Vincent Arthur Smith.

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EX LIBRIS




LOUISE ARNER BOYD




?r. & D. Dcicncy



OEOKGE V, KIKG-EMPEEOR



THE OXFORD

STUDENT'S HISTORY OF

INDIA



BY



VINCENT A. SMITH, CLE.

M.A. (dUBL. & OXON.), HON. LITT. D. (dUBL.), I.C.S. RETIHEC,

AUTHOR OF 'THE EARLY HISTORY OF INDIA ',

* THE OXFORD HISTORY OF INDIA ', ETC.



NINTH EDITION

REVISED BY
H. G. RAWLINSON, M.A., I.E.S.

15 MAPS AND 32 ILLUSTRATIONS



OXFORD
AT THE CLARENDON PRESS

LONDON EDINBURGH GLASGOW NEW YORK
TORONTO MELBOURNE CAPE TOWN BOMBAY

HUMPHREY MILFORD
1921



EXTRACT FROM PREFACE TO
FIFTH EDITION

The three earlier revisions of this book were directed ahnost
exclusively to the correction of minute inaccuracies, the paging
and bulk of the volume remaining unaltered . On this occasion,
^vhile the process of minute correction has been continued and
possibly completed, the principal purpose of the revision has
been different. When the book was first planned, I was re-
quested to make it small and condensed. Now that it has
been A\idely used for six j^ears, experienced teachers ask that
the historical facts should be narrated in fuller detail, that the
causes of important revolutions should be clearly explained,
that the state of society in different periods should be described,
that the story of India under the Crown should be 'told at
greater length, that the narrative should be brought down to
the present time, that a sketch of the nature of the sources or
original authorities should be supplied, and that the number
of maps and illustrations should be largely increased. The
advantages to be obtained by adopting those suggestions seem
to outweigh the evil of increased bulk. A book as highly con-
densed as the earlier editions were must be rather dry, and
omit so much that the truth is apt to be distorted. On the
other hand, the writer of a school history should be extremely
careful not to overload his pages. Young students should
not be burdened with anything like the mass of detail which
is proper in a history composed on a large scale. The author
has tried to attain the golden mean by complying to a con-
siderable extent with the suggestions offered, while refusing
to insert much matter which some people would prefer to
include. Special attention has been paid to simplicity of
language and the avoidance of difficult words.

The three notes on the nature of the sources or original

\

2091 4 1 a



6 PREFACE

authorities for the history of the Hindu, Muhammadan, and
British periods have been inserted by special request, and are
designed for the benefit of teachers rather than of pupils.

VINCENT A. SMITH.



PREFACE TO THE NINTH
EDITION

Owing to the lamented death of the Author, I have been
asked to prepare a fresh edition of this book for the press.
Mr. Vincent Smith's vast knowledge of the whole field of
Indian history and his accuracy in detail leave little work
for the reviser to undertake. There are, however, many points
upon which historians will always differ, and I have ventured to
make some slight alterations in certain passages which might
hurt the susceptibilities of Indian readers. For this reason
I have revised certain paragraphs concerning the Vedic
age, and have rewritten others relating to Sivaji, Akbar,
and Aurangzeb. I have added a paragraph to Chapter VII
on the importance of Indian overseas trade during the
Buddhist period. I have also rewTitten the last ten pages
of the book so as to bring the narrative completely up to
date ; in these pages I have tried to explain to my young
readers exactly what India did in the Great War, and I have
attempted to analyse in simple language the Montagu-
Chelmsford reforms. In doing this, I have followed, to a
great extent, the excellent pamphlet entitled The New India,
by Sir Narayan Chandavarkar, recently issued by the Oxford
University Press, which puts the whole scheme in an admirably
clear and simple manner. To those who think that a dispro-
portionate amount of space has been devoted to this part of
the subject I would venture to point out that a training in
citizenship is a crying need of India to-day. It is of the



PREFACE 7

utmost importance that young men of the upper forms of
schools, who are just about to go out into the world, should
have a clear conception of their duties and privileges as
citizens of the Indian Empire.

