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have been an island. Circe is called Aeaean, i.e, Colchian, because
she was an enchantress like the famous Medea of Colchis.

387. (ante)quam possis : denoting an act in preparation for which
the main act takes place ; hence the subjunctive ; B. 2i)2, and 1 ; A.
651, c; G. 657; H. 606, ii.

388. signa: i.e. indications of arrival at your goal. condita
teneto : keep them treasured.

389. tibi soUicito : in your time of trouble ; literally, to you trou-
bled, i.e, troubled by foes in Italy ; tibi is Dative of Reference.

390. litoreis : on the banks (of the Tiber). inventa jacebit : shall
be found lying ; literally, found shall lie.

391. triginta capitum fetus : a litter of thirty young ; literally, of
thirty heads.

392. albi . . . nati: i.e. et albi circum nati jacebunt ; albi nati otq
* her white offspring.' The prophecy is fulfilled in viii. 82.



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256 NOTES TO BOOK III, LINES 394^09.

394. nee : poetical for neu, which is the proper connecting negati^i
with the imperative. mensanim morsus : cf. line 257.

395., yiam : Le. a way of avoiding that fulfilment of the prophecy
which you expect.

396. Itali hanc Iit6ri8 bram, etc.: i,e, the southeastern ooast of
Italy. Translate oram^ *line.'

397. prozima : superlatives have a tendency to connect themselves
with the relative when logically belonging with the antecedent. So
here^roo^'nta logically belongs with oranij and n^ay be combined with
it in translation. nostri aequoris : i,e. the southern portion of the
\.driatic west of Epirus.

398. cuncta • . • moenia: southern Italy was studded with Greek
settlements. Hence the name Magna Graecia was often applied to this
district. Grais : Dative of Agency ; B. 189, 3 ; A. 875, a ; G. 854,
N. 1 ; H. 431, 6.

399. hie et : here too^ i,B, in southern Italy. Ifarycii Locri: the
followers of Ajax, son of Oileus, came from Naryx in Locris. After
the loss of their leader in the storm that overwhelmed their fleet on the
return from Troy, they are said to have founded the city of Locri in
southern Italy.

401. Lyctius Idomeneus i concerning Idomeneus, see note on line
122. duels Philoetetae : Philoctetes, on his return from Troy, had
been driven out of his native town in consequence of a revolution.
With a company of followers he emigrated to southern Italy, where he
established the city of Petelia.

402. subniiui muro : ordinarily a town is surrounded by walls. Petelia
is described as resting on its walls. The city was built on the summit
of a steep cliff. Hence the wall on which it rested afforded sufficient
defence.

403. quin: nay, more* transmissae trans aeqnora: having
crossed the seas; ^.e. having reached Italy. steterint: shall stand
moored,

404. positisaris! having erected altars, jam: ai length.

405. purpureo • . • amietu : velars is imperative. Both veilars and
adopertus have middle force. The idea is: shroud and cover thy head
foith a purple mantle t

406. ne qua hostilis faeies, etc. : i.e, lest anything of evil portent
meet thy gaze. The Romans were most scrupulous to avoid seeing or
hearing anything of evil omen during a sacrifice. sanetos ignis : i,e.
the fires of the sacrifice.

409. hae casti maneant in relligione nepotes: the custom referred



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NOTES TO BOOK 111, LINES 410-432. 257

to, already an old one with the Romans in Viigil's day, is explained
by the poet as handed down from Aeneas.

410. digressum : viz. from the southern coast of Italy ; digressum
is the participle.

411. angnsti claustra Pelori : Pelorus is a mountain at the Straits of
Messina. Hence angusti belongs logically to claustra^ — ^ the narrow
bars of Pelorus.* rarescent: shall open. As one sails up toward
the Straits of Messina from the south, the passage at first seems closed,
but as one draws nearer * the narrow bars open,' and the strait comes
into view.

412. laeya tibi tellus, etc, : i,e, Aeneas is cautioned not to go through
the Straits, but to sail southward along the shore to his left, viz, along
the east coast of Sicily ; tihi is Dative of Agency ; c/. note on Grais^
in line 898.

413. dextmm litus : {.0. the shore of Italy itself.

