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ver's daughter and Nanna's sister, he is the father of
discs of growth, among whom are Idun, who first is
Volund's beloved or wife, and thereupon is married to
Brage. Another daughter of Ivalde is the beloved of
Slagfin-Gjuke, Auda, the "frau Ute" of the German
heroic saga. A third is Signe-Alveig, in Saxo the daugh-
ter of Sumblus Phinnorum (Ivalde). At his wedding
with her, Egil is attacked and slain by Halfdan. Had-
ding is Halfdan's and her son.

Several things indicate that, when their father became
a foe of the gods, Ivalde's sons were still their friends,
and that Slagfin particularly was on the side of his fos-
ter-father in the conflict with Ivalde. With this corre-

1006



TEUTONIC MYTHOLOGY

spends also the conduct of the Gjukungs toward Val-
tarius, when he takes flight with Hildigun. In the An-
glo-Saxon heroic poetry, the name Hengest is borne by
the person who there takes Slagfin's place as Hnsef-Ge-
var's nearest man. The introduction to the Younger
Edda has from its English authorities the statement that
Heingestr (Hengest) was a son of Vitta and a near kins-
man of Svipdag. If, as previous investigators have as-
sumed, Vitta is Vade, then Hengest is a son of Ivalde,
and this harmonises with the statement anent his kinship
with Svipdag, who is a grandson of Ivalde. The mean-
ing of the word Hengest refers of itself to Slagfin-G^Wr.
The name Geldr is a participle of gelda, and means cas-
tratus. The original meaning of Hengest is "a gelding,"
equus castratus (in the modern German the word got for
the first time its present meaning). That the adjective
idea castratus was transferred to the substantive equus
castratus is explained by the fact that Gils, Gisl, a mythic
name for a horse (Younger Edda, i. 70, 482), was also a
Gjukung name. One of Hengest's ancestors in his gen-
ealogy in Beda and in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is
called Vict-gils; one of Slagfin-Gjuke's sons is named
Gilser. A neither mythic nor historic brother of Hengest
added in later times is named Horsa. The Ravenna
geography says that when the Saxons left their old abodes
on the continent, they marched cum principe suo Anschis,
and with their chief Ans-gisl, who therefore here appears
in the place of Hengest. Synonymous with Hengest is
the Norse Jalkr, equus castratus, and that some member
of the mythological group of skee-runners, that is, some

1007



TEUTONIC MYTHOLOGY

one of the male members of the Ivalde race, in the Norse
version .of the Teutonic mythology, bore this epithet is
proved by the paraphrase ondr-Jalfyr, "the equus castratus
of the skee-runners." The cause of the designation is
found in the event described above, which has been handed
down by the poem "Valtarius Manufortis." The chief
one of the Gjukungs, originally Gjuke himself, there
fights with Valtarius, who in the mythology was his
father, and receives in the conflict a wound "clean to the
thigh-bone." This wound may have symbolic significance
from the fact that the fight is between father and son. Ac-
cording to the English chronicler Nennius, Hengest had
two brothers, Ochta and Ebissa. In spite of their cor-
ruption these names remind us of Slagfin's brothers,
Aggo-Ajo (Volund) and Ibor-Ebbo (Egil).

According to the historified saga, Hengest was the
leader of the first Saxon army which landed in Britain.
All scholars have long since agreed that this Hengest is
a mythical character. The migration saga of the Teu-
tonic mythology was transferred by the heathen Saxons
to England, and survived there until Christian times.
After the names of the real leaders of the Saxon immigra-
tion were forgotten, Hengest was permitted to take their
place, because in the mythology he had been a leader of
the Saxon emigrants from their original country, the
Scandian peninsula (see No. 16), and because this im-
migration was blended in Christian times with the mem-
ory of the emigration from Germany to Britain. Thus,
while the Longobardians made Volund and Egil (A jo
and Ibor) the leaders of their emigration, the Saxons

1008



TEUTONIC MYTHOLOGY

made Volund's and Egil's brother Slagfm (Hengest-
Gjuke) their leader. The Burgundians also regarded
Slagfin (Gjuke) as their emigration hero and royal pro-
genitor. Of this there is evidence partly in Lex Burgund-
ionum, the preface of which enumerates Burgundian
kings who have Gjukung names ; partly in a Middle High
German poem, which makes the Gjukungs Burgundian
kings. The Saxon migration saga and the Burgundian
are therefore, like those of the other Teutonic races, con-
nected with the Ivalde race and with the fimbul-winter.