It is probable that this little book may still contain state-
ments which are unpalatable to some classes of readers. To
these I can only say that in revising the following pages, I have
tried to be strictly impartial and to

Nothing extenuate
Nor aught set down in malice.

H. G. RAWLINSON.

Dharwar, 1920.




.sivAJi



CONTENTS

BOOK I

PHYSICAL FEATURES : ANCIENT INDIA

CHAPTER PAGE

I. The geographical foundation of history : the physical

features of India , . . . . . .15

II. The peoples of India : aborigines ; Aryans ; Indo-Aryans ;

Dravidians ; foreign elements ..... 24

III. Early Hindu civilization : the Vedas ; Smriti ; the

Puranas ; the epics ; Buddhism and Jainism ; caste . 31

BOOK II

HINDU INDIA FROM 650 B.C. TO A.D. 1193:
MAHMUD OF GHAZNI

Sources of Hindu history before the Muhammadan conquest 53

IV. The dynasties preceding the Mauryas : Kosala ; Magadha ;

the Nandas ; Alexander the Great .... 55
V. The Maurya empire : Chandragupta ; accounts of India

by Greek writers ; Asoka and his successors . . 61

VI. The foreign dynasties of the north-west : the Kushan
(Kusana) empire ; Kanishka ; the Saka era ; art and
literature ........ 72~

VII. The Gupta empire : the Hunas or White Huns ; reign
of Harsha ; state of civilization ; Chinese pilgrims ;
Kalidasa ; foreign trade ...... 77

VIII. The Muhammadan conquest of Sind : the rise of the

Rajputs ; some Rajput kingdoms .... 88

IX. The kingdoms of the Deccan and the Far South . . 93

X. The Muhammadan conquest of the Panjab : Sultan

Mahmud of Ghazni ....... 97

XI. Hindu civilization on the eve of the Muhammadan rule

in Hindustan ........ 102

A3



10 CONTENTS



BOOK III

THE MUHAMMAD AN CONQUEST; THE SULTANATE

OF DELHI (SO-CALLED ' PATHAN EMPIRE') FROM

A.D. 1193 TO 1526

CHAPTER PAGE

Sources of Indo-Muhammadan history ... 109

XII. Muhammad of Ghor (Ghorl) : conquest of Hindustan,
Bengal, and Bihar ; Kutb-ud-din Ibak ; the so-called
' Pathan dynasties ' ; the Mongol (Mughal) invasions ;
end of the Slave Kings . . . . . .111

XIII. The Khilji sultans of Delhi : Ala-ud-din ; the Tughlak

dynasty ......... 120

XIV. Decline of the sultanate of Delhi : Firoz and the other

successors of Muhammad bin Tughlak ; Timur ; the
Lodi dynasty . ....... 125

XV. The Muhammadan kingdoms of Bengal, Jaunpur, Gujarat,
Malwa, and the Deccan : the Hindu kingdoms of
Vijayanagar, Mewar, and Orissa ; literature and
architecture ; the Urdu language ; spread of Muham-
madanism : Hindu religious sects . . . .130



BOOK IV

THE MUGHAL EMPIRE FROM A.D. 1526 TO 1761

XVI. Babur : Humayun ; Sher Shah and the Sur dynast^' . 1.!>1

XVII. European voyages to India : discovery of the Cape route ;
the Portuguese, Dutch, Danish, French, and English
Companies ; early settlements . . . . . 1 59

XVIII. The reign of Akbar : TodarMall; Abu-lFazl . . . 168

XIX. The reigns of, Jahangir and Shahjahan : Sir Thomas

Roe; Bemier ; Mughal architecture . . . .191

XX. The reign of Aurangzeb : his treatment of the Hindus ;

the Rajput revolt; Sivaji and the rise of the Marathas 207

XXI. The successors of Aurangzeb : Bahadur Shah, &c. ;
Muhammad Shah ; invasion of Nadir Shah ; growth
of Maratha power ; Ahmad Shah Durrani ; the third
battle of Panlpat ....... 225



