Virgil.

Bucolica, Georgica, Aeneis; the works of Virgil online

. (page 1 of 82)
Online LibraryVirgilBucolica, Georgica, Aeneis; the works of Virgil → online text (page 1 of 82)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


3tA,ni_/ikjv



;EESe.tl©tR-,



UNIV.ERSIT^^F CAUEO



^ '»^'



J



^■;..




^ '^^y^^^^^i^-.J:/:




THE



WORKS OF VIRGIL



p. VERGILI MARONIS

BUCOLICA, GEOHGICA, AENEIS

THE WOEKS OF VIEGIL
WITH A COMMENTARY AND APPENDICES

FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES
BY

BENJAMIN HALL KENNEDY, D.D.

RBGIUS PROFESSOR OF GREEK IN THB
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDOB

ENLARGED AND REVISED

NEW EDITION
UNIVERSITY




LONDON
LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.

AND NEW YORK : 15 EAST 16'" STREET

1895

All rights reserved







TO

HUGH ANDREW JOHNSTONE MUNRO, M.A,, D.C.L.

SENIOR FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGK, CAMBRIDGE
HIS FORMER PUPIL AND HIS FRIEND OF 45 YEARS

®^b gook is gflricateb

BT

THE EDITOR



7f(o^^



My dear Munro,

You, mth the ii-ue kindness of your loyal nature, ad*
dressed to me your Edition of Lucretius, the. greatest in some
points, though not the best knoivn, of Roman poets. And, ivith the
satne kindness, you have consented to accept fro7n me the dedication
of this humble work, a School Edition of Virgil. None can feel
more strongly than myself, none can imsh to declare more distinctly,
that by this exchange lam the gainer. You have given like Glaucus
in the Iliad ; I, like the Greek Diomed, have received

Xpixrca x,^XK€La>v, iKOTOfi'tioi €uveai3oi(ou.

You know how sincerely I sign myself

Your affectionate Friend,

B.'H, KENNEDY,

The Elms, Cambridge
Ckristmas, 187f».




THE EDITOR'S PEEFACB

TO

THE THIRD EDITION.



I. The Notes in this book were begun in 1856, but, from
causes explained in my former Preface, not finished before
1875. The work was undertaken at the request of one who
lived to see, but did not long survive, its publication. I mean
my accomplished friend, the late Mr. William Longman, whose
premature death was a great public as well as private loss.

II. In the second edition three divisions of the former
commentary (translation, vocabulary, and notes) were fused in
one, and numerical reference made more distinct. This change
unavoidably swelled the size of the volume, which also con-
tains an enlai-ged Syntax and Indices, with a verse translation
of the Eclogues.

III. I have learnt from various testimonies, that the
compendious treatises contained in the Appendix (especially
those on geogi^aphy, mythology, and syntax) have been
practically useful to teachei'S, and instructive to students of
Yirgil. I had a strong belief that such would be the case ;
and I naturally rejoice that this hope has been justified.

The last treatise is, as might be expected, on poetic syntax
mainly; and, in this point of view, the notices, with which
it begins, respecting the peculiar usages of the various Parts
of Speech, have special value. But, for grammatical instruc-
tion generally, divisions IV. V. YI., on the Verb Infinite,
on Mood, and on Compound Construction, are of the highest



X THE EDITOKS TREFACE TO

importance to I;atin students. They should compare with
those sections the Second Appendix to the 'Public School
Latin Primer' (fii*st printed in 1878), which treats concisely,
but carefully, of Moods and Compound Construction. These
topics are more fully developed and exemplified in the ' Public
School Latin Grammar,' 5th edition, pp. 330-347, 434-501,
and in its Preface.

I hold in high respect the learning of Prof. Madvig as
a Greek and Latin scholar, and his fine insight as ^ textual
critic. His Latin Grammar has cei*tain merits of nice obser-
vation, which have caused it to be widely used, to the serious
disadvantage of higher Latin scholarship. In my Preface
to the 'Public School Latin Grammar,' and elsewhere, I
have shown what its great and grievous demerit is : namely,
that Madvig fails, in the very outset of his syntax, to note
the triple form of sentences (which his translator un-
happily calls propositions) as

(1) Statement;

(2) Will-speech;

(3) Question;

that, consequently, in Compound Construction (which his
^aOvfiia does not carefully separate from Simple) he neglects
to distinguish accurately, and to treat distinctly,

(1) the dependent Statement;

(2) the dependent Will-speech ;

(3) the dependent Question ;

which Kiihner (a far wiser grammarian) rightly combines as
the Tripartite Substantival Sentence, exemplified in the in-
directly constructed speeches of Caesar, Livy, Tacitus, Justin
«fec. As for instance (Just. v. 10) : —

Thraaybulus, cum exercitus triginta tyrannorum fugeret,
magna voce exclamat: * cur se \ictorem./ugiant*7 civium
illam meminerint aciem, non hostium esse: triginta 86 do-
niinis, non civitati bellura i7i/erre ;

where, in dependence on one verb * exclamat,* appear



THE THIRD EDITION. XI

(a) a dependent question, *cur fugiant"? (^) a dependent
will-speech, ' memineiint ' : (y) a dependent statement, 'se
inferre.'

Owing to this fundamental failure, he neglects to separate
the Infinitive in Simple from that in Compound Construction,
to distinguish accurately the uses of the Thought-mood in a
principal sentence (Conjunctive) from its uses in dependence
(Subjunctive) — to treat as a special and prominent doctrint.
its use in dependence on * oratio obliqua,' and (as a corollary
to this) its use in dependence on implied (virtual) oratio
obliqua (see Preface to ' Public School Latin Grammar,' 5th
edition).

It may be said generally, that in Madvig the whole topic
of Compound Construction appears in * shreds and patches '
(disjecta membra — though each separately a true limb),
without any coherent exposition of the whole truth ; and
that, on this account, his syntax is inadequate as a body of
doctrine. I have ere now expressed my conviction — I
believe I have established the fact — that this Syntax has
been for these reasons misleading and mischievous to more
than one English scholar. I have also said, and I repeat,
that its teaching on Latin Mood seems to me well described
by these lines of Yerg. Aen. vi. 270 : —

Quale per incertam lunam sub luce maligna
Est iter in silvis, ubi caelum condidit umbra
luppiter et rebus nox abstulit atra colorem.

I venture here to observe that a teacher would not be
wasting the time of his highest pupils, if he required them
to enter at full in a ms. book all the passages cited on
p. 664, vi. &c., and a good selection, at least, from those
which follow to p. 673 ; and if he were to make these subse-
quently the matter of viva voce and written examination.

lY. I wish it to be borne in mind by those who use this
book, that it was designed and prepared expressly to be
what it calls itself, an edition for the use of schools and
colleges : for I see no reason why that which is good for the



teaching of the highest classes in schools should not also be
good for the studies of young men at college or engaged in
private reading.

I would add that when I speak of a school edition, I
mean one that is convenient and useful, not for learners
only, but also for teachers. And it is for these latter more
especially that in my commentary, after the outlines and the
notes, I append 'parallel passages,' which it will generally
be for the teachers, if they think proper, to look out and
cite to their classes, along with such remarks, illustrations,
and general information, as their own judgment, their own
studies, or the commentaries of other scholars may suggest
to them.

V. I take this occasion also to speak with more minute
particularity of the translations in English verse, which are
scattered hei-e and there through the pages of this book, in-
cluding the verse translation of the entire Eclogues, which is
planted at p. 675



Online LibraryVirgilBucolica, Georgica, Aeneis; the works of Virgil → online text (page 1 of 82)