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The quarter master is to order all the waggons able to bring
Forage to parade tomorrow morning at 6 Oclock at Smiths

A Detachment of a 150 men properly Officered are to parade
at the Same time with the Waggons. Another party of 150
men properly Officered is to be Ready to march at 8 oclock.

The Commanding officers of Each of these Detachm'ts Will
Call on General Woodford for Instructions This Evening or
Early in the morning.

No musket to be Discharged in the neighbourhood of Camp
upon any pretence whatever without the particular permission
of the Brigadier or Officer Commanding the Brigade not Only
the Officers Comm'dg Guards but every other officer is Re-
quested to bring Delinquents to punishm't for this unsoldier-
like practice.

Straggleing & Distruction of the farmers property is also
Strictly forbid as we are now in a Possition much more Liable
to be Visited by the Enimy, than any we have been in this Cam-
paign. The Greatest Vigilents in the Officers Commanding
Guards as well as Strictness in the field Officers of the Day is in-
dispensiably necessary. Gen'l also hopes that the Officers will
see the necessity of the Strictness of Diciplain in Every par-
ticular Instants.

For the late in tlie Season the present prospect of aflFairs
promises the most active part of the Campaign.

For Detachm't Majors Clark & mitchel.


D. O. Kakiate, Oct'r 12th, '79.

F. O. Col'o Gist.

The Forage masters to be very carefull in Issuing the Forage
and see that no person Draws who is not Entitled to it by Gen'l
Orders & Regulations of Congress

The Waggon masters to pay particular attention to the man-
ner of their waggoners feeding their Horses and see that no
waist is Committed

The Gen'l Order of the 8th Instant Respecting the Exercise
of the Troops to take place immediately.

two fatigue Parties Consisting of a Sub Serg't & 20 men
Each to parade tomorrow morning at 6 oclock with proper
Tools (for which they will apply to the Q'r M.) The Officers
Commanding these parties will take their Order from Major

D. O. Kakiate, Oct'r 13th, '79.
F. O. Col'o Gibson.

The Subs picquet upon the Road Laid'g to Generals Wains
Camp to be taken off and the officer with one half the men to
Go as a patroll to Slaughters landing to Remain there untill
the morning when they are to Return and the Officer to make
his Report to Gen'l Woodford the like patroll to be sent off
Every morning while we Remain at this place Major Cabell will
Give the officer his instructions
For police Cap't Tabb


For piquet i

For in G'd i

For Q'r G'd i

D. O. Kakiate, Oct'r 14th, '79.
F. O. Colo Brent
For Police Cap't Mceleney.
For the day Adj't Bound.


Head Q'rs, West point, Octr 8, '79.

The Honourable they Congress on the 28th Septem'r was
pleased to pass the following Resolve — and his Excellency the
president adds that the Important business in which Congress
have been Engaged — has prevented an Earlier attention to the
Brilliant action at Powlis hook/

Resolved that the Thanks of Congress be Given to Major
Gen'l Lord Sterling for the Juditious Measures taken by him
to forward the Enterprise and Secure the Retreat of the party.

Resolved that the thanks of Congress be Given to Major Lee'
for the Remarkable prudence address and bravery Displayed
by him in the Action & that they approve the Humanity shown
by him in Circumstances prompting to Severity as Honorable
to the Arms of the United States and Corrospondant to the
Noble principals on which the were assumed.

Resolved that Congress Entertain the higher Sense of the
Diciplin and fortitude manifested by the Officers and Soldiers
under the Comm'd of Major Lee in the march Action & Retreat
and while with Singular Satisfaction, the acknowledge the
Merit of these Gentlemen.

They feel and additional pleasure by Considering them as
part of an army, in which very many brave officers and Soldiers
have proved by their Chearfull performance of Every Duty
under Every Difficulty that they ardently wish to Give The
Truly Glorious Example they now Receive.

Resolved that Congress Justly Esteem the Milatarry Caution
So happyly Combine with Daring Activity By Lieu't McCollas-
ter & Rodolp' in Laiding on the forlone hope — Resolved that
a medal of Gold Emblematical of this affair be Struck under

>On July 19, 1779, an American force under Major Henry Lee ("Light
Horse Harry") captured Paulus Hook, a British fortified post on the
present site of Jersey City, and captured 159 prisoners.

* Henry Lee of Westmoreland county, Va., (1765-1818), captain, maj'jr
and lieutenant-colonel in the Revolution; Governor of Virginia, &c.,
and father of Robert E. Lee. He received from Congress a gold medal
for the capture of Paulus Hook.