CONTENTS



11



BOOK V

THE BRITISH OR ANGLO-INDIAN PERIOD ; RULE
OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY FROM 1761 TO 1858

CHAPTER PAGE

Sources of Anglo-Indian history . 236

XXII. Transitional period : conflict of the French and English in

Southern India : Dupleix, &c. ; Haidar Ali and Mysore 238
XXIII. The English in Bengal : Siraj-ud-daula ; battle of Plassey ;

the Company as sovereign of Bengal .... 248

XXIV. Bengal affairs : the Regulating Act ; Warren Hastings,

the first Governor-General ; the fii-st Maratha war . 2.59

XXV. Mr. Macpherson ; Lord Cornwallis ; Pitt's India Act ;
Permanent Settlement and reforms ; the third Mysore
war ; Sir John Shore ...... 27.5

XXVI. Lord AVellesley : fourth Mysore war ; second Maratha

war; subsidiary alliances . . . . . .282

XXVII. Lord Cornwallis again ; Sir George Barlow ; Lord Minto ;

abolition of trade monopoly ..... 290

XXVIII. Lord Hastings : Nepalese, Pindarl, and Maratha wars ;

Lord Amherst ; first Burmese war .... 295

XXIX. Lord William Bentinck : reforms ; charter of 1833 ; Sir

Charles Metcalfe and the press ..... 305

XXX. Lords Auckland, Ellenborough, and Hardinge : first
Afghan war ; conquest of Sind ; war with Sindia ;

first Sikh war . .312

XXXI. Lord Dalhousie : second Sikh war ; second Burmese
war ; doctrine of lapse ; annexations ; material
progress ......... 318

XXXII. Lord Canning : the Mutiny ; the Queen's Proclamation . 326



BOOK VI

THE BRITISH OR ANGLO-INDIAN PERIOD
UNDER THE CROWN



INDIA



XXXIII. 1858-69 : Reconstruction ; Lord Canning ; Lord Elgin I ;

Lord Lawrence ....... 333

XXXIV. 1869-84 : Lord Mayo ; Lord Northbrook ; Lord Lytton

and the second Afghan war ; Lord Ripon and non-
intervention ; self-government ..... 338



12



CONTENTS



CHAPTER PAGK

XXXV. 1884-98 : Lord DufEerin and the third Burmese war ; Lord

Elgin II 346

XXXVI. 1899-1920: Lord Curzon and his successors; the Great

War : the Reforms ....... 349



APPENDIXES

A. The Queen's Peoclamation, Novembeb 1, 1858 . . 387

B. Imperial Message to Princes and Peoples of India,

November 2, 1998 37U

C. The King's Message TO HIS Peoples Overseas (1914) . 372

D. The King's Proclamation at Passing op Reform

Bill (1919) 374



PAGE

20-21



MAPS

Ikdia, Physical Features ......

Alexander's Route ....... 60

Empire of Asoka ........ 71

Conquests of Samudbagupta and the Gupta Empire . 78

India in a. d. 640 . . ' 89

India in 1605 .' . . . . . . - .182

The Carnatic 247

Parts of Bengal, &c. 254

Plan of the Battle of Plassey (Rennell) . . . 257

India in 1795 . . . 285

Maratha Wars . 288

Ran jit Singh's Dominions 317

The Burmese W^ars . . . . , . . . .321

India in 1867 329

Indian Empire and Ceylon, 1915 . . To face -page 364



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



George V, Kikg-Emperor .... Fronti

Buddha (from a brass statuette of sixth century) -
Sivaj! ..........

Alexander the Great (the Tivoli 'Herm) . . .

Sarnath Capital — Asoka Period ....

Asoka's Inscription (at Rummindei) ....

Asoka Pillar (at Lauriya-Nandangarhj Champaran District)
Buddha (Graeco-Buddhist) ......

The Great Stupa (Sanchi, restored) ....

Seated Buddha, Sarnath — Gupta Period .

Pillars, Jain Temple, Osia — 10th or 11th Century .

A Tibetan Lama .......