414. ruina : upheaval.

415. tantum aevi yalet matare, etc.: so great changes can time
^ect; aevi limits vetustas,

416. com protinus, etc. : though the two lands were {hitherto) one
unbroken country; literally, continuously one; foret = esset,

417. venit medio: came in between; medio is a noun, used as a
Dative of Direction.

418. Siculo: firom the Sicilian; understand latere,

419. litore: Ablative of Specification with diductas. angusto
aestu : by a narrow tide-way,

421. ter : according to line 666 f., this seems to mean thrice in suc-
cession.

422. sorbet: viz, Charybdis. inabruptum: downwards.

423. alternos: with adverbial force, — alternately, sidera yer-
beratnnda: Hyperbole.

426. prima hominis fades, etc. : a description of Scylla : her upper
portion has (literally, is) the appearance of a human beitig, and down
to the waist she is a maiden with bosom fair; her lower part is a sea
monster of huge bulky Joining the tails of dolphins to a belly of wolves;
eommissa is used with middle force ; hence the object caudas; utero is
dative.

429. metas lustrare Pachyni: i,e. sail around Sicily; meta, prop-
erly the turning-post in the races of the Circus, is here used figura^
tlvely.

430. cessantem : even at cost of delay.

482. caemleis: sea-colored. canibus: the wolves of line 428.



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268 NOTES TO BOOK III, LINES 433-442.

433. Heleno: Helenus speaks of himself in the third person
prudentia : here in the original sense of the word, — foresight (prtwi*
dentia,)* yaMi as a prophet

434. fides: trustworthiness,

435. illud: explained by what follows (line 437 f.). In English;
this, pro omnibus: instead of all others; i.e. as more important.

437. Junonis, Junoni : emphatic. As traditional enemy of the Tro-
jans, Juno must be appeased. primum : adverb ; before all.



SCYLLA.

438. cane: offer; literally, sing, chant; prayers were couched in
rhythmic formulas. libens: cheerfully; i.e. not as a mere per-
functory formality.

439. supera : win over, conciliate.

440. Trinacria . . . relicta: i.e. thou shalt leave Sicily behind and
be admitted to Italy ; mittere is future indicative and the future force
extends also to the Ablative Absolute ; finis is Accusative of Limit of
Motion.

442. divines lacus : see the note on line 386. They are called
dMnos since near them lies the entrance to the underworld.



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NOTES TO BOOK III, LINES 443-467. 259

443. insanam : frenzied^ inspired. vatem : the famous Cumaean
Sibyl. rape sub ima : in the cavern under the rock (C).

444. foliis notas et nomina mandat : i. e. she jots down words and
symbols on leaves ; literally, commits . . . to leaves. The jottings are
the basis of her prophecies.

445. virgo : the vates of line 443.

448. eadem: referring to the folia ^ — but these same leaves; object
of prendere,

449. janua: te. the opening of the doin*.

451. revocare situs : i.e. to restore them to their places. jungere
carmina : i.e. to put them together again.

452. inconsulti: here in active sense, — without having consulted
her. abeunt : the subject is general, — people (jo aioay, viz, those
who come to consult the oracle.

453. ne qua . . . tanti . . . quin adeas, etc. : let no expenditure
of delay be of so much importance to you that you fail to approach
the Sibyl and ask, etc. ; fuerint is Jussive Subjunctive, the perfect
tense being used essentially with the value of the present; tanti is
a predicate Genitive of Value ; B. 203, 3 ; A. 417 ; G. 380, 1 ;
H. 448, 1 ; quin adeas is a Clause of Result, — of so great impor-
tance that you do not approach ; B. 284, 3 ; G. 654 and n. 3 ;
H. 594, II. and 2.

454. vi : loudly, cursus : the voyage ; here personified. .

455. sinus : = vela. secundos : i.e. with favorable breezes.
457. ipsa canat, etc. : {entreating her) to prophesy herself; canat

and resolvat are Substantive Clauses (without ut) Developed from the
Volitive, dependent upon the idea of asking involved in oracula pos-
cas; ipsa means that the Sibyl is to speak with her own lips, and not
merely refer Aeneas to the leaves. yolens : graciously.

