JARNSAXA [Iron-chopper]. One of Heimdal's nine giant
JARNVIDR [Iron- wood]. A wood east of Midgard, peopled
by giantesses called Jarnvids. This wood had iron
JARNVIDIUR. The giantesses in the Iron-wood. Jarnvids.
JORD. Wife of Odin and mother of Thor. Earth.
JOTUNN. A giant. The giants were the earliest created
beings. The gods question them in regard to Balder.
Thor frequently contends with them. Famous giants
are: Ymer, Hymer, Hrungner, Orvandel, Gymer,
Skrymer, Vafthrudner and Thjasse. Giant.
JOTUNHEIMAR (plural). The Utgaard; the home of the
giants in the outermost parts of the earth. Jotunheim.
KERLAUGAR (plural). Two rivers which Thor every day
must cross. Kerlaug.
KORMT. Another river which Thor every day must pass.
KVASIR. The hostage given by the vans to the asas. His
blood, when slain, was the poetical mead kept by Sut-
LAEDINGR. One of the fetters with which the Fenris-wolf
was bound. Laeding.
LAERADR. A tree near Valhal. Laerad.
LANDVIDI [A mountain range overgrown with trees].
Vidar's abode. The primeval forests. Landvide.
LAU^EY [Leafy island]. Loke's mother. Laufey.
LEIETHRASIR, "I The two persons preserved in Hodmim-
J er's grove during Surfs conflagration
in Ragnarok; the last beings in the old and the first
in the new world. Lif and Lifthraser.
[Light-foot]. One of the horses of the gods.
GODS AND GODDESSES
LITR. A dwarf that Thor kicked into Balder's funeral pile.
LODDFAFNIR. A protege of Odin. Lodfafner.
LODURR [To flame]. One of the three gods (Odin, Haener
and Loder) who create Ask and Embla, the first man
and woman. He is identical with Loke. Loder.
LOKI [To end, finish; Loke is the end and consummation
of divinity]. The evil giant-god of the Norse myth-
ology. He steers the ship Naglfar in Ragnarok. He
borrows Freyja's feather-garb and accompanies Thor to
the giant Thrym, who has stolen Thor's hammer. He
is the father of Sleipner; also of the Midgard serpent,
of the Fenris-wolf and of Hel. He causes Balder's
death, abuses the gods in ^Eger's feast, but is captured
in Fraanangerforce and is bound by the gods. Loke.
LOPTR [The aerial]. Another name of Loke. Lopter.
MAGNI [megin, strength]. A son of Thor. Magne.
MANI [Eng. moon]. Brother of Sol (the sun, feminine),
and both were children of the giant Mundilfare. Moon
MARDOLL or MARTHOLI,. One of the names of Freyja.
Mardallar gratr (the tears of Mardal), gold. Mardal.
MANAGARMR [Moon-swallower]. A wolf of Loke's off-
spring. He devours the moon. Maanegarm or Moon-
MANNHEIMAR (plural) [Homes of man]. Our earth.
MEIU. A son of Odin. Meile.
MIDGARDR. [In Cumberland, England, are three farms:
High-garth, Middle-garth, Low-garth.] The mid-yard,
middle-town, that is, the earth, is a mythological word
common to all the ancient Teutonic languages. The
Icelandic Edda alone has preserved the true mythical
bearing of this old Teutonic word. The earth (Mid-
gard), the abode of men, is situated in the middle of the
universe, bordered by mountains and surrounded by the
great sea; on the other side of this sea is the Utgard
(out-yard), the abode of the giants; the Midgard is
defended by the yard or burgh Asgard (the burgh of
the gods) lying in the middle (the heaven being con-
ceived as rising above the earth). Thus the earth and
mankind are represented as a stronghold besieged by
the powers of evil from without, defended by the gods
from above and from within. Midgard.
MIDGARDSORMR [The serpent of Midgaard]. The world-
serpent hidden in the ocean, whose coils gird around
the whole Midgard. Thor once fishes for him, and
gets him on his hook. In Ragnarok Thor slays him,
but falls himself poisoned by his breath. Midgard-ser-
MIMAMEIDR. A mythic tree ; probably the same as Ygdra-
sil. It derives its name from Mimer, and means Mi-
mer's tree. Mimameider.
