The Gift of Beatrix Farrand
to the General Library
University of California, Berkeley
REEF POINT GARDENS
WEST COAST BOTANY,
FLORA OF THE PACIFIC COAST,
IN 'WHICH ARE DESCRIBED OVER
EIGHTEEN HUNDRED SPECIES OF FLOWERING PLANTS GROWING
WEST OF THE SIERRA NEVADA AND CASCADE CRESTS,
FROM SAN DIEGO TO PUGET SOUND.
TEACHER OF BOTANY IN THE STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, SAN JOSE, CALIFORNIA.
THE WHITAKER & RAY CO.,
By THE WHITAKER & RAY CO.,
San Francisco, Cal.
The skeleton of this book has for eleven years formed a supplement to the
" California Flora," which describes only the plants of the coast region between
Monterey and Ukiah. Since it is not practicable to fill out this skeleton in the
way originally intended, it has been put into the improved form here described.
The "Flora" of the old manual has been replaced by descriptions of all the
orders whose species on this coast have conspicuous flowers. This part of the
book also contains descriptions of near two hundred and fifty species which are
mostly new, and over fifty generic names which in Greene's "Botany of the San
Francisco Bay Region" displace names used in this book. These synonyms will
be very helpful to those who use the former manual with this or other floras.
A complete glossary of the botanical terms and specific names found in this book,
and a glossary of generic names in connection with the index will materially aid
students. An analytical key leads the student to a description of the order to
which the plant in hand belongs. At the close of that description he is referred
to the page of the second part where keys lead to the genus and species. Return-
ing to the first part, the' new matter there is consulted before making a final
decision. This seemingly awkward prominence of addenda is perhaps advanta-
geous to the student, who is thus led to realize the progress of botanical work.
Moreover there is encouragement in the thought that the discovery of so many
new plants in the ten years just ended proves that there are species yet unde-
scribed which sharp-eyed seekers may find.
Since the descriptions here given are for the most part abbreviations of the
originals, their shortcomings should be charged to the compiler of this book. In
some cases, particularly in difficult genera, new species have not been given.
Many of Prof. Greene's new species are placed under generic names which he
does not approve. Most of these, however, were described by him under the
discarded names, and it is proper that his name should follow that of the species
as author. In the other cases his name, according to present usage, should
appear in parenthesis. Since this is a matter of little importance to beginners
and one difficult to manage it has not been attended to.
Because of the unsettled condition of plant names the present time is unfavorable
for the preparation of a flora of any country. More than ever before systematic
botanists are investigating the history of names, and, like other historians, they do
not agree. There are therefore added to the ever present questions concerning the
limitations of genera and species, questions concerning the priority of names.
The former never will be settled, and authorities are not likely to agree upon the
latter for some years to come. Meanwhile we must learn several names for each of
a score or more of the plants we yearly greet in our country rambles. For example :
In the collections of plants made in the United States last year the shrub com-
monly known as Nine-Bark doubtless bears five different names. Those using
"Gray's Manual " or "Wood's Class Book'* have labeled it Spiraea opulifolia;
according to " Bergen's Botany" and "Behr's Flora" it is Neillia opulifolia; in
the " Key to West Coast Botany" it is Physocarpus opulifolia; in Greene's "Flora
Franciscana" it is Ne.dlia capitata, and in the same author's " Botany of the Bay
Kegion" it is called Opulaster capitatus. Five plants so common that they may
be found on one hillside will, by those who use the "Bay Region Botany," be
given each a separate generic name, yet most botanists call them all Gilias. A
common wild cherry is Prunus emarginata in "Behr'fc Flora," Cerasus emar-
ginata in " Bay Region Botany," and Cerasus California in "Flora Franciscana."
Some idea of the number of plants known by more than one name may be gained
from the fact that over two hundred of the thirteen hundred species described
in the " Bay Region Botany" appear under generic and sometimes specific names
different from those given them in the " Botany of the Geological Survey." But
it must be remembered that, even in its present chaotic condition, botanical
nomenclature is incomparably better than that of so-called common names.
Most of our noticeable native plants are each known by a dozen or more locai
names. V. R.
SAN JOSE, Feb. 8, 1898.
NAMES OF PLANTS: CLASSIFICATION.
In a general way we designate the objects around us by single names. We speak
of a stone, a wolf, or a pine; but to distinguish the kinds we naturally use two names,
as lime stone, sand stone; grey wolf, prairie wolf; nut pine, yellow pine, etc. This is
one step in classification, and the only one commonly taken. This natural plan of
double names was adopted by the great naturalist, Linnseus, who gave names to most
European plants, as well as to many of this continent. He wisely gave the Latin form
to his names, since that language (being the base of most languages spoken in civilized
countries) is the natural source of cosmopolitan names those truly common to all
people. Botanical names, then, differ from so-called common names principally iu
form, and they have these decided advantages: they more exactly represent the rela-
tions between kinds of plants, and they are names that are common to people of all
languages. In short, they are the true common names.