459. quo modo fugias ferasque : Deliberative Subjunctives in
Indirect Question, — how you are to escape and bear.

460. venerata: passive,— c?mZ?/ cw«rea«6c?.

462. ingentem : Prolepsis. fer ad aethera : i.e. make famous.

464. gravia: the final a is here irregularly long. secto ele-
phanto : of sawn ivory ^ i.e. ivory sawed into thin plates and used for
inlaying chairs, sofas, and the like.

466. ingens argentum : massive silver plate. Dodonaeos lebetas :
i.e. like the silver cauldrons at the oracle of Dodona, where priests
interpreted the resonance of the cauldrons as prophetic.

467. consertam hamis: fastened together with hooks; i.e. a corse-
let of chain mail. auro trilicem : literally, triply woven with gold;



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280 K0TB8 TO BOOK III, LINES 468-489.

i.e» made of triple rings of gold, the rings being linked with eadh
other in sets of threes.

468. conam insignis galeae i t.e. a beautiful pointed helmet.

469. et : also. sua : appropriate, parent! : understand meo»

470. duces : pilots.

471. remigium supplet t flUa up the eomplement of the erew8,
Aeneas had lost some of his men in Crete ; see line 140 and </• line
100.

473. ferentis one that bears the ships along. Translate : /avora&7e.

475. conjugio superbo: with the proud honor of wedlock; dignor
takes the same construction as the adjective dignua. dignate : with
passive force.



Chain ICail.

€f9. dm } darling. bis erepte : see the note on it 642.

477. ecce tibi: lo! before thee; tibi is Ethical Dative. Helenua
points toward the Italian coast. arripe : i.e. strive to reach, — yet
Dot immediately. ^

478. banc praeterlabare necesse est : you mwst sail by this; i,e.
for the present; praeterlabare is a SubstantWe Clause (without ut)
Developed from the Volitive, — originally, sail past! you must; and
so, you must sail past,

484. nee cedit bonore : i.e. she does not yield to Helenus in paying
honor to the Trojans.
487* puer : she addresses Ascanius. longum : undying,
489. mihi sola, etc, : 0, thou only surviving image of my Asty-
anax; super, properly an adverb, here has adjective force. Asty-
anactis : son of Hector and Andromache. At the capture of Troy he
was hurled to death from the battlements by the Greeks.



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NOTES TO BOOK III, LINES 490-618. 261

490. sic octtlos, etc, : such eyes did he have, etc.

491. pnbesceret: would be growing up to manhood; apodosls of a
eontrary-to-fact condition, with omitted protasis. One may easily
supply, *if he were now alive.'

493. yivite felices : may ye be happy. The imperative here denotes
a wish rather than a command ; vivere in the sense of ess^ is not un-
common in the poets.

494. sua : destined.

498. melioribtts auspiciia : te, under better auspices than the real
Troy was built.

499. quae fuerit : which shall prove to be.

500. yicina Thybridis : vicinus is here construed with the genitive ;
usually it takes the dative.

602. oognatas urbes, etc. : we will sometime make the sister cities
and kindred nations in Epirus and Helena both one Troy in spirit.
Aeneas refers to the city of Helenus in Epirus, and that which he him-
self is to found in Italy. dim t with faciemus.

6CS. Epiro, Hesperia : Ablatives of Place limiting urbes and popu*
ioSi a poetic usage.

604. idem casus : the same disasters. utramque t resuming urbes
and populos.

605. maneat nostros ea cura nepotes : alluding to the founding by
Augustus of the city of Nicopolis in Epirus, near Actium. The em-
peror decreed that the inhabitants of the new city should be consid-
ered kinsfolk of the Romans.

506-569. The Trojans reach Italy and sail along the coasts of Italy and

Sicily.

507. Italiam : Accusative of Limit of Motion, used as an attributive
modifier of iter and cursus.

509. stemimur : i.e. they land and go to sleep on the shore.- ad
ttndam : near the shore.

510. sortiti remos : {.e. they allot the places at the oars, that they
may embark and get under way without delay,

511. corpora curamus : refresh our bodies.

512. orbem medium: i.e. the middle of its course through the
heavens. noz horis acta: night sped by the hours (Page).

