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16 PHYSICAL FEATURES

by the ranges of the Himalaya and Karakoram, on the north-
west by the mountains to the west of the Indus, on the north-
east by the hills of Assam and Cachar, and everywhere else
by the sea. The unit so defined includes both a continental
area, outside the tropics, extending from the mouths of the
Indus in N. lat. 25 on the west to the mouths of the Ganges
in about N. lat. 23 on the east, and a triangular peninsular area
within the tropics, terminating at Cape Comorin, N. lat. 8 4'.
The northern land frontier measures about 1,600, the north-
western about 1,200 and the north-eastern about 500 miles.
The length of the sea-coast may be taken as 3,400 miles, more
or less.

Physical isolation of India. The leading fact in the position
above described as affecting history is the obvious physical
isolation of India. In ancient times, when no power attempted
to assert full command of the sea, a country so largely sur-
rounded by the ocean was inaccessible for the most part, and
could be approached by land through its continental section
only. The north-eastern hills and the gigantic Himalayan
and Karakoram ranges present few openings at all passable,
and none easy of passage for considerable bodies of men.
But the hills west of the Indus are pierced by many passes
more or less open. The land gates of India are all on her
north-western frontier, and this physical fact dominated her
whole history for thousands of years.

Isolation destroyed by command of the sea. The command
of the sea acquired by the Portuguese at the end of the fifteenth
century and ultimately inherited by the British has destroyed
the isolation of India. To a modern power possessing an
adequate fleet, the sea is a bond of union not a barrier of
separation, and so it has come about that India, while still
separated from the adjoining continental empires of Russia,
Persia, and China by mountain ramparts, is closely bound to
the remote island of Great Britain by means of the British
control of the ocean routes.

Modern importance of the ports. The ports are now the



PHYSICAL FEATURES 17

main gates, and the north-western passes are but posterns.
No hostile force entering India by any of the ancient land
routes could hold more than a limited area in the north-west
against a power exercising command of the sea. While the
traveller from Bombay easily reaches London in a fortnight,
Delhi is still almost as far from Ghazni or Samarkand as it was
in the days of Mahmud and Babur.

Distribution of the great cities. In former times the great
cities and capitals of states were built inland and usually on
the banks of rivers, which offered the best means of communi-
cation and transport. Now, the position of the greatest cities
is determined by the facilities for harbour accommodation, and
it is desirable that the capital of the empire should be in close
touch with the sea. Bombay owes her modern greatness
solely to her magnificent natural harbour, which enables her
to deal with the commerce of the world. Calcutta, although
not so favoured by nature, is still a great port, and as such
was well qualified to be the imperial capital, as it was from
1774 to 1912. The remoteness from the sea is a serious dis-
advantage to Delhi, the newly appointed official capital.

Want of harbours on the east coast. The lack of good
harbours on the eastern coast fit for big modern ships has
killed or half killed the ancient towns on that side of India.
Ports which were good enough for the tiny vessels of ancient
times are of no use for the great steamers of these days.
Madras, in order to save herself from ruin, has been obliged
to supply natural deficiency by the construction of an artificial
harbour at enormous cost. Most of the harbours on the
eastern side of India, such as they were, have become so choked
with sand and silt as to be almost useless, even for small
coasting craft. This ph3 7 sical change has involved the utter
ruin of famous old ports, Kaviripaddanam, Korkai, and others.

Natural division between north and south. Next in impor-
tance to the physical isolation of India, as it existed for count-
less years, is the natural separation of the north from the
south effected by the broad belt of hill and forest running





THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



Tke RALPH D. REED LIBRARY



DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY

UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES, CALIF.



*^ifc of Oil Companies of Southern Cali-
fornia, Alumni and Faculty of Geology Depart-
ment and University Library.

1940










S






, /f/ ?<





W. fr D. Downey



GEORGE V, KINO-EMPEROR



THE OXFORD

STUDENT'S HISTORY OF

INDIA



BY



VINCENT A. SMITH

M.A. (DUBL. & OXON.), i.c.s. , RETIRED

AUTHOR OF 'THE EARLY HISTORY OF INDIA ', ETC.