THE END.



1009



DICTIONARY



OF



PRINCIPAL PROPER NAMES
IN TEUTONIC MYTHOLOGY,

with Explanations of the Character, Attributes

and Significance of the Cods, Goddesses,

Giants, Ewarfs and associated

creatures and places,



DICTIONARY



OF



GODS AND GODDESSES



. [Anglo- Sax, eagor, the sea] . The god who presides
over the stormy sea. He entertains the gods every
harvest, and brews ale for them. Mger.

AGNAR. A son of King Hraudung and foster-son of Frigg.
Agnar.

AGNAR. A son of King Geirrod. He serves drink to Grim-
ner (Odin). Agnar.

ALFR. An elf, fairy ; a class of beings like the dwarfs, be-
tween gods and men. They were of two kinds: elves
of light (Ljosalfar} and elves of darkness (Dokkalfar).
The abode of the elves is Alfheimr, fairy-land, and their
king is the god Frey. Elf.

ALFODR or ALFADIR [Father of all]. The name of Odin as
the supreme god. Allfather.

ALFHEIMR. Elf-land, fairy-land. Frey's dwelling. Alf-
heim.

The all-wise. One of the horses of the sun.
Alsvid.

1013



DICTIONARY OF

ALVISS. The dwarf who answers Thor's questions in the
lay of Alvis. Alvis.

AMSVARTNIR. The name of the sea, in which the island was "
situated where the wolf Fenrer was chained. Ams-
vartner.

ANNARR or ONARR. Husband of night and father of Jord
(the earth). Annar.

ANDHRIMNIR. The cook in Valhal. Andhrimner.
ANDVARI. The name of a pike-shaped dwarf ; the owner of
the fatal ring called Andvaranautr. Andvare.

ANDVARAFORS. The force or waterfall in which the dwarf

Andvare kept himself in the form of a pike fish. And-

vare-Force.
ANDVARANAUTR. The fatal ring given Andvare (the

wary spirit). Andvarenaut.
ANGANTYR. He has a legal dispute with Ottar Heimske,

who is favored by Freyja. Angantyr.

ANGEYJA. One of Heimdal's nine mothers. The Elder
Edda says in the Lay of Hyndla: Nine giant maids
gave birth to the gracious god, at the world's margin.
These are: Gjalp, Greip, Eistla, Angeyja, Ulfrun,
Eyrgjafa, Imd, Atla, and Jarnsaxa. Angeyja.

ANGRBODA [Anguish-creating]. A giantess; mother of the
Fenris-wolf by Loke. Angerboda.

ARVAKR [Early awake]. The name of one of the horses of
the sun. Aarvak.

Ass or As; plural ^SIR. The asas, gods. The word ap-
pears in such English names as Osborn, Oswald, etc.
With an n it is found in the Germ. Ansgzr (Anglo-Sax.
Oscar). The term aesir is used to distinguish Odin,
Thor, etc., from the vanir (vans). Asa.

ASA-LORI. Loke, so called to distinguish him from Utgard-
Loke, who is a giant. Asa-Loke.

1014



GODS AND GODDESSES

ASA-THORR. A common name for Thor. Asa-Thor.

ASGARDR. The residence of the gods (asas}. Asgard.

ASKR. The name of the first man created by Odin, Keener
and Loder. Ask.

ASYNJA; plural ASYNJUR. A goddess; feminine of Ass.
Asynje.

ATLA. One of Heimdal's nine mothers. Atla.

AUDHUMLA; also written AUDHUMBLA. The cow formed
from the frozen vapors resolved into drops. She nour-
ished the giant Ymer. Audhmnbla.