'Lieutenant Archibald McCallister of the 1st Maryland regiment, and
Lieutenant Michael Rudulph of Lee's Light Dragoons.


the Direction of the board of Treasury and presented to major

Resolved that Brevets and the pay & Subsistance of Captain
be Given to Lieu'ts McCollister & Rodolph Respectively.

Resolved that the Sum of 15000 Dollars be put into the
hands of Major Lee to be by him Distributed amongst the Non-
commissioned Officers & Soldiers of the Detachment he Com-
manded at the attack & Surprise of Powlis hook in Such man-
ner as the Commander-in-Chief shall Direct.

Resolved That the pay and Subsistance of Cap't be Allowed
to Lieu'ts Gibbens and Knox* the Officers who Laid on the
forlorn hope in the Late attack at Stoney point and also to M'r
Archer the bearer of the Gen'ls Letter Volunteer Aid, to Com-
mence from the Date of their Respective Brevets Voted by Con-
gress the 26th of July last.

G. O. Head Quarters, Oct'r 9th, '79.

The Gen'l flatters himself that every Officer from a Con-
ciousness of its being his Duty and a Laudiable desire of being
well acquainted with the new System of Regulations, has paid
all that Care and attention to the Study of them which import-
ance of the Case Requires, but Least there should be any, who
by Absence or other Causes have not had Apertunity of per-
fecting themselves therein. He earnestly Recommends the
Closest application, they will not only Consider the Awkward-
ness of a Situation which betrays Ignorance of essential Duty —
but the fatal Consequences which may Result from it in a
Critical Moment.

The Inspector Gen'l and his assistants will have it in charge
shortly to go into a full Examination of an enquiry into these

* Lieutenant James Gibbons, 6th Pennsylvania regiment; afterwards,
as Major James Gibbons, long a resident of Richmond, Va.. where he
died July i, 1835. Lieutenant George Knox was of the 2d Pennsylvania.


D. O. Kakiate Tuesday Oct'r 12th 1779.

Field Officer Major Meriwether.

For police Cap't Moody.

For the day Adj't Meriwether.

Head Quarters, Oct'r 5th, '79.

The Commander in chief Requests that Commanding Officers
of Corps will immediately Call upon their Respective Officers
who are absent from Camp and not Employed upon Special
Commands or who have not Obtained present furliughs, on the
point most primaraty time to Join their Corps without a mo-
ments Delay, a Period may arrive in this Campaign and per-
haps is very near at hand when the Absence of Officers unless
the have powerfull Reasons for it may fix Endialiable Stigmay
upon them this Consideration if motives of publick Duty are
not Sufficient of themselves ought to bring Every one under
the above Discription to their Respective Com'ds.

Head Q'rs Morris hous Oct'r 8th, '79.

tomorrow the Troops will begin to Exercise in the following

2 Regm'ts by brigades will Exercise from 9 to 1 1 oclock in
the morning And from 3 untill half past 4 in the afternoon for
this purpose for the Duty is to be Don Regimentally as far as

Each Regm't will form a Battallion as Compleat as possible
absolutely not under the number of them first in the ordinance
Each Col'o will Comm'd the battallion and will perform the
following Exercise

1st the Manuel Exercise

2d To wheel by plattoon to the Right and Left, to march the
Regm't in the ordanairy Step to form it again in the Same
place which it has quitted

3d To advance in battallion in the ordanary Step.

4th To Retire in Battalion in the Same Step

5th To fire by plattoons Division & Battalions Standing

They Inspecters will assist in the Exercise and will see that
noting is Done Contrary to the principal Establish'd in the



For piquet i

For in G'd

For Q'r G „ . . . . 2

D. O. Kakiate, Oct'r 15th, '79.

F. O. Lieu't Col'o Ball.

For Detachment Lieu't Col'o House Major Stephenson.

Great Compleaints are made of the Soldiers Plundering the
Inhabitants of Nights. The Officers Commanding picquets are
to have the Rokds in the Neighbourhood of their Guards Pa-
trolled and to Confine Any Soldier that may be found Stragling
after Retreat beat'g and Deliver him prisoner to the Quarter
Guard of his Regm't. The Commanding officers of Regm'ts
are also Requested to have their Rolls Called Several times of a
night and to take Such other Efectual methods as may appear
to them Necessary to prevent this Shamefull practice.

The Deputy Quarter master Gen'l has fixed upon a wood Of
the Left of Gen'l Muhlenbergs Brigade from which the whole
Troops are to be Supplied and no person is to get wood here-
after at any other place.