KUTB MiNAR . . . '

Gateway, Atala Devi Mosque, Jaunpur

The Council Hall, Vijayanagar

Guru Nanak ......

Chaitanya (from a photo of a contemporary wooden statue pre

served at Pratapapur, Orissa, supplied by Babu N. N. Vasu)
Babur ......

Tomb of Humayun .....

Albuquerque .....

Coin of Charles II (Bombay rupee) .
Akbar (from a MS. in the Bodleian Library)
DiWAN-i-KHAS of Delhi Palace .

The Taj Mahal

aurangzeb .......

Xawab Shayista Kh.an ....

Indian Coins ......

Warren Hastings .....

Lord Cornwallis . . . .

The Marquess Wellesley

Lord William Cavendish-Bentinck .

iNlARQUESS of Dalhousie ....



PAGE

spiece
4



Gita.



And East and West, without a breath
Mix their dim lights, Hke Life and Death,
To broaden into boundless day.

Tennyson.



BOOK I
PHYSICAL FEATURES : ANCIENT INDIA

CHAPTER I

The geographical foundation of history : the phj'sical features of India.

Geography the foundation of history. ' Geography is', as
has been well said, ' the foundation of all historical knowledge.'
The history of India, like that of other lands, cannot be under-
stood unless regard is paid to the physical features of the stage
on which the long drama of her story has been played, and
before we attempt a rapid survey of the actors' deeds we must
pause to consider the manner in which the position and
structure of India have affected human action.

Exclusion of Burma and Ceylon. The Indian empire as now
constituted includes the kingdom of Burma to the east of the
Bay of Bengal, which was annexed in three instalments in
the years 1826, 1852, and 1886. Burma, however, which has
a histor}' of its own, is not naturally a part of India. Its affairs,
therefore, will not be discussed in this book, except incidentally
as ei^isodes in the Indian story. The islajid of Ceylon, on the
other hand, although physically an imperfectly severed frag-
ment of the mainland, is not a part of the Indian empire, being
administered as a Crown colony under the direction of the
Secretarj' of State for the Colonies. For this reason, and also
Jjecause the island, like Burma, has a history of its own, the
annals of Ceylon do not come within the scope of this book,
except so far as they have been affected by the direct action
of Indian powers.

Boundaries of India. The India with which we are con-
cerned is the distinct geographical unit bounded on the north



16 PHYSICAL FEATURES

by the ranges of the Himalaya and Karakoram, on the north-
west by the mountains to the west of the Indus, on the north-
east by the hills of Assam and Cachar, and everywhere else
by the sea. The unit so defined includes both a continental
area, outside the tropics,' extending from the mouths of the
Indus in N. lat. 25° on the west to the mouths of the Ganges
in about N. lat. 23° on the east, and a triangular peninsular area
within the tropics, terminating at Cape Comorin, N. lat. 8° 4'.
The northern land frontier measures about 1,600, the north-
western about 1,200 and the north-eastern about 500 miles.
The length of the sea -coast may be taken as 3,400 miles, more
or less.

Physical isolation of India. The leading fact in the position
above described as affecting history is the obvious physical
isolation of India. In ancient times, when no power attempted
to assert full command of the sea, a country so largely sur-
rovmded by the ocean was inaccessible for the most part, and
could be approached by land through its continental section
only. The north-eastern hills and the gigantic Himalayan
and Karakoram ranges present few openings at all passable,
and none easy of passage for considerable bodies of men.
But the hills west of the Indus are pierced by many passes
more or less open. The land gates of India are all on her
north-western frontier, and this physical fact dominated her
whole history for thousands of years.

Isolation destroyed by command of the sea. The command
of the sea acquired by the Portuguese at the end of the fifteenth
century and ultimately inherited by the British has destroyed
the isolation of India. To a modern power possessing an
adequate fleet, the sea is a bond of union not a barrier of
separation, and so it has come about that India, while still
separated from the adjoining continental empires of Russia,
Persia, and China by mountain ramparts, is closely bound to
the remote island of Great Britain by means of the British
control of the ocean routes.