FIFTH EDITION
REVISED AND ENLARGED

14 MAPS AND 34 ILLUSTRATIONS



OXFORD

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS

LONDON, EDINBURGH, NEW YORK, TORONTO

MELBOURNE AND BOMBAY

HUMPHREY MILFORD

1915




BVDD1IA



D5



EXTRACT FROM PREFACE TO
FIRST EDITION

THIS little book, like its many rivals, is designed primarily
to meet the wants of. students preparing for the matriculation
examination of the Calcutta University, as defined in the latest
Syllabus. But it is hoped that other readers also may find it
useful as an introduction to the study of Indian history.

Although it would be unbecoming for me to criticize the
performances of my predecessors individually, it may be per-
missible to observe that I have aimed at a standard of accuracy
higher than that attained by any of the seven or eight more or
less similar books which I have had the opportunity of testing,
and that certain inveterate errors continually recurring in
text-books will not be found in this work. One such error
the use of the misleading phrases ' the Pathan empire ' and
' the Pathan kings ', long since given up by scholars unfor-
tunately has crept into the official Syllabus. I have done my
best to avoid introducing fresh blunders of my own. . . .

Every topic mentioned in the Syllabus is dealt with in this
volume, and can be traced with facility in the table of contents
and index. The Syllabus is reprinted as Appendix D for con-
venience of reference. Useful tables have been inserted as
required. Many readers, I think, will be glad to find in
Appendix A the full text of the Queen's Proclamation, dated
November 1, 1858.



644400



PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION

THE three earlier revisions of this book were directed almost
exclusively to the correction of minute inaccuracies, the paging
and bulk of the volume remaining unaltered. On this occasion,
while the process of minute correction has been continued and
possibly completed, the principal purpose of the revision has
been different. When the book was first planned, I was re-
quested to make it small and condensed. Now that it has
been widely used for six years, experienced teachers ask that
the historical facts should be narrated in fuller detail, that the
causes of important revolutions should be clearly explained,
that the state of society in different periods should be described,
that the story of India under the Crown should be told at
greater length, that the narrative should be brought down to
the present time, that a sketch of the nature of the sources or
original authorities should be supplied, and that the number
of maps and illustrations should be largely increased. The
advantages to be obtained by adopting those suggestions seem
to outweigh the evil of increased bulk. A book as highly con-
densed as the earlier editions were must be rather dry, and
omit so much that the truth is apt to be distorted. On the
other hand, the writer of a school history should be extremely
careful not to overload his pages. Young students should
not be burdened with anything like the mass of detail which
is proper in a history composed on a large scale. The author
has tried to attain the golden mean by complying to a con-
siderable extent with the suggestions offered, while refusing
to insert much matter which some people would prefer to
include. Special attention has been paid to simplicity of
language and the avoidance of difficult words.

The three notes on the nature of the sources or original



PREFACE 7

authorities for the history of the Hindu, Muhammadan, and
British periods have been inserted by special request, and are
designed for the benefit of teachers rather than of pupils.

It may be convenient to specify the principal subjects now
treated with fullness greater than before, and the more impor-
tant additions to the text. They include :

Book I. India in the Vedic age ; India of the epics ; the
rise of Islam ; Buddhism ; caste.

Book II. The Gupta period ; Kumarila-bhatta and San-
karacharya ; the Hinduizing of foreigners ; the social condition
of the mediaeval kingdoms ; the Pala dynasty of Bengal.

Book III. Description of Vijayanagar ; causes of Muslim
victories.

Book IV. Administration of Sher Shah ; the growth of
the Madras and Bombay presidencies ; the history of Akbar,
with special reference to the Jesuit evidence ; the reign of
Jahangir, as illustrated by his authentic Memoirs, now acces-
sible ; the reign of Shahjahan, with quotations from De Lae't
and the recently published Travels of Peter Mundy ; the life
and institutions of Sivaji ; the causes of Aurangzeb's failure ;
the history of the Peshwas ; the causes of the decline and fall
of the Mughal empire.