MIMIR. The name of the wise giant keeper of the holy
well Mimis-brunnr, the burn of Mimer, the well of
wisdom, at which Odin pawned his eye for wisdom; a
myth which is explained as symbolical of the heavenly
vault with its single eye, the sun, setting in the sea.
MJOLNIR. Thor's formidable hammer. After Ragnarok, it
is possessed by his sons Mode and Magne. M joiner.
MISTII/TEINN [Eng. mistletoe]. The mistletoe or mistle-
twig, the fatal twig by which Balder, the white sun-
GODS AND GODDESSES
god, was slain. After the death of Balder, Ragnarok
set in. Balder's death was also symbolical of the vic-
tory of darkness over light, which comes every year
at midwinter. The mistletoe in English households at
Christmas time is no doubt a relic of a rite lost in the
remotest heathendom, for the fight of light and dark-
ness at midwinter was a foreshadowing of the final
overthrow in Ragnarok. The legend and the word are
common to all Teutonic peoples of all ages. Mistletoe.
MODI [Courage]. A son of Thor. Mode.
MODSOGNIR. The dwarf highest in degree or rank. Mod-
MOINN. A serpent under Ygdrasil. Moin.
MUNDILFARI. Father of the sun and moon. Mundilfare.
MUNINN [Memory] . One of Odin's ravens. Munin.
MUSPEL. The name of an abode of fire. It is populated by
a host of fiends, who are to appear at Ragnarok and de-
stroy the world by fire. Muspel.
MuspELLSHEiMR. The abode of Muspel. This interesting
word (Muspell) was not confined to the Norse myth-
ology, but appears twice in the old Saxon poem Heliand.
In these instances muspel stands for the day of judg-
ment, the last day, and answers to Ragnarok of the
MOKKURKALFI [A dense cloud] . A clay giant in the myth
of Thor and Hrungner. Mokkerkalfe.
NAGLFAR [Nail-ship]. A mythical ship made of nail-par-
ings. It apears in Ragnarok. Naglfar. Nailship.
NAL [Needle]. Mother of Loke. Naal.
NANNA. Daughter of Nep (bud) ; mother of Forsete and
wife of Balder. She dies of grief at the death of
NARI or NARFI. Son of Loke. Loke was bound by the
intestines of Nare. Nare or Narfe.
NASTROND [The shore of corpses] . A place of punishment
for the wicked after Ragnarok. Naastrand.
NIDAFJOLL. The Nida-mountains toward the north, where
there is after Ragnarok a golden hall for the race of
Sindre (the dwarfs). Nidafell.
NIDHOGGR. A serpent of the nether world, that tears the
carcases of the dead. He also lacerates Ygdrasil.
NiFLHEiMR. The world of fog or mist; the nethermost of
the rime worlds. The place of punishment (Hades).
It was visited by Odin when he went to inquire after the
fate of Balder. Niflheim.
NJORDR. A van, vanagod. He was husband of Skade, and
father of Frey and Freyja. He dwells in Noatun.
NOATUN [Place of ships]. Njord's dwelling; Njord being
a divinity of the water or sea. Noatun.
NORDRI [North]. A dwarf presiding over the northern re-
gions. Nordre or North.
NoTT. Night ; daughter of Norve. Night.
NORN; plural NORNIR. The weird sisters; the three heav-
enly norns Urd, Verdande, and Skuld (Past, Present,
and Future) ; they dwelt at the fountain of Urd, and
ruled the fate of the world. Three norns were also
present at the birth of very man and cast the horoscope
of his life. Norn.
GODS AND GODDESSES
ODINN [Anglo-Sax. Wodan] . Son of Bor and Bestla. He
is the chief of the gods. With Vile and Ve he parcels
out Ymer. With Hoener and Loder he creates Ask
and Embla. He is the fountain-head of wisdom, the
founder of culture, writing and poetry, the progenitor
of kings, the lord of battle and victory. He has two
ravens, two wolves and a spear. His throne is Hlid-
skjalf, whence he looks out over all the worlds. In
Ragnarok he is devoured by the Fenris-wolf. Odin.
ODR. Freyja's husband. Oder.
ODROERIR [The spirit-mover] . One of the vessels in which
the blood of Kvaser, that is, the poetic mead, was kept.