It is not true that botanical names are harder than local names. The most com-
mon of our ornamental plants are well known by their scientific names. No one thinks
of calling the following botanical names hard: Geranium, Aster, Verbena, Petunia,
Portulaca, Crocus, Phlox, Fuchsia, Iris, Magnolia, Oxalis, Azalea, Dahlia, Lobelia,
Arnica, etc. Most people talk familiarly of Camellias, Callas, Begonias, Acacias, etc.;
while our beautiful California plants, Clarkia, Collinsia, Eschscholtzia, Nemophila, etc.,
are well known by their proper names at least, in other countries.
Generic names correspond to the second parts of the compound common names, as
oak, pine, rose, etc. Some of these are the old Greek or Latin names of the plant.
Most generic names are either derived from Greek or Latin words descriptive of some
peculiarity of the plant, or they are commemorative of some botanist, as Thysanocarpus,
from Greek words meaning fringe and pod; Kelloggia, in honor of Dr. A. Kellogg, a
veteran botanist of this coast. Sometimes genera are named in honor of those who are
not botanists, as Fremontia, Hollisteria, Stanfordia, etc.
It will be seen that in the examples given a generic name in honor of a man is
formed by adding "ia" to his name. Sometimes "a" only is added, asBolaudra.
Specific names correspond to the first part of common names, but are written
after the generic names. Thus Oregon Oxalis is labeled Oxalis Oregona. Most specific
names are descriptive, as Gilia tricolor, Tricolored Gilia. Frequently a species is n^med
for the discoverer, as Eriogonum Nortoni, Norton's Eriogonum; or in honor of some one,
8 SYSTEMATIC BOTANY.
cabbage, radish. But you can do nothing with double flowers. A sweet pea could be
made to tell its proper or generic name in this way:
The sepals and petals together more than six, and petals not all united, brings
us again to Division 1. This time "A. STAMENS MORE THAN TEN"
is wrong. We take "B. STAMENS TEN OB LESS." "Ovary or ovaries
superior," etc., is right, but * "pistils, more than one, not united" is wrong. We
therefore look under "* * Pistil only one, simple or compound." The line marked
"a" is wrong; so, also, is "6," but "c. Herbs: leaves alternate" describes our
plant. "Corolla regular (petals alike) or nearly so" is wrong, so we take the next
long line " corolla irregular," etc. Reading under that the five lines beginning with
the word "stamens, we have no doubt that the first one, leading to the order
Leguminosse, is the right one. Turning to that order and onward, as before, w e
find a key in which the following leading lines are correct: " 2. Stamens all united
or one above distinct: herbs (except some in 3 and 7). * * * * Leaves pinnate,
finding in a bristle, imperfect leaflet or a tendril Style flattened, usually twisted half
around, one side hairy, 13." Seven pages further on we find: "13. Lathyrus,
Linnaeus." Since this plant is not a native of our country, we do not look further than
to note that there are about a dozen kinds which are natives.
When you think you have correctly determined the name of a plant, turn back
to the description of the order, and read it carefully once more, so as to be doubly
sure. Then if there is any new matter under the order heading read that also. If, for
example, you have traced a very common plant to the genus Phacelia, Euphacelia,
and have concluded that it is the tenth species described on p. 150, turn back to the
order Hydrophyllaceae, on page 54. Under the same genus and section there, near
the bottom of page 55, you find statements which may change your first decision.
What you have taken for Phacelia tanacetifolia may be Phacelia distans or Phacelia
Your labels should be written on slips of paper three inches long, and half as
wide. Let the name occupy the upper half, and on the lower half write in small letters
where the specimen grew and when you collected it. The label should be fastened in
the lower right-hand corner of the sheet on which you mount the plant. Only the left
hand end should be pasted down. Paper 17 x 22, cut crosswise, and folded to the size
S| x 11, is a suitable size fora school herbarium. The plant should be mounted on the
third page of the folded half-sheet.
KEY TO WEST COAST BOTANY.
KEY TO THE ORDERS.
*** Figures in the margin refer to pages. When names are not followed by figures the genus
or order indicated is not elsewhere described in this book. Generic names are in italic.
Calyx and corolla together of either more or less than six parts CLASS I, 9
Calyx and corolla together of just six parts: petals never five.