Book V. The independence of Bengal under Allahvardi
Khan ; the Anglo-French wars ; Maratha affairs ; Mysore
wars ; Lord Dalhousie's reforms : dates of the Mutiny, and
explanation of its failure.

Book VI. A single chapter of the earlier editions has been
expanded so as to form four chapters of the new Book VI,
and the narrative has been continued to 1914.

The index has been recast. Many new maps and illustrations
have been inserted. The 'Message to his People Overseas'
issued by King George V in 1914 is printed as Appendix C.



CONTENTS



BOOK I
PHYSICAL FEATURES : ANCIENT INDIA

CHAPTER PAGE

I. The geographical foundation of history : the physical

features of India . . . . . . .15

II. The peoples of India : aborigines ; Aryans ; Indo-Aryans ;

Dravidians ; foreign elements ..... 24

III. Early Hindu civilization : the Vedas ; Smriti ; the

Puranas ; the epics ; Buddhism and Jainism ; caste . 31

BOOK II

HINDU INDIA FROM 600 B.C. TO A.D. 1193:
MAHMUD OF GHAZNI

IV. The dynasties preceding the Mauryas : Kosala ; Magadha ;

the Nandas ; Alexander the Great .... 55
V. The Maurya empire : Chandragupta ; accounts of India

by Greek writers ; Asoka and his successors . . 61

VI. The foreign dynasties of the north-west : the Kushan
(Kusana) empire ; Kanishka ; the Saka era ; art and
literature ........ 72

VII. The Gupta empire : the Hunas or White Huns ; reign
of Harsha ; state of civilization ; Chinese pilgrims ;
Kalidasa 77

VIII. The Muhammadan conquest of Sind : the rise of the

Rajputs ; some Rajput kingdoms .... 88

IX. The kingdoms of the Deccan and the Far South . . 93

X. The Muhammadan conquest of the Panjab : Sultan

Mahmud of Ghaznl ....... 97

XI. Hindu civilization on the eve of the Muhammadan rule

in Hindustan 102

A3



10 CONTENTS



BOOK III

THE MUHAMMADAN CONQUEST; THE SULTANATE

OF DELHI (SO-CALLED ' PATHAN EMPIRE') FROM

A.D. 1193 TO 1526

CHAPTER PAGE

XII. Muhammad of Ghor (Ghori) : conquest of Hindustan,
Bengal, and Bihar ; Kutb-ud-dm Ibak ; the so-called
' Pathan dynasties ' ; the Mongol (Mughal) invasions ;
end of the Slave Kings . . . . . .111

XIII. The Khilji sultans of Delhi : Ala-ud-din ; the Tughlak

dynasty . . . . . . . . . 120

XIV. Decline of the sultanate of Delhi : Firoz and the other

successors of Muhammad bin Tughlak ; Timur ; the
Lodi dynasty . ....... 125

XV. The Muhammadan kingdoms of Bengal, Jaunpur, Gujarat,
Malwa, and the Deccan : the Hindu kingdoms of
Vijayanagar, Mewar, and Orissa ; literature and
architecture ; the Urdu language ; spread of Muham-
madanism ; Hindu religious sects .... 130



BOOK IV

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE FROM A.D. 1526 TO 1761

XVI. Babur : Humayun ; Sher Shah and the Sur dynasty . 151
XVII. European voyages to India : discovery of the Cape route ;
the Portuguese, Dutch, Danish, French, and English
Companies ; early settlements . . . . .159

XVIII. The reign of Akbar : Todar Mall ; Abul Fazl . . .168

XIX. The reigns of Jahanglr and Shahjahan : Sir Thomas

Roe ; Bernier ; Mughal architecture .... 191

XX. The reign of Aurangzeb : his treatment of the Hindus ;

the Rajput revolt; Sivaji and the rise of the Marathas 207

XXI. The successors of Aurangzeb : Bahadur Shah, &c. ;
Muhammad Shah ; invasion of Nadir Shah ; growth
of Maratha power ; Ahmad Shah Durrani ; the third
battle of Panlpat ....... 225