AURBODA. Gymer's wife and Gerd's mother. Aurboda.

AURGELMIR. A giant; grandfather of Bergelmer; called
also Ymer. Aurgelmer.

AUSTRI. A dwarf presiding over the east region. Austre.
Hast.

B

BALDR. God of the summer-sunlight. He was son of Odin

and Frigg; slain by Hoder, at the instigation of Loke.

He returns after Ragnarok. His dwelling is Breidablik.

Balder.
BARREY. A pleasant grove in which Gerd agreed with

Skirner to meet Frey. Barey.
BAUGI. A brother of Suttung, for whom (Baugi) Odin

worked one summer in order to get his help in obtaining

Suttung's mead of poetry. Bauge.
BELT. A giant, brother of Gerd, who was slain by Frey.

Bele.
BERGELMIR. A giant; son of Thrudgelmer and grandson

of Aurgelmer. Bergelmer.

BESTLA. Wife of Bur and mother of Odin. Bestla.
BEYLA. Frey's attendant ; wife of Bygver. Beyla.

1015



DICTIONARY OF

BIFROST. [To tremble ; the trembling way] . The rainbow.
Bifrost.

BILSKIRNIR. The heavenly abode of Thor, from the flashing
of light in the lightning. Bilskirner.

BOLTHORN. A giant; father of Bestla, Odin's mother.
Bolthorn.

BOLVERKR [Working terrible things] . An assumed name of
Odin, when he went to get Suttung's mead. Bolverk.

BODN. One of the three vessels in which the poetical mead
was kept. Hence poetry is called the wave of the bodn.
Bodn.

BORR [burr, a son ; Scotch bairn] . A son of Bure and father
of Odin, Vile and Ve. Bor.

BRAGI. The god of poetry. A son of Odin. He is the best
of skalds. Brage.

BKEIDABUK. [Literally to gleam, twinkle]. Balder's dwell-
ing. Breidablik.

BRISINGAMEN. Freyja's necklace or ornament. Brising-
amen.

BURI. The father of Bor. He was produced by the cow's
licking the stones covered with rime, frost. Bure.

BYGGVIR. Frey's attendant; Beyla's husband. Bygver.

BYLEIPTR [Flame of the dwelling]. The brother of Loke.
Byleipt.



DAGR [Day]. Son of Delling. Dag.
DAINN. A hart that gnaws the branches of Ygdrasil. Daain.
DELUNGR [Dayspring] . The father of Day. Delling.
Dis; plural DISIR. Attendant spirit or guardian angel.
Any female mythic being may be called Dis. Dis.

1016



GODS AND GODDESSES

DRAUPNIR. Odin's ring. It was put on Balder's funeral-
pile. Skirner offered it to Gerd. Draupner.

DROMI. One of the fetters by which the Fenris-wolf was
chained. Drome.

DUNEYRR, "1 Harts that gnaw the branches of Ygdrasil.
DURAPROP. J Durathror.

DURINN. A dwarf, second in degree. Durin.
DVAUNN. A dwarf. Dvalin.

DVERGR. A dwarf. In modern Icelandic lore dwarfs dis-
appear, but remain in local names, as Dverga-steinn,
and in several words and phrases. From the belief that
dwarfs lived in rocks an echo is called dwerg-mal (dwarf
talk), and dwerg-mala means to echo. The dwarfs
were skilled in metal-working.



EDDA. The literal meaning of the word is great-grand-
mother, but the term is usually applied to the mytho-
logical collection of poems discovered by Brynjolf Svein-
sson in the year 1643. He, led by a fanciful and errone-
ous suggestion, gave to the book which he found the
name Ssemundar Edda, Edda of Saemund. This is the
so-called Elder Edda. The Younger Edda, is a name
applied to a work written by Snorre Sturleson, and con-
tains old mythological lore and the old artificial rules
for verse-making. The ancients applied the name Edda
only to this work of Snorre. The Elder Edda was
never so called. And it is also uncertain whether
Snorre himself knew his work by the name of Edda.
In the Rigsmal (Lay of Rig) Edda is the progenitrix
of the race of thralls.

