treatment of
a bruise when the skin is not broken consists of fomenta-
tions, after which the swelling may be gently dried with a
soft cloth.

Brushes form a very important part of the requisites of
a kennel which contains show dogs, as they assist the
owner in keeping the coat in good order and the skin
clean. Many persons, of course, use ordinary hairbrushes
for the above purpose, but the following are better. For
the large, smooth-coated varieties, a body brush, such as
grooms use for dressing horses ; for rough-coated breeds,
a dandy brush, this being a longer haired one ; for curly-
coated dogs, a water-brush ; and for the toy varieties, a
so-called balloon brush, which consists of an oval-shaped
long bristled one, rather soft, and so made that the bristles
in the centre are longer than those at the sides. These
brushes are specialities of such firms as Spratt's Patent,

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Online LibraryVero Kemball ShawThe encyclopaedia of the kennel : a complete manual of the dog, its varieties, physiology, breeding, training, exhibition and management, with articles on the designing of kennels → online text (page 3 of 17)