CONTENTS



li



BOOK V

THE BRITISH OR ANGLO-INDIAN PERIOD ; RULE
OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY FROM 1761 TO 1858

CHAPTER PAGE

XXII. Transitional period : conflict of the French and English in

Southern India : Dupleix, &c. ; Haidar Ali and Mysore 238

XXIII. The English in Bengal : Siraj-ud-daula ; battle of Plassey ;

the Company as sovereign of Bengal .... 248

XXIV. Bengal affairs : the Regulating Act ; Warren Hastings,

the first Governor-General ; the first Maratha war . 259

XXV. Mr. Macpherson ; Lord* Cornwallis ; Pitt's India Act ;
Permanent Settlement and reforms ; the third Mysore
war ; Sir John Shore ...... 275

XXVI. Lord Wellesley : fourth Mysore war ; second Maratha

war ; subsidiary alliances . . . . . .282

XXVII. Lord Cornwallis again ; Sir George Barlow ; Lord Minto ;

abolition of trade monopoly ..... 290

XXVIII. Lord Hastings : Nepalese, Pindari, and Maratha wars ;

Lord Amherst ; first Burmese war .... 295

XXIX. Lord William Bentinck : reforms ; charter of 1833 ; Sir

Charles Metcalfe and the press ..... 305

XXX. Lords Auckland, Ellenborough, and Hardinge : first
Afghan war ; conquest of Sind ; war with Sindia ;
first Sikh war 312

XXXI. Lord Dalhousie : second Sikh war ; second Burmese
war ; doctrine of lapse ; annexations ; material
progress . . . __ w - . . . . 318

XXXII. Lord Canning : the Mutiny ; the Queen's Proclamation . 326



BOOK VI

THE BRITISH OR ANGLO-INDIAN PERIOD ; INDIA
UNDER THE CROWN, 1858-1914

XXXIII. 1858-69 : Reconstruction ; Lord Canning ; Lord Elgin I ;

Lord Lawrence .......

XXXIV. 1869-84 : Lord Mayo ; Lord Northbrook ; Lord Lytton

and the second Afghan war ; Lord Ripon and non-
intervention ; self-government .....



333



338



12 CONTENTS

CHAPTER PAGE

XXXV. 1884-98 : Lord Dufferin and the third Burmese war ; Lord

Elgin II . . ".'"'.'".- . . . .346
XXXVI. 1899-1914 : Lord Curzon and his successors . 349



APPENDIX

A. THE QUEEN'S PROCLAMATION, NOVEMBER 1, 1858 . . 365

B. IMPERIAL MESSAGE TO PRINCES AND PEOPLES OF INDIA,

NOVEMBER 2, 1908 . . CJ8

C. THE KING'S MESSAGE TO HIS PEOPLES OVERSEAS (1914). 370

D. THE HISTORY SYLLABUS OF THE CALCUTTA UNIVERSITY . 372

INDEX 375



PAGE

GEORGE V, KING-EMPEROR . . . . Frontispiece

BUDDHA (from a brass statuette of sixth century) . .4

ALEXANDER THE GREAT (the Tivoli Herm) . . . .58

SARNATH CAPITAL ASOKA PERIOD , . , 65

ASOKA'S INSCRIPTION (at Rummindei) ".*.. . . . 67
ASOKA PILLAR (at Lauriya-Nandangarh, Champaran District) 69
BUDDHA (Graeco-Buddhist) . . . . . . .75

THE GREAT STUPA (Sanchi, restored) . . . * " . . 76
SEATED BUDDHA, SARNATH GUPTA PERIOD . , 84

SKANDA-GUPTA'S PILLAR, BHITARI . . .< .- . 87

PILLARS, JAIN TEMPLE, OSIA lOrn OR HTH CENTURY . . 106

A TIBETAN LAMA 107

KUTB MINAR . . . . . . : . 117

GATEWAY, ATALA DEVI MOSQUE, JAUNPUR . .135

THE COUNCIL HALL, .VIJAYANAGAR ..... 137

GURU NANAK * . . . . . . . 146

CHAITANYA (from a photo of a contemporary wooden statue pre-
served at Pratapapur, Orissa, supplied by Babu N. N. Vasu) . 149