EGDIR. An eagle that appears at Ragnarok. Egder.

1017



DICTIONARY OF

EGILL. The father of Thjalfe; a giant dwelling near the

sea. Thor left his goats with him when on his way

to the giant Hymer to get a vessel in which to brew ale.
EIKTHYRNIR. A hart that stands over Odin's hall (Valhal).

From his antlers drops water from which rivers flow.

Hikthyrner.
EINHERI; plural EINHERJAR. The only (ein) or great

champions; the heroes who have fallen in battle and

been admitted into Valhal. Hinherje.
EiR. [The word signifies peace, clemency}. An attendant

of Menglod, and the most skillful of all in the healing

art. Hir.

EiSTXA. One of Heimdal's nine mothers. Histla.

The kettle in which the boar Saehrimner is

cooked in Valhal. Eldhrimner.

The fire-producer; a servant of JEger. Elder.
EUVAGAR. The ice-waves ; poisonous cold streams that flow

out of Niflheim. Hlivagar.
EMBLA. The first woman. The gods found two lifeless

trees, the ask (ash) and the embla; of the ash they made

man, of the embla, woman.
EYRGJAFA. One of Heimdal's nine mothers. Byrgjafa.



FAFNIR. Son of Hreidmar. He kills his father to get pos-
session of the Andvarenaut. He afterwards changes
himself into a dragon and guards the treasure on Gnita-
heath. He is slain by Sigurd, and his heart is roasted
and eaten. Fafner.

FALHOFNIR [Hollow-hoof]. One of the horses of the gods.
Falhofner.

1018



GODS AND GODDESSES

FARBAUTI [ Ship-destroyer] . The father of Loke. Farbaute.

FENRIR or FENRISULFR. The monster-wolf. He is the son
of Loke, who bites the hand of Tyr. The gods put
him in chains, where he remains until Ragnarok. In
Ragnarok he gets loose, swallows the sun and conquers
Odin, but is killed by Vidar. Fenrer or Fenris-wolf.

FENSALIR. The abode of Frigg. Fensal.

FJALAR. A misnomer for Skrymer, in whose glove Thor
took shelter. Fjalar.

FJALAR. A dwarf, who slew Kvaser, and composed from
his blood the poetic mead. Fjalar.

FJALAR. A cock that crows at Ragnarok. Fjalar.

FIMAFENGR. The nimble servant of ^Eger. He was slain
by the jealous Loke. Fimafeng. ,

FIMBUL. It means mighty great. In the mythology it ap-
pears as :

FIMBULFAMBI. A might fool. Fimbulfambe.

FIMBULTYR. The mighty god, great helper (Odin). Fim-
bultyr.

FIMBUL VETR [vetr, winter] . The great and awful winter of
three years' duration preceding the end of the world.
Fimbul-winter.

FIMBULTHUL. A heavenly river. Fimbulthul.

FIMBULTHULR. The great wise man. Fimbulthuler.

FJOLNIR. One of Odin's many names. F joiner.

FJORGYN. A personification of the earth ; mother of Thor.
Fjorgyn.

FOLKVANGR. [ Paradise, a field] . The folk-field. Freyja's
dwelling. Folkvang.

FORNJOTR. The most ancient giant. He was father of
^ger, or Hler, the god of the ocean ; of Loge, flame or
fire, and of Kaare, wind. His wife was Ran. These
divinities are generally regarded as belonging to an

1019



DICTIONARY OF

earlier mythology, probably to that of the Fins or Celts.
Porn jot.

FORSETI [The fore-sitter, president, chairman]. Son of
Balder and Nanna. His dwelling is Glitner, and his of-
fice is that of a peacemaker. Forsete.

FRANANGRS-FORS. The force or waterfall into which L,oke,
in the likeness of a salmon, cast himself, and where
the gods caught him and bound him. Fraananger-Force.

FREKI. One of Odin's wolves. Freke.