All the Waggons are to parade tomorrow morning at 6
Oclock to Go out for Forage 150 Men properly Officered are
to march with the Waggons. Another party of 150 men are to
march at 8 oclock to Cover the Foragers.

The Officers Commanding each of these parties are to take
their Orders from Gen'l Muhlenberg.

Colo Washington" is to send a Detachm't of Horse properly
Officered to patroll in front of the Foraging party.

The Quarter masters are to Give the necessary Orders to
the Forage and waggon masters to attend to the Loading their
waggons and when the Forage comes in, is to order proportion
of it to the Cavalry.

For police Cap't Armstead.

For the Day Adj't Linton.

* Lieutenant-colonel William A. Washington, 3d Dragoons, a native
of Virginia, but afterwards well known as General Washington of South
Carolina, where he died March 6, 1810.


For piquet

For in G'd

For Com'd

For Q'r G'd

For weeks Com'd.



G. O. Head Quarters, West point Oct'r 13th, '79.

As many Soldiers who have Lately Joined the Army have
not been Sufficiently Taught the first principals of the Exercise,
The Troops will in Every Exercise in Detail, And the Officers
must take perticular Care in Instructing their Men the Exercise
by Battallions to Continue Every morning as before.

Such Officers as are not with Espontoon are to Apply imme-
diately Through their Brigade Q'r M. to the Q'r M. G'l for a

D. O. Kakiate, Oct'r T6th, '79.
F. O. Lieu't Col'o House.

For Police Captain .

For the day Adj't Mere wether.


For Piquet i . . i

For in G'd i

Q'r G'd I

D. A. O. Kakiate Oct'r i6th, '79.
An additional picquet of i Sub i Serj't and 18 privates to
mount at the Cross Roads upon our Right Where Lieu't Porter-
field will Coduct them —

The present picquet on the Paramus Road is to be moved,
So as to be half way between the Meeting House and the Cross
Roads. The Q. M. is to See that Every horse belonging to
the Division is Immediately Removed to paster in our Rear —
And that it may not be again Necessary to Repeat this order.
The Cavelry is also to Remove from the front and take quar-
ters in the Rear agreeable to former Orders. This is not to be
Etelayed Longer than tomorrow morning.

For piquet i Private.


D. O. Kakiate, Sunday, Oct'r 17th, '79.

F. O. Lieu't Col'o Allison.

This being the Anniversary of the Convention of Saratogue
it is to be Selebrated by the discharge of 13 pieces of Cannon to
begin on the Right of the Division at 5 Oclock This Evening
and to pass on to the Left. — Captains Baytop & Shingleton will
furnish themselves with the Number of Cartridges necessary.
The Troops are to parade in front of their Encampm't previous
to the fireing And when it is over to Give three Cheers.

The Gen'l is very Sorry it is not in his power to Order Some-
thing for the men to Drink upon this occasion But it Shall be
made up when any Liquor Arrives.

The Field Ofiftcer of the day will make the picquet acquainted
with this Order that they may not be Alarmed.

For police Cap't C. Ewell

For the Day Adj't Cary

(To be Continued.)

VIRGINIA IN 1666-1667. 33

VIRGINIA IN 1666-1667.

(Abstracts by W. N. Sainsbury, and copies in the McDonald and De
Jamette Papers, Virginia State Library.)


The Virginia Governor and Council to Lord

Arlington, 1666.


[Colonial Papers, Vol. 20— No. 117]

My Lord

Your most obliging Letter of the 23d of ffebmrary I
Receaved not till the 11th of July instant wherein two things
yo' Lords* ''P perticular recommended to my Care the for-
tefieing the Country and the promoteing of the usefull Com-
odities of silke hempp and Flax with the assureance of his
Ma*'«* most gracious assistance in the later. Now my Lord
for the first concerning the fortefieing the Country wee resolved
on it long before to our utmost possibilety and had designed
A Fort at James Towne in the Center and Hart of the Coimtrey
which would have been defended easily and alternatively by
all the Inhabitants But my Lord when our monies and worke-
men were ready for this most excellent worke the few great
gunns which are but fourteene brought up at great Charges to the
place wee know not by what misinformaton wee were Com-
manded to build this Fort in the Extreameties of the Province
in A place useless as to any Certaintie of defence and insup-
porteable in the Charges of it But the Command was soe
possetive wee durst not disobey it esi^ecially hopeing and
beleeveing that his Ma"** just Armes had beene soe suo-
cessfull against his unjust Enemies that wee should have