BABUR . .152

TOMB OF HUMAYUN . 157

ALBUQUERQUE . . 161

COIN OF CHARLES II (Bombay rupee) . . . . 165

AKBAR (from a MS. in the Bodleian Library) . . . 170
DlWAN-1-KHA.s OF DELHI PALACE . i .... 202
THE TAJ MAHAL ... ..".'.. 206

AURANGZEB .......... 208

NAWAB SHAYISTA KHAN 211

INDIAN COINS . . . 220

LORD CLIVE 257

WARREN HASTINGS . . . . . . . . 262

LORD CORNWALLIS . . 27"

THE MARQUESS WELLESLEY ...... 28o

LORD WILLIAM CAVENDISH-BENTINCK ..... 307

MARQUESS OF DALHOUSIE . . . . . . .319

VICTORIA (from an engraving by Wyon) .... 352



MAPS



PAGE

INDIA, PHYSICAL FEATURES 20-21

ALEXANDER'S ROUTE ........ 60

EMPIRE OF ASOKA . . . . . . .71

CONQUESTS OF SAMUDRAGUPTA AND THE GUPTA EMPIRE . 78

INDIA IN A. D. 640 89

INDIA IN 1605 182

THE CARNATIC 247

PARTS OF BENGAL, &c. 254

INDIA IN 1795 . .285

MARATHA WARS 288

RANJIT SINGH'S DOMINIONS 317

THE BURMESE WARS 321

INDIA IN 1857 329

INDIAN EMPIRE AND CEYLON, 1915 . . To face, page 364



BOOK I
PHYSICAL FEATURES : ANCIENT INDIA

CHAPTER I

The geographical foundation of history : the physical features of India.

Geography the foundation of history. ' Geography is ', as
has been well said, ' the foundation of all historical knowledge.'
The history of India, like that of other lands, cannot be under-
stood unless regard is paid to the physical features of the stage
on which the long drama of her story has been played, and
before we attempt a rapid survey of the actors' deeds we must
pause to consider the manner in which the position and
structure of India have affected human action.

Exclusion of Burma and Ceylon. The Indian empire as now
constituted includes the kingdom of Burma to the east of the
Bay of Bengal, which was annexed in three instalments in
the years 1826, 1852, and 1886. Burma, however, which has
a history of its own, is not naturally a part of India. Its affairs,
therefore, will not be discussed in this book, except incidentally
as episodes in the Indian story. The island of Ceylon, on the
other hand, although physically an imperfectly severed frag-
ment of the mainland, is not a part of the Indian empire, being
administered as a Crown colony under the direction of the
Secretary of State for the Colonies. For this reason, and also
because the island, like Burma, has a history of its own, the
annals of Ceylon do not come within the scope of this book,
except so far as they have been affected by the direct action
of Indian powers.

Boundaries of India. The India with which we are con-
cerned is the distinct geographical unit bounded on the north



16 PHYSICAL FEATURES

by the ranges of the Himalaya and Karakoram, on the north-
west by the mountains to the west of the Indus, on the north-
east by the hills of Assam and Cachar, and everywhere else
by the sea. The unit so defined includes both a continental
area, outside the tropics, extending from the mouths of the
Indus in N. lat. 25 on the west to the mouths of the Ganges
in about N. lat. 23 on the east, and a triangular peninsular area
within the tropics, terminating at Cape Comorin, N. lat. 8 4'.
The northern land frontier measures about 1,600, the north-
western about 1,200 and the north-eastern about 500 miles.
The length of the sea-coast may be taken as 3,400 miles, more
or less.

Physical isolation of India. The leading fact in the position
above described as affecting history is the obvious physical
isolation of India. In ancient times, when no power attempted
to assert full command of the sea, a country so largely sur-
rounded by the ocean was inaccessible for the most part, and
could be approached by land through its continental section
only. The north-eastern hills and the gigantic Himalayan
and Karakoram ranges present few openings at all passable,
and none easy of passage for considerable bodies of men.
But the hills west of the Indus are pierced by many passes
more or less open. The land gates of India are all on her
north-western frontier, and this physical fact dominated her
whole history for thousands of years.