FREYJA [Feminine of Freyr]. The daughter of Njord and
sister of Frey. She dwells in Folkvang. Half the fallen
in battle belong to her, the other half to Odin. She
lends her feather disguise to Loke. She is the goddess
of love. Her husband is Oder. Her necklace is Bris-
ingamen. She has a boar with golden bristles. Freyja.

FREYR. He is son of Njord, husband of Skade, slayer of
Bele, and falls in conflict with Surt in Ragnarok. Alf-
heim was given him as a tooth-gift. The ship Skid-
bladner was built for him. He falls in love with Gerd,
Gymer's fair daughter. He gives his trusty sword to
Skirner. Frey.

FRIGG. [Love]. She is the wife of Odin, and mother of
Balder and queen of the gods, and reigns with Odin in
Hlidskjalf. She exacts an oath from all things that
they shall not harm Balder. Frigg.

[Fullness]. Frigg's attendant. She takes care of
Frigg's toilette, clothes and slippers. Nanna sent her
a finger-ring from Helheim. She is represented as
wearing her hair flowing over her shoulders. Fulla.



GALAR. One of two dwarfs who killed Kvaser. Fjalar
was the other. Galar.

1020



GODS AND GODDESSES

GAGNRADE. A name assumed by Odin when he went to
visit Vafthrudner. Gagnraad.

GANGLERI. One of Odin's names in Grimner's Lay. Gang-

lere.
GANGLERI. A name assumed by King Gylfe when he came

to Asgard. Ganglere.
GARDROFA. The goddess Gnaa has a horse by name Hofvar-

pner. The sire of this horse is Hamskerper, and its

mother is Gardrofa. Gardrofa.

GARMR. A dog that barks at Ragnarok. He is called the
largest and best among dogs. Garm.

GEFJUN or GEFJON. A goddess. She is a maid, and all
those who die maids become her maid-servants. She
is present at ^ger's feast. Odin says she knows men's
destinies as well as he does himself. Gefjun.

GEIRRODR. A son of King Hraudung and foster-son of
Odin ; he becomes king and is visited by Odin, who calls
himself Grimner. He is killed by his own sword.
There is also a giant by name Geirrod, who was once
visited by Thor. Geirrod.

GEIRSKOGUL. A valkyrie. Geirskogul.
GEIRVIMUL. A heavenly river. Geirvimul.

GERDR. Daughter of Gymer, a beautiful young giantess;
beloved by Frey. Gerd.

GERi. [gerr, greedy] . One of Odin's wolves. Gere.
GERSEMI. One of Freyja's daughters. Gerseme.

GJALLARBRU [gjalla, to yell, to resound]. The bridge
across the river Gjol, near Helheim. The bridge be-
tween the land of the living and the dead. Gjdlarr
bridge.

GjAUvARHORN. Heimdal's horn, which he will blow at
Ragnarok. Gfallar horn.

21 1021



DICTIONARY OF

GILLING. Father of Suttung, who possessed the poetic
mead. He was slain by Fjalar and Galar. Gilling.

GIMLI [Heaven], The abode of the righteous after Rag-
narok. Gimle.

GJALP. One of Heimdal's nine mothers. Gjalp.

GINNUNGA-GAP. The great yawning gap, the premundane
abyss, the chaos or formless void, in which dwelt the
supreme powers before the creation. In the eleventh
century the sea between Greenland and Vinland
(America) was called Ginnunga-gap. Ginungagap.

GJOLL. One of the rivers Elivagar that flowed nearest
the gate of Hel's abode. Gjol.

GISI, [Sunbeam], One of the horses of the gods, Gisl.

GLADR [Clear, bright]. One of the horses of the gods.
Glad.

GLADSHEIMR [Home of brightness or gladness]. Odin's
dwelling. Gladsheim.

GLASIR. A grove in Asgard. Closer.

The last fetter with which the wolf Fenrer was
bound. Gleipner.
[The glassy]. One of the horses of the gods. Gler.

GUTNIR [The glittering]. Forsete's golden hall. Glitner.

GNA. She is the messenger that Frigg sends into the va-
rious worlds on her errands. She has a horse called
Hofvarpenr, that can run through air and water. Gnaa.