Modern importance of the ports. The ports are now the



PHYSICAL FEATUrtES 17

main gates, and the north-western passes are but posterns.
No hostile force entering India by any of the ancient land
routes could hold more than a limited area in the north-Avest
against a power exercising command of the sea. While the
traveller from Bombay easily reaches London in a fortnight,
Delhi is still almost as far from Ghazni or Samarkand as it was
in the days of Mahmud and Babur.

Distribution of the great cities. In former times the great
cities and capitals of states were built inland and usually on
the banks of rivers, which offered the best means of communi-
cation and transport. Now, the position of the greatest cities
is determined by the facilities for harbour accommodation, and
it is desirable that the capital of the empire should be in close
touch with the sea. Bombay owes her modern greatness
solely to her magnificent natural harbour, which enables her
to deal with the commerce of the w^orld. Calcutta, although
not so favoured by nature, is still a great port, and as such
was well qualified to be the imperial capital, as it was from
1774 to 1912. The remoteness from the sea is a serious dis-
advantage to Delhi, the newly appointed official capital.

Want of harbours on the east coast. The lack of good
harbours on the eastern coast fit for big modern ships has
killed or half killed the ancient towns on that side of India.
Ports which were good enough for the tiny vessels of ancient
times are of no use for the great steamers of these days.
Madras, in order to save herself from ruin, has been obliged
to supply natural deficiency by the construction of an artificial
harbour at enormous cost. Most of the harbours on the
eastern side of India, such as they were, have become so choked
with sand and silt as to be almost useless, even for small
coasting craft. This physical change has involved the utter
ruin of famous old ports, Kaviripaddanam, Korkai, and others.

Natural division between north and south. Next in impor-
tance to the physical isolation of India, as it existed for count-
less 3^ears, is the natural separation of the north from the
isouth effected by the broad belt of hill and forest running



18 PHYSICAL FEATURES

from the Gulf of Cambay on the west to the mouths of the
Mahanadi on the east. The country lying between this barrier
and the Himalaya, although not altogether devoid of hills, is
essentially a plain watered by two river systems, those of the
Indus and the Ganges. The parting or watershed of the two
systems is marked by the Aravalli (Pariyatra) hills of Rajpu-
tana. The great plain, formed of silt deposited from the
rivers, has been the scene of nearly all the Indian historical
events interesting to the outer world. It lies outside the
tropics. ^The peninsular region to the south of the forest
barrier lies wholly within the tropics, and until recent times
has been so secluded from the rest of the world that the history
of its many principalities and powers, excepting some on the
coast, has been little known or regarded.

The forest barrier, or Mahakantara, and the Narbada river.
The forest barrier itself, Mahakantara of old books, used to be
a no-man's-land, lying outside the limits of the regularly con-
stituted states, and usually left in the hands of its wild inhabi-
tants. It is now shared by several provincial governments,
and is gradually losing its former distinct character. In very
early times this forest belt was practically impenetrable at
most points, and the slight intercourse between north and
south had to be conducted usually either by sea or by a land
route along the- eastern coast. The forest barrier being broad
and ill-defmed, a more definite boundary is needed for literary
use. Ancient authority, accordingly, warrants the assumption
of the Narbada river as the conventional line dividing the
north from the south, and this convention is sufficiently sup-
ported by the facts of history to be justified in practice.

Aryavarta, or Hindustan and the Deccan. The northern
plains were called by Hindu authors Aryavarta, ' the Aryan
territory,' and by the Muhammadans Hindustan, ' the Hindu
territory.' Modern usage sometimes extends the term Hindu-
stan to the whole of India. The ancients generally designated
the whole southern peninsular area by the Sanskrit word
daJcshina, meaning ' south ', which is familiar in its corrupt



PHYSICAL FEATURES 19

English form as ' the Deccan '. But the term ' Deccan ' is now
commonly restricted to the plateau or highlands to the north
of the Kistna (Krishna) and Tungabhadra rivers, which are
mostly included in the Nizam's Dominions and the Bombay
Presidency. The Far South, or Tamil Land {Tamilakam),
which comprises the bulk of the Madras Presidency with the
addition of the Mysore, Cochin, and Travancore States, is
treated as distinct from the Deccan. But historically Mysore
has been more closely connected with the Deccan states than
with those of Tamil Land.