The inspiring nectar. Odroerer.
OENIR. A serpent under Ygdrasil. Ofner.
OKOLNIR. After Ragnarok the giants have a hall (ale-
hall) called Brimer, at Okolner.
OKU-THORR. So called from the Finnish thunder-god Ukko.
OSKI [Wish]. A name of Odin. Oske. Wish.
OTR [OTTER]. A son of Hreidmar; in the form of an otter
killed by Loke. Oter.
OTTARR or OTTARR HEIMSKI [Stupid]. A son of Instein,
a protege of Freyja. He has a contest with Angantyr.
Hyndla gives him a cup of remembrance. Ottar.
RAGNAROK [Sentence, judgment, from rekja, is the whole
development from creation to dissolution, and would,
in this word, denote the dissolution, doomsday, of the
gods ; or it may be from rokr (reykkr, smoke), twilight,
and then the word means the twilight of the gods].
The last day ; the dissolution of the gods and the world.
RAN [Rob]. The goddess of the sea ; wife of ^Eger. Ran.
RATATOSKR. A squirrel that runs up and down the branches
of Ygdrasil. Ratatosk.
RATI. An auger used by Odin in obtaining the poetic mead.
REGINN. Son of Hreidmar; brother of Fafner and Otter.
RINDR. A personification of the hard frozen earth. Mother
of Vale. The loves of Odin and Rind resemble those
of Zeus and Europa in Greek legends. Rind.
ROSKVA. The name of the maiden follower of Thor. She
symbolizes the ripe fields of harvest. Roskva.
SAEHRIMNIR [Rime-producer]. The name of the boar on
which the gods and heroes in Valhal constantly feed.
SAGA [History]. The goddess of history. She dwells in
SESSRUMNIR. Freyja's large-seated palace. Sesrumner.
SIDHOTTR [Long-hood]. One of Odin's names, from his
traveling in disguise with a large hat on his head hang-
ing down over one side of his face to conceal his miss-
ing eye. Sidhat.
SIDSKEGGR [Long-beard]. One of Brage's names. It is
also a name of Odin in the lay of Grimner. Sidskeg.
The wife of Thor and mother of Uller. The word
denotes affinity. Sif, the golden-haired goddess, wife
of Thor, betokens mother earth with her bright green
GODS AND GODDESSES
grass. S'he was the goddess of the sanctity of the fam-
ily and wedlock, and hence her name. Sif.
SIGFADIR [Father of victory]. A name of Odin. Sigfather.
SIGYN. Loke's wife. She holds a basin to prevent the
serpent's venom from dropping into Loke's face. Sigyn.
SiijfRiNToppR. One of the horses of the gods. Silvertop.
SINDRI. One of the most famous dwarfs. Sindre,
SINIR [Sinew]. One of the horses of the gods. Siner.
SJOFN. One of the goddesses. She delights in turning
men's hearts to love. Sjofn.
SKADI [scathe, harm, damage]. A giantess; daughter of
Thjasse and the wife of Njord. She dwells in Thrym-
heim, and hangs a venom serpent over Loke's face.
SKEIDBRIMIR [Race-runner], One of the horses of the
SKIDBLADNIR. The name of the famous ship of the god
Frey that could move alike on land or sea and could be
made small or great at will. Skidbladner.
SKINFAXI [Shining-mane]. The horse of Day. Skinfax.
SKIRNIR [The bright one]. Frey's messenger. Skirner.
SKRYMIR. The name of a giant; also the name assumed by
SKULD [Shall]. The norn of the future. Skuld.
SKOGUL. A valkyrie. Skogul.
SLEIPNIR [The slipper]. The name of Odin's eight-footed
steed. He is begotten by Loke with Svadilfare. Sleip-
SNOTRA [Neat]. The name of one of the goddesses. Snotra.
SOKKMIMIR [Mimer of the deep]. A giant slain by Odin.
SOKKVABEKKR. A mansion where Odin and Saga quaff
from golden beakers. Sokvabek.
SOL [Sun]. Daughter of Mundilfare. She drives the
horses that draw the car of the sun.
SONR. One of the vessels containing the poetic mead. Son.