GNIPAHELUR. The cave before which the dog Garm barks.
The Gnipa-cave.

GNITAHEIDR. Fafner's abode, where he kept the treasure
called Andvarenaut. Gnita-heath.

GOINN. A serpent under Ygdrasil. Coin.

GOLL. A valkyrie. Got.

GOMUL. A heavenly river. Gomul.

1022



GODS AND GODDESSES

GONDUL. A valkyrie. Gondul.

GOPUL. A heavenly river. Gopul.

GRABAKR. One of the serpents under Ygdrasil. Graabak.

GRAD. A heavenly river. Graad.

GRAFVITNIR. J Serpents under Ygdrasil. Grafvitner;

GRAFVOIXUDR. J Grafvollud.

GREIP. [Eng. grip}. One of Heimdal's nine giant mothers.
Greip.

GRIMNIR. A kind of hood or cowl covering the upper part
of the face. Grimner is a name of Odin from his trav-
eling in disguise. Grimner.

GROA. The giantess mother of Orvandel. Thor went to
her to have her charm the flint-stone out of his fore-
head. Groa.

GULLFAXI [Gold-mane]. The giant Hrungner's horse.
Goldfax.

GULLINKAMBI [Gold-comb]. A cock that crows at Rag-
narok. Gullinkambe or Goldcomb.

GULI/TOPPR [Gold-top]. Heimdal's horse. Goldtop.

GUU.VEIG [Gold-thirst]. A personification of gold. Though
pierced and thrice burnt, she yet lives. Gulveig.

GULUNBURSTI [Golden bristles]. The name of Frey's hog.

Gulliriburste.
GUNGNIR [To tremble violently]. Odin's spear. Gungner.

GUNNLOD [To invite]. One who invites war. She was
daughter of the giant Suttung, and had charge of the
poetic mead. Odin got it from her. Gunlad.

GYLFI. A king of Svithod, who visited Asgard under the
name of Ganglere. The first part of the Younger Edda
is called Gylfaginning, which means the Delusion of
Gylfe. Gylfe.

GYLLIR [Golden]. One of the horses of the gods. Gyller.

1023



DICTIONARY OF

GYMIR. A giant; the father of Gerd, the beloved of Frey.

Gymer.
GYMIR. Another name of the ocean divinity ^ger. Gymer.

H

HALUNSKIDI. Another name of the god Heimdal. The
possessor of the leaning (hallo) way. Hallinskid.

HAMSKERPIR [Hide-hardener]. A horse; the sire of Hof-
varpner, which was Gnaa's horse. Hamskerper.

HAR. The High One, applied to Odin. Hoar.

HARBARDR. The name assumed by Odin in the Lay of
Harbard. Harbard.

HEIDRUNR [Bright-running]. A goat that stands over Val-
hal. Heidrun.

HEIMDALR. He was the heavenly watchman in the old
mythology, answering to St. Peter in the medieval.
According to the Lay of Rig (Heimdal), he was the
father and founder of the different classes of men,
nobles, churls and thralls. He has a horn called
Gjallar-horn, which he blows at Ragnarok. His dwell-
ing is Himinbjorg. He is the keeper of Bifrost (the
rainbow). Nine giantesses are his mothers. Heimdal.

HEL. [Anglo-Sax, and Eng. hell; to kill] . The goddess of
death, born of Loke and Angerboda. She corresponds
to Proserpina. Her habitation is Helheim, under one
of the roots of Ygdrasil. Hel.

HELBLINDI. A name of Odin. Helblinde.

HELGRINDR. The gates of Hel. Helgrind or Helgate.

HELHEIM. The abode of Hel. Helheim.

HERFODR, j [The father of hosts]. A name of Odin.

HERJAFODR. ] Herfather.

1024



GODS AND GODDESSES

HERMODR [Courage of hosts]. Son of Odin, who gives
him a helmet and a corselet. He rode on Sleipner to Hel
to bring Balder back. Hermod.

HILDISVINI [Means war]. Freyja's hog. Hilde-svine.