aoe great necessitie of more Forts then what wee built
on his Ma*'*' Command till wee had been able to in-
forme his Ma*'« of the true State of the Coimtrey But
now my Lord wee finde that all the Forts that wee can build
though never soe strong will not absolutely answer what they
are designed for the Entrance into the Province is soe large
that any Enemy[s] Shipp may ride out of all possible dainger
of the greatest Cannon in the world and shipps may be taken
goeing out or comeing in without all possible assistance from
us of this my Lord wee had a sad instance not two dales before
I receaved your Lords' **?• Letter For a small shipp of Fo'y that
could not gett out with the first Fleet which went out thirty
fower together I stayed till I had intelligence of two Friggets in
New England and then takeing his bond of a thousand' pounds
to goe home under their Protection I gave him leave to repaire
to them But within the Bay, lay A Caper with English Col-
ours who unsuspected tooke the shipp though the men which
were ten all escaped.

This makes me on my knees humbly to implore his Ma*'"
that when the next Fleet comes a Frigget may come
along with them to guard those that the wundes and stormes
seperate when they approach the harbour and wee doubt not
but the Marchants will joyne with us in this Petition and
Contribute something to the Charge of it It being soe
necessary for King and People.

For the second my Lord wee were also so intent upon silke
Flax and hemp that into the two first wee have made con-
siderable Progresses and as in duty wee thought wee were
bound to offer the first fruites of A new Rich commodity to
his Ma*'^ on the Publique Charges though wee were never
more unable (from divers causes) then now Wee have pre-
pared A present of three hundred Pounds of silke to be sent
to his Ma*** which is now ready but wee dare not send it till
wee heare farther what the Capers are and their number [and
that wee might be more intent on these comodities soe Hon ^'^
and usefull for King and subject wee have made and
Decreed A yeare of Cessation from planting Tobacco But

VIRGINIA IN 1666-1667. 35

my Lord that wee may not arrogate imtruely to much to
oiirselves in this particular Wee will Confesse this truth that
an absolute necessitie puts us upon this Provident wisdome
and the quantities of our tobaccoes soe great and the price of
it soe small that wee were not able to live by it For the Mer-
chants knowing both our necessities and the imconsumeable
quantities of tobacco wee had by us gave us not the twentieth
part of what they sold it For in England, and we can truly
avow that wee have now made and groweing more
then in humane probability will be carried home in three
yeares ensueing This I say with our desires to make ourselves
esteemed for being the Authors of richer and more warrantable
Comodities, endured and enforced us to make a Cessation
for the Preservation of the People which otherwise are in great
Dainger and wee Doe most humbly beseech your Lords '•'p that
wee on the Place swome to promote the service of his Ma*'*
may be beleeved before any private interest who understand
us not and that this is the sence of the Countrey these Gen*
that now assist me in the greatest affaires of his Ma*' • I have
desired to attest this and to subscribe themselves as I Doe

Your Lords'i'P'.
Virginia, IS*** July 1666, Most Himible and obedient serv'"
[signed] William Berkeley

Tho : Ludwell
Robt Smith
Rr: Bennett
Thomas Stegge
Henry Corbyn
[To] my L''^ Arlingtom

13 July 1666. R. "Feb.


S' W. Berkley & Councell That they designed a Fort
at James Towne in the Centre of the Countrybut were comanded
to erect one in y"" extremitie of it, where y ® greatest cannon in


y* world cannot defend our ships. That y • merch*' there will
contribute to y • charge of a Frigat to guard them if his Ma*'
will be pleased to send one. Have a Present for his Ma*' of
300 pounds of silke, but dare not send it yet in regard of Capers
Have made good Progresse alsoe in Hempe & Flaxe. Have
decreed a Cessation of planting Tobacco for one yeare; y*
merchts*" giveing not the 20*^ part of w* they sold it for in
England; haveing now a crop y* wiU not be carried away in
3 years to come.