613. haud segnis : Litotes for * vigilant.'

517. armatum auro : alluding particularly to the bright stars in ths
belt and sword of Orion. Oriona : a spondaic ending.

518. cuncta constare; i.e. that the weather la settled.



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262 NOTES TO BOOK III, LINES 519-542.

619. castra moyemus : a technical military expression^ for ' break
camp.'

520. temptamus yiam : essay our course, velorum alas : out
sails as wings; velorum is Appositional Genitive ; the sails are the
wings.

523. Italiam, Italiam, Italiam : the grand objective of the wan-
derers is emphasized by the threefold occurrence of the word.

524. * Italiam' laeto clamore salutant: take up the greeting^
* Italy I * toith glad a^y,

625. cratera corona induit : see the note on i. 724.

527. celsa in puppi: the image of the patron deity of a ship was
set up in the stem.

628. maris: this and the following genitives all depend upon
potentes, ' masters of.'

529. ferte : bring us. yento faCilem : made easy by the vjind.
spirate secundi : the gods are asked to * breathe favorably,' when the
winds are really meant.

530. portus: thought to be the Partus Veneris in Calabria,
pat^scit propior : opens to view as it grows nearer,

531. arce Mineryae : the locality was known ajs Castrum Minervae
in Virgil's time.

532. proras . • . torquent : they approach the shores by rowing.

533. ab Euroo fluctu cunratus : hollowed out by the eastern waves;
the waves are here personified.

534. objectae: i.e. exposed to the fury of the waves. salsa
spumant asparglne : the accumulation of s-sounds is well suited to
the description of foaming waters ; cf. ii. 209, sonitus spumante salo.

535. ipse : the harbor. gemino demittunt bracchia muro turriti
scopuli: tower-like rocks send down ai'ms forming a double wall; i.e.
on either side of the harbor at the entrance is a towering rock from
which springs an arm fonning a wall or breakwater ; gemino mttro
(Ablative of Quality) refers to the two walls, one on each side of the
harbor.

536L refugit : i,e. is set back.

637. primum omen : in apposition with equos.

638. tondentis: cropping.

539. bellum, bello, bellum: note the emphatic repetition. The

horse has already been mentioned in i. 444, as a syn.bol of war ; bello

is Dative of Purpose.

541. olim: at times. curru: dative. sueti: understand stm^

642. jugo: under the yoke; a loose use of the ablative. cOB'



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NOTES TO BOOK III, LINES 648-662. 263

cordia : peac^ully. The epithet is transferred from the horses to the
bit.

543. et: cUso.

644. Palladia armisonae : for Minerva as a goddess of war, tf. 11
425, diva armipotens. quae prima accepit : they had landed at Gas-
trum Miner vae (line 581).

545. Phrygio amictn : tlie purpurea amictu of line 406.

546. praeceptis Helen!, etc. : in accordance with the urgent injunc'
tions of Helenus; see line 4:^7 f.; the superlative maxima^ in accord-
ance with the prevailing Latin tendency, is put with the relative
instead of with the antecedent.

647. Junonl Argivae : Argos wa.s a famous seat of Juno's worship.
jussos adolemus honores: offer the burnt sacrifices as directed; liter-
ally, burn the bidden honors,

549. yelatanim antemnarum : of the sail-clad yards. obverti-
mus : i.e. turn toward the sea or the wind.

550. suspecta arya : cf. 398.

551. tine: with temporal force, — after this, Herciilei: founded
by Hercules, si vera est fama : Virgil speaks as though common
report attributed the founding of Tarentum to Hercules ; but according
to the usual tradition, the city was founded by Taras, son of Neptune.

552. diva Lacinia : te, tlie temple of the Lacinian goddess. The
I*acinian goddess is Juno, whose temple stood upon the promontory
of Lacinium on the coast of Bruttium. contra : i.e. at the opposite
entrance to the Gulf of Tarentum.

555. gemitum ingentem pelagi: the mighty sobbing of the sea,
pulsata saxa : i.e. the rocks along the coast beaten by the surf.