The historian's three divisions of India. As a matter of
fact the three divisions of Hindustan or Aryavarta, to the
north of the Narbada ; the Deccan, between the Tapti and
the Tungabhadra ; and the Far South or Tamil Land, from the
Tungabhadra to Cape Comorin, usually have had separate
histories. The historian of India, therefore, finds it con-
venient to restrict his main narrative of events before the
British period to Hindustan, which was most in touch with
the outer world, and to devote distinct chapters to the account
of events in the Deccan and the Far South. Most of the events
of at all general interest occurred in one or other of the three
regions named above. The affairs of Mahakantara, or the
central belt of jungle, of the Himalayan slopes and valleys,
including Nepal and Kashmir, as well as those of the basin
of the Brahmaputra, including Assam, ordinarily fall outside
of the main current of Indian history. The administrative
arrangements of modern India take little account of physical
features and natural geographical boundaries.

Basins of the Indus and Ganges. Within the area of Arya-
varta or Hindustan we must distinguish the basin of the Indus
and its tributaries, comprising the Panjab, Sind, Cutch, and
Rajputana to the west of the Aravalli hills, from the basin of
the Ganges and its affluents. The history of the countries
along the lower course of the Ganges, the modern province of
Bengal, is distinct in large measure from that of the countries
along the upper course of the same river, now mostly included










■ Maldiue Is.



22 PHYSICAL FEATURES

in the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. South Bihar and
Tirhut, the ancient Magadha and Mithila respectively, although
now under the government of the newly formed artificial pro-
vince of ' Bihar and Orissa ', are associated historically rather
more with the upper than with the lower provinces. The out-
lying peninsula of Surashtra, or Kathiawar, being most easil}'
accessible through Malwa, was often included in the northern
-empires of the Gangetic basin.

The * Lost River '. The extensive desert which now occupies
so large an area in Rajputana and Sind was much smaJler in
ancient times, when the ' Lost River ', the Hakra or Wahindah
flowed through the Bahawalpur State, and with its tributaries
fertilized wide regions now desolate. During the Muham-
madan period that river was the recognized boundary between
Sind and Hind, or India Proper. It disappeared finally in the
•eighteenth century, but its ancient channels and the ruins of
forgotten cities on their banks may be seen still. Failure to
appreciate the enormous scale of the changes in the courses of
the rivers of Northern India has caused much misunderstanding
of history. In olden days the command of the rivers was as
important as the command of the sea is now.

The Western and Eastern Ghats ; the plain of Tinnevelly.
The long chain of hills or mountains of moderate height,
known as the Sahyadri or Western Ghats, which extends, with
■only one short break at Palghat, from the Narbada to Cape
■Comorin, plays an important part in Indian history. It shuts
off from the interior highlands the low-lying fertile strip of land
between the hills and the sea, called the Konkans, which has
been the seat of trade with Europe since remote ages.^ The
passes, which do not change like rivers, have necessarily deter-

^ Ancient Hindu authorities name ' Seven Konkans', extending to Cape
Comorin. ' The Konkan is now held to include all the land which lies
between the Western Ghats and the Indian Ocean, from the latitude of
Daman on the north [20° 25'] to that of Torekhol, on the Goa frontier
[about 15° 43'], on the south. This tract is about 320 miles in length '
{Bombay Gazetteer, 1896, vol. i, part ii, p. ix).



PHYSICAL FEATURES 23

mined the lines of intercourse between the coast and the kmg-
doms of the interior. The facilities for erecting forts on the
flat-topped hills of the Ghats and Deccan have largely influ-
enced the course of history, especially during the seventeenth
and eighteenth centuries, when the Maratha power was based
on the possession of the hill -fortresses. The ill-defined range of
the Eastern Ghats has less historical significance. The arid



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