HIMINBJORG [Heaven, help, defense; hence heaven de-
fender]. Heimdal's dwelling. Himinbjorg.

HIMINBRJOTR [Heaven-breaker]. One of the giant Hym-
er's oxen. Himinbrjoter.

The abode of ./Eger. Hlesey.

The seat of Odin, whence he looked out over
all the worlds. Hlidskjalf.

HLIN. One of the attendants of Frigg; but Frigg herself
is sometimes called by this name. Hlin.

HLODYN. A goddess ; a name of the earth ; Thor's mother.
Hlodyn.

HLORIDI [Eng. low, to bellow, roar, and reid, thunder]
One of the names of Thor; the bellowing thunderer.
Hloride.

HNIKARR, f

TT { Names of Odin, Hnikar and Hnikuder.

HNIKUDR. [

HNOSS [Anglo-Sax, to hammer] . A costly thing ; the name
of one of Freyja's daughters. Hnos.

HODDMIMISHOI/T. Hodmimer's holt or grove, where the
two human beings Lif and Lifthraser were preserved
during Ragnarok. Hodmimer's forest.

HODR. The slayer of Balder. He is blind, returns to life
m the regenerated world. The Cain of the Norse
mythology. Hoder.

HOENIR. One of the three creating gods. With Odin and
Loder Keener creates Ask and Embla, the first human
pair. Hoener.



1025



DICTIONARY OF

HOFVARPNIR [Hoof-thrower]. Gnaa's horse. His father
is Hamskerper and mother Gardrofa. Hofvarpner.

HRAESVEXGR [Corpse-swallower]. A giant in an eagle's
plumage, who produces the wind. Hraesvelger.

HRAUDUNGR. Geirrod's father. Hraudung.

HREIDMARR. Father of Regin and Fafner. He exacts the
blood-fine from the gods for slaying Otter. He is
slain by Fafner. Hreidmar.

HRIMFAXI [Rime-mane]. The horse of night. Rimefax.

HRIMTHURSAR [Eng. rime, hoar-frost]. Rime-giants or
frost-giants, who dwell under one of Ygdrasil's roots.
Giants.

HRODVITNIR. A wolf ; father of the wolf Hate. Hrodvitner.
HROPTR. One of Odin's names. Hropt.

HRUNGNIR. A giant ; friend of Hymer. Thor fought with
him and slew him. Hrungner.

HRINGHORNI. The ship upon which Balder's body was
burned. Hringhorn.

HROSSTHJOFR [Horse-thief]. A giant. Hrosthjof.
HUGINN [Mind]. One of Odin's ravens. Hugin.

HVERGELMIR [The old kettle] . The spring in the middle of
Niflheim, whence flowed the rivers Elivagar. The
Northern Tartaros. Hvergelmer.

HYMIR. A giant with whom Thor went fishing when he
caught the Midgard-serpent. His wife was the mother
of Tyr. Tyr and Thor went to him to procure a kettle
for ^Eger in which to brew ale for the gods. Hymer.

HYNDLA. A vala visited by Freyja, who comes to her to
learn the genealogy of her favorite, Ottar. Hyndla,



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GODS AND GODDESSES

I

IDAVOLLR. A plain where the gods first assemble, where
they establish their heavenly abodes, and where they
assemble again after Ragnarok. The plains of Ida.
Idavold.

IDUNN. Daughter of the dwarf Ivald; she was wife of
Brage, and the goddess of early spring. She possesses
rejuvenating apples of which the gods partake. I dun.

IFING. A river which divides the giants from the gods.
Ifing.

IMD. One of Heimdal's nine giant mothers. Imd.

I MR. A son of the giant Vafthrudner. Im.

INGUNAR-FREYR. One of the names of Frey. Ingun's Prey.

INNSTEINN. The father of Ottar Heimske; the favorite of
Freyja. Instein.

IVALDI. A dwarf. His sons construct the ship Skidblad-
ner. Ivald.



1

JAFNHAR [Equally high]. A name of Odin.

JALKR. A name of Odin (Jack the Giant-killer?). Jalk.


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