SUDRI [South]. A dwarf who presides over the south re-
gion. Sudre. South.
SURTR. A fire-giant in Ragnarok who contends with the
gods on the plain of Vigrid and guards Muspelheim.
SUTTUNGR. The giant possessor of the poetic mead.
SVADILFARI. A horse ; the sire of Sleipner. Svadil'fare.
SVAFNIR. A serpent under Ygdrasil. Svafner.
SVAUNN [Cooler]. The shield placed before the sun.
SVASUDR [Delightful]. The name of a giant; the father of
the sun. Svasud.
SYN. A minor goddess.
TYR. Properly the generic name of the highest divinity,
and remains in many compounds. In mythology he is
the one-armed god of war. The Fenris-wolf bit one
hand off him. He goes with Thor to Hymer to borrow
a kettle for ^Eger. He is son of Odin by a giantess.
THJALFI. The name of the servant and follower of Thor.
The word properly means a delver, digger. The names
Thjalfe and Roskva indicate that Thor was the friend
of the farmers and the god of agriculture. Thjalfe.
GODS AND GODDESSES
THJAZI [Thjassi]. A giant; the father of Njord's wife,
Skade. His dwelling was Thrymheim ; he was slain
by Thor. Thjasse.
THORR. The English Thursday is a later form, in which
the phonetic rule of the Scandinavian tongue has been
followed. The god of thunder, keeper of the hammer,
the ever-fighting slayer of trolls and destroyer of evil
spirits, the friend of mankind, the defender of the earth,
the heavens and the gods ; for without Thor and his ham-
mer the earth would become the helpless prey of the
giants. He was the consecrator, the hammer being the
cross or holy sign of the ancient heathen. Thor was the
son of Odin and Fjorgyn (mother earth) ; he was
blunt, hot-tempered, without fraud or guile, of few
words but of ready stroke such was Thor, the favorite
deity of our forefathers. The finest legends of the
Younger Edda and the best lays of the Elder Edda
refer to Thor. His hall is Bilskirner. He slays Thjasse,
Thrym, Hrungner, and other giants. In Ragnarok he
slays the Midgard-serpent, but falls after retreating nine
paces, poisoned by the serpent's breath. Thor,
THRIDI [Third]. A name of Odin in Gylfaginning.
THRUDGELMIR. The giant father of Bergelmer. Thrud-
,_, J-Thor's abode. Thrudheim; Thrudvang.
THRUDR. The name of a goddess; the daughter of Thor
and Sif. Thrud.
THRYMHEIMR. Thjasse's and Skade's dwelling. Thrym-
THRYMR. The giant who stole Thor's hammer and de-
manded Freyja as a reward for its return. Thrym.
THOKK. The name of a giantess (supposed to have been
Loke in disguise) in the myth of Balder. Thok.
ULFRUN. One of Heimdal's nine giant mothers. Ulfrun.
ULLR. The son of Sif and stepson of Thor. His father is
not named. He dwells in Ydaler. Utter.
URDARBRUNNR. The fountain of the norn Urd. The Ur-
dar-fountain. The weird spring.
URDR [Eng. weird}. One of the three norns. The norn
of the past. Urd.
UTGARDAR [The out-yard] . The abode of the giant Utgard-
UTGARDA-LOKI. The giant of Utgard visited by Thor. He
calls himself Skrymer. Utgard-Loke.
VAFTHRUDNIR. A giant visited by Odin. They try each
other in questions and answers. The giant is defeated
and forfeits his life. Vafthrudner.
VALASKJALF. One of Odin's dwellings. Valaskjalf.
VALFODR [Father of the slain]. A name of Odin. Valfather.
VALGRIND. A gate of Valhal. Valgrind.
VALHOLL [The hall of the slain]. The hall to which Odin
invited those slain in battle. Valhal.
VALKYRJA [The chooser of the slain]. A troop of god-
desses, handmaidens of Odin. They serve in Valhal,
and are sent on Odin's errands. Valkyrie.
GODS AND GODDESSES
VAU. Is a brother of Balder, who slays Hoder when only
one night old. He rules with Vidar after Ragnarok.
VALI. A son of Loke. Vale.
VALTAMR. A fictitious name of Odin's father. Valtam.
VE. A brother of Odin (Odin, Vile and Ve). Ve.