Right Honorable

Being in obedience to your Lordships Comands to
give you a description of the Govemm* of this place & humbly
supposing your Lordship expects a relacion of y" p'"sent & not a
full discourse of y" whole Govemm* from y' first planting of
this Colony, which would bee very hard to doe by reason of y*
negligence of former times in transmitting anything of that
nature to their successor I have thought it necessary for y*
better performance of your Hono" Comands & Complyance
with that truth on which my following discourse must bee grown-
ded to give your Lordship a short Character of y* Govemo'' of
this Colony before I entd upon y* discription of his Govem-
m* I know it to bee superflous to say anything of his person
greate parts, or quallitie because your Lord'^ knowes & can
better judge of them then myselfe, I shall therefore w*'* your
Lordships favor only spealve of him as Goveno'' of Virginia,
& very hartely beg his pardon for y* Injury I doe his repu-
tation & merritts, Whilest my inabillity to prsent them in their
full Lusture may encline those who know neither him nor mee
to believe their defects to bee really in themselves, & not in
him who reports them & under y« securitie of this Apology to
your Lordship & him I shall bee bould to say that hee is a
Person pious & exemplarily sober in his Conversation, prudent

VIRGINIA IN 1666-1667. 37

& Just in peace dilligent & valliant in Warr I shall strengthen
three assertions only with three argum*' & for y • first shall only
say that mine owne long experience, & y" stiifrages of the
whole Coiintry can sufficiently prove y" excellency of his
Conversation, nor doe I think there can be a more convin-
cing evidence of his Prudence, and Justice Then that in six
years after hee was forced to resigne this Country to y * Genner-
all unhappy fate of our Nation (a Time when y» Enemies of
his Loyalty & Virtue would have loaden him with reproaches
especially had they had Justice on their side) there was not
one man that either publiquely or privately charged him with
Injustice, or any other fault comitted in eight years Govemm*
& for his dilligence and Vallour y ' frequent and greate hazards
hee exposed his person to in y» conquest of Opechankevough,
& all his Indians (whereby hee first secured this Country from
those fears that had possessed them from their first seating &
rendred the Indians soe subjected to this Govemm* that I may
confidently affirme y® Like Conquest hath bin made by noe
other English Govemm* in y* West Indies would have pro-
claimed his Millitary virtues, & have given him a very greate
reputation for that Service had it not hapned in an Unfortimate
time when the whole English Nation was involved in a Civill
War, and consequently had all their Reflections divirted from
what hee did here to what most and more nerely concerned
them there — ^And now my most honored Lord haveing given
you this short Character of our Govemo' I shall proceed to as
short a discription of his Govemment (which I soe tearme be-
cause heeis y* sole author of the most substantial parts of it
either for Lawes, or other Inferiour institutions) Which as
subordinate to that of England is devided into Ecclesiasticall
Civill & Millitary, for y" Ecclesiasticall parte of it (being yett
imfitt for a Bishop to reside here by reason of the fewness of
our Ntunbers & other Inconveniences) Wee are subjected to
the Sea of London, & have noe superiour Clergie amongst-
But when it pleaseth God to send us any Ministers some par,
rish or other p'sents them, & the Govemo' Inducts them But
with this Pious as well as prudent care that none bee admitted


to the exercise of their functions who are not in Ord" and very-
Orthodox in their profession of which excellent sorte of men
wee have at p' sent very few amongst us, & I could hartely
wish that my Lord of London, and other greate Cleargymen
would take us a little more into their care for our Better supply
since y* utmost of our Encouragem** will invite none to us
though wee have very few parishes give less then One himdred
pounds p Annimi and many give more Which is Levied by y*
respective Vestries, out of which they yearly choose church-
wardens as in England. And now my most Honored Lord
having said thus much of our church government, I beseech
you give mee Leave to p'"sent you w*** as true a narrative of
y' Civill parte of this Govemm* without any animadversions
upon it which to doe in the better Ord'^ I must informe your
Hono"" that this Colony is divided at p''sent into nineteen Coim-
ties, & those subdivided into parrishes only & not into hundreds,
or tythings which is only necessary in more populous Countryes
Every of which Coimties is left to the Care and Charge ' of
Eight, or Term Justices of the peace Whereof three or foure are
of y • Quorum out of which Number of Justices there is yearly
chosen a Sheriff who is Confirmed by y ' Govemo"' & upon suffi-
cient Securitie given to y ° rest of the said Justices is entrusted
with y " Collection & payment of all Publiqu^ Leavies, Quit-
rents, secretaryes & Clerkes fees, and hath Tenn p cent allowed
him for Sallery for y* rest of his Authority it is as in England
only hee keeps noe Court, and y* severall parrishes of Each
County are armed with the authoritie of a Cunstable chosen
from amongst y* honestest household^ & the said Whole num-
ber of Justices, or any foure of them whereof one to bee of the
Quorum are by Commission from the Gouvemo'' made and Con-
stituted a Court of Judicature for the Tryall of all Causes with-
in their respective Counties, except such as question Life, or
Member, & every particular Justice hath power to try and
determine any Cause to the vallue of Twenty shillings, or

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