556. longe : with audimus^ — we hear from afar, f ractas ad lit-
ora voces : broken sounds along the shore ; explanatory of pulsata
saxa,

557. aestu mlscentur harenae : the sand is stirred up by the seeth-
ing waters,

558. nimirum haec ilia Charybdis : verily this is that Charybdis ;
viz, the one described by Helen us, line 420 ff.

560. eripite : understand vos as object.

561. hand minus ac jussi : with the same force as haud secus ac
jussi in line 236. rudentem proram: the dashing prow; alluding
to the noise of the dashing water.

562. laevas ad undas, laevam : i,e. they follow Helenus's injunc-
tion given in line 412. Note also the same emphatic repetition of
laevvA here as there.



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264 NOTES TO BOOK III, LINES 663-691.

663. laevam: the left; understand partem, cohors: here f(A
fleet. ventis : = velis,

664. cunrato gurgite: on the curving billoio. idem: plural,—
likemse,

666. subducta unda : as the wave gives way beneath. ad llaiiis
imos : to Hell.
666. inter cava saza x amid their stony caverns*
668. cam sole : at sundown.

670-587. The terrors of Mt Aetna.

670. portus : i.e. portus Cyclopum. immotus : i,e. sheltered.
ingens ipse : ije. large in and of itself, but suffering from the proximity
of Aetna.

671. horrificis minis : vjtth awful eruptions,
676. sub autas glomerat : whirls aloft.

678. Enceladi: Enceladus was a giant who attempted to storm
Olympus. Jupiter overwhelmed him with his thunderbolt and then
buried him beneath Mt. Aetna.

679. mole hac : viz. Aetna. ingentemque insuper Aetnam, etc. :
Virgil Is not clear here. He apparently means to say that according
to tradition the fires of the volcano come from Enceladus's buried
body, though this is not distinctly stated.

680. ruptis caminis: through the clefts of Us furnaces ; literally,
from its burst furnaces.

681. quotiens mutet latus : i.e. as often as he turns over. intre-
mere murmure Trinacriam : the r's suggest the rumble of the earth-
quake.

683. noctem illam : Accusative of Duration of Time. monstra :
i.e. the mysterious noises from Aetna.

684. nee, quae sonitum det causa, yidemus: Aeneas was not at the
time aware of the explanation given in lines 571-577 .

588-654. Achaemenides appears to the Trojans and describes Ulysses's
adventure with the Cyclops.

688. Eoo : Sous, properly an adjective, is here used substantively
in the sense of *dawn.*

690. confecta : Virgil represents the form of the man as exhausted
by extreme hunger. We should expect confecta to agree with viri.

691. nova : strange. miseranda : properly belonging, like con-
fecta, with viri. cvltu: dress.



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NOTES TO BOOK III, LINES 693-624. 266

593. respicimus : to be taken literally, * look back.* The Trojans
were preparing to set sail, when the stranger appears from the
woods. immissa: long.

594. cetera : in other respects; Greek Accusative.

595. patriis : of his country y viz, Greece.

599. testor : understand vos,

600. hoc casli spirabile lumen: this heavenly light we breathe
.Page).

601. qoascnmque : here in the sense of 'any whatever.' terras :
\ccusative of Limit of Motion.

602. sciS: the final o is here irregularly shortened. Danais e
classibus unum : a Greek sailor,

605. spargite : i.e. tear my body in pieces and scatter it.

606. pereo : the present here has future force. There is Hiatus be-
tween p^eo and hominum. hominum : rather than of the Cyclops,
of whom he presently speaks.

607. genua : understand nostra. genibus : with h^aerebat. vo-
lutans : understand «e, — writhing.

608. qui: for quts, as occasionally in indirect questions. fari
hortamur, etc.: the infinitive with hortor, as in ii. 74.

609. deinde : limiting hortamur understood.

610. multa i Accusative of Result Produced, with adverbial force.

611. praesenti pignore : by a present pledge ; referring to the offered
right hand.

613. patria ez Ithaca: from Ithaca as my native country. in-
felicis Ulizi : tnfelids refers to Ulysses's long wanderings after the
fall of Troy, Ulysses is infelix from the point of view of a fellow
Greek, To the Trojans, however, he is durus^ saevus, or the like.