VEGTAMR. A name assumed by Odin. Vegtam.
VANAHEIMAR. The abode of the vans. Vanaheim.
VANR; plural VANIR. Those deities whose abode was in
Vanaheim, in contradistinction to the asas, who dwell
in Asgard: Njord, Frey and Freyja. The vans waged
war with the asas, but were afterwards, by virtue of a
treaty, combined and made one with them. The vans
were deities of the sea. Van.
VEORR [Defender]. A name of Thor. Veor.
VERDANDI [To become]. The norn of the present.
VESTRI. The dwarf presiding over the west region. Vestre.
VIDARR. Son of Odin and the giantess Grid. He dwells
in Landvide. He slays the Fenris-wolf in Ragnarok.
Rules with Vale after Ragnarok. Vidar.
VIGRIDR [A battle]. The field of battle where the gods and
the sons of Surt meet in Ragnarok. Vigrid.
Viu. Brother of Odin and Ve. These three sons of Bor
and Bestla construct the world out of Ymer's body. Vile.
VIMUR. A river that Thor crosses. Vimer.
VINDSVALR. The father of winter. Vindsval.
VINDHEIMR. The place that the sons of Balder and Hoder
are to inhabit after Ragnarok. Vindheim. Windhome.
VIN-GOLF [The mansion of bliss] The palace of the asyn-
VINGTHORR. A name of Thor. Vingthor.
DICTIONARY OF GODS AND GODDESSES
VOR. The goddess of betrothals and marriages. Vor.
YDAUR. Uller's dwelling. Ydaler.
YGGR. A name of Odin. Ygg.
YGGDRASILL [The bearer of Ygg (Odin)]. The world-
embracing ash tree. The whole world is symbolized
by this tree. Ygdrasil.
YMIR. The huge giant in the cosmogony, out of whose
body Odin, Vile and Ve created the world. The pro-
genitor of the giants. He was formed out of frost
and fire in Ginungagap. Ymer,
PERSONS AND PLACES.
Achilles, 44, 192.
Adam, 86, 132, 319, 338.
Adam of Bremen, 714.
Aegir, 43, 136, 235, 422, 575, 697,
813, 822, 967.
Aeneas, 44, 66, 81, 730.
Aggo, 104, 861, 893, 953, 1008.
Agni, 587, 605, 886.
Agrippa, 76, 86.
Ahuramazda, 127, 381, 450.
Ajo, 100, 861, 992.
Alamannians, 53, 119, 708.
Aldrian, 981, 991.
Alexander, 50, 55.
Alfather, 376, 220, 340.
Alfheim, 696, 865, 947.
Alvalde, 174, 584, 898, 953, 992.
Alveig, 173, 257, 263, 273.
Alveig-Signe, 793, 902.
Alvism, 365, 376.
Alvismal, 436, 445.
Amalian, 147, 285, 293, 980.
Amelungs, 147, 293.
Amlethus, 317, 843.
Amlodi, 843, 568.
Anchises, 54, 112.
Andvare. a dwarf, 300, 977.
Angerboda, 226, 275, 558, 707, 809.
Ansgis, 54, 112.
Antenor, 53, 62.
Anti- Christ, 722.
Anundus, 848, 884, 896, 932, 951.
Are, 57, 425, 438.
Arinbjorn, 173, 464.
Aryan, 3, 14, 30, 124, 188, 253, 380,
Asa-Brage, 256, 801.
Asa-god, 147, 191, 210, 246, 740,
777, 793, 820.
Asas, 34, 41, 83, 211, 235, 254, 275,
364, 376, 397, 436, 485, 580, 620,
720, 819, 838, 852, 875, 888, 946.
Asasynir (goddesses), 446.
Asciburgium, 122, 839.
Asgard, 33, 41, 166, 218, 229, 245,
276, 376, 397, 423, 443, 467, 575,
601, 693, 724, 751, 772, 790, 806,
845, 865, 877, 909, 938, 959, 977,
Asia Minor, 77.
Asiatic, 4, 14.
Ask, 127, 140, 604, 733.
Asmegir, 353, 436, 446, 827, 878.
Asmund, 265, 743.
Asvid, 365, 743.
Asvinians, 880, 910.