Isolation destroyed by command of the sea. The command
of the sea acquired by the Portuguese at the end of the fifteenth
century and ultimately inherited by the British has destroyed
the isolation of India. To a modern power possessing an
adequate fleet, the sea is a bond of union not a barrier of
separation, and so it has come about that India, while still
separated from the adjoining continental empires of Russia,
Persia, and China by mountain ramparts, is closely bound to
the remote island of Great Britain by means of the British
control of the ocean routes.

Modern importance of the ports. The ports are now the



PHYSICAL FEATURES 17

main gates, and the north-western passes are but posterns.
No hostile force entering India by any of the ancient land
routes could hold more than a limited area in the north-west
against a power exercising command of the sea. While the
traveller from Bombay easily reaches London in a fortnight,
Delhi is still almost as far from Ghazni or Samarkand as it was
in the days of Mahmud and Babur.

Distribution of the great cities. In former times the great
cities and capitals of states were built inland and usually on
the banks of rivers, which offered the best means of communi-
cation and transport. Now, the position of the greatest cities
is determined by the facilities for harbour accommodation, and
it is desirable that the capital of the empire "should be in close
touch with the sea. Bombay owes her modern greatness
solely to her magnificent natural harbour, which enables her
to deal with the commerce of the world. Calcutta, although
not so favoured by nature, is still a great port, and as such
was well qualified to be the imperial capital, as it was from
1774 to 1912. The remoteness from the sea is a serious dis-
advantage to Delhi, the newly appointed official capital.

Want of harbours on the east coast. The lack of good
harbours on the eastern coast fit for big modern ships has
killed or half killed the ancient towns on that side of India.
Ports which were good enough for the tiny vessels of ancient
times are of no use for the great steamers of these days.
Madras, in order to save herself from ruin, has been obliged
to supply natural deficiency by the construction of an artificial
harbour at enormous cost. Most of the harbours on the
eastern side of India, such as they were, have become so choked
with sand and silt as to be almost useless, even for small
coasting craft. This physical change has involved the utter
ruin of famous old ports, Kavirlpaddanam, Korkai, and others.

Natural division between north and south. Next in impor-
tance to the physical isolation of India, as it existed for count-
less years, is the natural separation of the north from the
south effected by the broad belt of hill and forest running



18 PHYSICAL FEATURES

from the Gulf of Cambay on the west to the mouths of the
Mahanadi on the east. The country lying between this barrier
and the Himalaya, although not altogether devoid of hills, is
essentially a plain watered by two river systems, those of the
Indus and the Ganges. The parting or watershed of the two
systems is marked by the Aravalli (Pariyatra) hills of Rajpu-
tana. The great plain, formed of silt deposited from the
rivers, has been the scene of nearly all the Indian historical
events interesting to the outer world. It lies outside the
tropics. The peninsular region to the south of the forest
barrier lies wholly within the tropics, and until recent times
has been so secluded from the rest of the world that the history
of its many principalities and powers, excepting some on the
coast, has been little known or regarded.

The forest barrier, or Mahakantara, and the Narbada river.
The forest barrier itself, Mahakantara of old books, used to be
a no-man's-land, lying outside the limits of the regularly con-
stituted states, and usually left in the hands of its wild inhabi-
tants. It is now shared by several provincial governments,
and is gradually losing its former distinct character. In very
early times this forest belt was practically impenetrable at
most points, and the slight intercourse between north and
south had to be conducted usually either by sea or by a land
route along the eastern coast. The forest barrier being broad
and ill-defined, a more definite boundary is needed for literary
use. Ancient authority, accordingly, warrants the assumption
of the Narbada river as the conventional line dividing the
north from the south, and this convention is sufficiently sup-
ported by the facts of history to be justified in practice.

Aryavarta, or Hindustan and the Deccan. The northern
plains were called by Hindu authors Aryavarta, ' the Aryan



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