614. genitore Adamasto paupere : Ablative of cause, — in conse-
quence of the poverty of my father Adamastus; i.e. the poverty of the
father forced the son to seek service in the wars.

615. mansissetque utinam fortuna: i.e. would I had remained
poor and at home.

616. limina : viz. of the Cyclops.

617. immemores : i.e. forgetful of me.

618. sanie dapibusque cmentis : Ablatives of Quality,

619. ipse : the master, viz. Polyphemus.

621. facilis: pleasant. nee dictu affabilis, etc.: i.e. whom no
one dares accost.

624. resupinns: bending back; in order to dash the bodies against
the wall with greater violence.



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266 NOTES TO BOOK III, LINES 628-658.

628. hand impune quidem: not with impunity, to be sure; ie
Polyphemus did not destroy Ulysses's companions with impunity.
nee talia, etc. : explanatory of hand impune quidem,

629. 8ui : i.e. his wonted cunning.

630. simul : = simul atque.

631. cenricem inflezam posuit: te. let his drooping head fall upon
his breast.

632. immensus ; xioith his huge hulk,

634. vices : our parts, i.e. the rdles each was to play. circom
fundimur : in the same sense as circumfundimur in ii. 383.

635. telo : according to Homer^s story, the weapon was a pointed
stake heated in the fire. liimen : eye.

636. latebat: lay sunk.

637. Argolici clipei: the Argive shield was round. Phoebeae
lampadis: i.e. the sun.

641. qualis quantusque, etc. : of the same nature and the same size
as Polyphemus, who confines, etc. ... a hundred other Cyclopes; i.e.
a hundred other Cyclopes, like Polyphemus in nature and stature.

643. TOlgO: everywhere.

644. Cyclopes : Greek ending.

645. tertia jam lunae, etc. : i.e. the third full moon is almost here.

646. cmn traho : since I began to drag out.

647. ab rape : an attributive modifier of Cyclopas, — huge Cydopes
approaching from the cliffs.

648. tremesco : here transitive, — tremble at.

650. dant, pascunt : understand mihi with dant; me with pascunt.
YOlsis radicibus : with their uptom roots,

651. primum : for the first time; i.e. Aeneas's ships are the first
he has seen since his companions abandoned him.

652. quaecumque fuisset: subordinate clause in implied indirect
discourse. Achaemenides's thought was : * Whatever it shall be (shall
have proved to be), I will give myself up to it.'

653. gentem nefandam : i.e. the impious tribe of the Cyclopes.

654. banc : = meam. potius : i.e. rather than leave me here to
be destroyed by the Cyclopes.

655-691. The Trojans flee from the Cyclopes.

656. yasta se mole : his vast bulk; literally, himself of vast bulk;
vasta mole is Ablative of Quality.

658. monstrum horrendum, informe, ingens, etc. : the diction and
rhythm are finely suited to the description of the savage monster*



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NOTES TO BOOK in, LINES 669-686. 267

659. trunca manu pinus: a lopped pine held in his hand; trunca
pinus is a pine stripped of its branches ; manu is really an Ablative
of Means with regit, — guides him by means of his hand. finnat :
steadies,

660. ea : for eae by attraction to the predicate voluptas.

663. inde: literally, /rom it; i.e. from the sea. Translate: loith
the water,

664. aequor medium : the open sea,

666. procttl inde : (tfar from there ; limiting fugam. celerare :
Historical Infinitive. recepto supplice sic merito : taking along the
suppliant (Achaemenides), who deserved (^it).

667. sic merito : viz. to be taken with us.

668. et: placed after the beginning of the clause, as often in poetry.

669. Yocis : of the noise; i.e, the sound of the oars.

670. affectare : with the rare force of * seize ' ; dependent upon
potestas; as object understand nos.

671. potis (est): =i)o«6««; dependent upon M6f. lonios fluctiis :
i.e. the waves of the Ionian Sea. aequare sequendo: i*e, he cannot
go as fast as the waves carry the vessels along.

677. lumine torvo : with plural force.

678. caelo : Dative of Direction.

679. quales cum : as when.

681. constitSrunt : perfect for present, as often in similes ; for the



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