Atle, 471, 915.
Attila, 286, 809, 983.
Audhumbla, 389, 574, 733, 433.
Aurboda, 213, 242, 781, 815, 845,
Aurgelner, 433, 570.
Aurnir, 899, 948, 992.
Avo, 848, 884, 896.
Avesta, 8, 17, 30, 450, 878.
Babel, 37, 84.
Babylon, 37, 84.
Bactria, 9, 84.
Balder, 36, 88, 191, 212, 248, 346,
368, 377, 400, 413, 436, 465, 622,
684, 726, 782, 796, 809, 833, 877,
888, 898, 963, 985.
Banings (destroyers), 297.
Baugregin's Well, 577.
Beda, 55, 88.
Beldegg, 40, 88.
Beowulf, 130, 191, 472, 605,1749.
811, 825, 844, 986, 1002.
Berchtung, 146, 291.
Bergelmer, 434, 570, 626.
Bestla, 160, 389, 476.
Bifrost, 397, 415, 462, 534, 586,
693, 705, 758, 827, 989.
Bil, 676, 985, 1003.
Billing, 471, 698.
Biterolf, 359, 644, 977, 997.
Bjort, 229, 756.
Blid, 229, 756.
Bolthorn, 361, 624.
Bor, 389, 434, 574, 603.
Borgar, 145, 255, 281, 293, 591,
847, 861, 976.
Bose Saga, 310.
Brage, 43, 468, 675, 824. 967, 986.
Brisingamen, 272, 364, 725, 819,
Brok, 361, 718, 895,
Brunnakr, 898, 953.
Brunnie, 898, 953.
Brynhild, 491, 979.
Burgundaib, 101, 113.
Byrgir, 676, 986, 1003.
Caesar, 66, 283.
Capitoline Hill, 74.
Cave of Punishment, 552.
Celts, 10, 25, 254.
Cerberus, 38, 413.
Charlemagne, 53, 101, 807.
Cheldricus, 981, 990.
Christ, 77, 284, 807.
Christianity, 50, 285.
Codex Regius, 233.
Codex Upsalensis, 353, 538.
Cosmographic Review, 692.
Creation of Man, 126.
Cumsean Propketess, 75.
Dag, 366, 420, 433, 446, 602, 696.
Dainn, an elf artist, 240, 365, 717.
Danai, 56, 255.
Danes, 27, 56, 117, 178, 257.
Danische Wold, 811.
Danish Adventurers, 714.
Dannevirke, 913, 927.
Danr Draupr, 142.
Delling, 356, 366, 377, 416, 461,
602, 696, 823.
Diaconus, 54, 101, 859.
Dieterich, 285, 980.
Dis, sun goddess, 167.
Doom of the Dead, 485.
Drauper, 361, 374, 427, 635.
Draupner, 725, 824, 862.
Dudo, 56, 67.
Dulsi, 608, 652.
Durin, 357, 653.
Dvalinn, a dwarf artist, 164, 244,
356, 461, 717.
Dygve, 144, 621.
East Goths, 25.
Ebbo, 104, 779, 847.
Ebur, 863, 953.
Edda, 325, 354, 406, 562, 603, 647,
718, 791, 827, 851, 888, 927, 962.
Egil, 425, 463, 529, 838, 847, 863,
873, 884, 901, 926, 941, 969, 977,
Eggther, sword guardian, 223, 707,
Eikthynir, a thunder cloud, 249,
Eilif Gudrunson, 331.
Einar, 372, 908, 914.
Einar Skalaglam, 330.
Einherges, gods, 824, 1003.
Eir, 229, 756.
Eirikr, 793, 803, 823, 847.
Elf Clans, 603.
Elivagar, 424, 519, 532, 695, 775,
827, 835, 846, 857, 911, 938, 960,
Elivogs, 325, 379.
Elves, 164, 445, 696.
Elysian Fields, 325.
Embla, 127, 143, 604, 733.
Emperor Theodosius, 710.
Ephesus, 709, 728.
Ericus, 793, 868.
Erik, 463, 620, 794, 807, 818, 828,
Erikvidforle's Saga, 306, 322.
Ermenrich, 980, 998.
Erythreian Sibyl, 76.
Eylud Mill, 827.