Stamens six or three }
Stamens many: sepals three, green. . . > CLASS II, 16
Stamens one or two united ~to the style: ovary inferior j
Stamens many: flowers solitary on long peduncles Papaveracese, 19
Stamens ten: petal one: a shrub Leguminosae, 30
Stamens nine, flowers apetalous, small.
An aromatic tree; flowers greenish Umbettularia. (Laurel.) 71
Herbs with several or many flowers in involucral cups Eriogonum, 70
Herbs with one to three flowers in awned involucral cups. Cliorizanthe, 70
CLASS I. EXOGENS OB DICOTYLEDONS.
Calyx and Corolla both present.
Petals not all united (distinct) DIVISION 1, 9
Petals more or less united (cohering) .DIVISION 2, 13
Calyx and corolla one or both wanting DIVISION 3, 15
A. STAMENS MORE THAN 10.
1. Stamens not adhering to the sepals or petals (ovary not inferior).
* Pistils few to many distinct carpels.
Calyx deciduous, sepals 5: no stipules Ranunculaceae, 17
Calyx persistent, sepals 3 or 4: growing iu water Nymphaeaceae, 18
Calyx persistent, sepals 5 or 10: leaves with stipules Rosaceas, 35
Calyx of petal-like sepals: corolla often wanting Ranuneulaceae, 17
* Pistil compound, of % or more united carpels as shown by more than one stigma-lobe,
stigma, style or cell in the ovary; or by its not being at all one-sided.
Petals more numerous than the sepals:
Indefinitely numerous, slender, persistent. Aquatic plants . Nymphaeaceae, 18
Just twice as many (4 or 6): sepals caducous Papaveraceae, 19
Five to sixteen: style 3-8 cleft: fleshy herbs Portulacaceae, 26
Petals of the same number (5) as the persistent sepals.
Leaves opposite: sepals equal Hypericacese, 25
Leaves alternate: sepals unequal Cistaceae, 23
Leaves radical, hollow, 2-appendaged at hooded top Sarraceniaceae, 19
2. Stamens and petals on the free or adnate calyx.
Leafless, thorny, fleshy plants: ovary prickly, inferior Cactaceae, 43
Leaves mostly opposite, very fleshy: ovary inferior Ficoideae, 43
Leaves opposite. Shrub: sepals and petals numerous Calycanthaceas, 36
Shrubs: sepals 4 to 7: flowers white Saxifragaceae, 36
Leaves alternate or radical: herbs (ovary not inferior) or shrubs Rosaceee, 35
Leaves alternate; no stipules: rough herbs: ovary inferior Loasaeeae, 42
3. Stamens on the claws of the petals.
Stamens many, distinct, anthers long: calyx a conical cap: petals 4 . Papaveracese, 19
Stamens many, united into a tube: anthers small: petals 5 Malvaceae, 27
Stamens 10 to 16, united at base or half way: shrub Styracaceae, 50
B. STAMENS 10 O*B LESS.
1. Ovary or ovaries superior (i.e., free from the calyx) or mainly so, but
sometimes included in the calyx-tube.
* Pistils more than one, not united.
Pistils of the same number as petals and sepals.
Leaves simple, entire, fleshy Crassulaceae, 38
Leaves pinnate: styles united, globular ovaries distinct ... Geraniaceae, 28
Pistils not of the same number as the sepals and petals.
Two or three. Shrubs or trees: leaves opposite, compound. . .Sapindaceae, 30
Herbs; leaves simple Saxifragaceae, 36
Two to ten. Herbs; leaves pinnate: calyx 10-lobed ,Rosaceae, 35
Many. Stamens on the receptacle Ranunculaceae, 17
Stamens on the calyx: leaves compound, mostly radical.. Rosaceae, 35
* * Pistil only one, simple or compound.
a. Shrubs, trees or woody climbers.
Style and stigma one.
Sepals, petals and stamens 6 each, opposite each other Berberidaceae, 18
Sepals, petals and stamens 4 or 5 each (or stamens 8 in 1st.)
Strongly aromatic or heavy-scented Rutaceae, 29
Not aromatic; leaves simple, opposite Celastraceae, 29
A vine climbing by tendrils Vitaceae, 29
Calyx 2-lipped: petals unequal: stamens 5-8, exserted Sapindaceae, 30
Calyx 4-toothed: petals 2: stamens 2 to 4: fruit winged Oleaceae. 50
Calyx 4-cleft: petals 4: stamens 6: ovary long-stiped Capparidaceae, 23
Calyx 4-5 toothed: petals 5: unequal or 1: stamens 10 Leguminosae, 30
Calyx 5-lobed: petals 5, orbicular: stamens 10-15 Rosaceae, 35
Sepals 3 or 5, unequal: stamens 4 to 8, united below Poly galaceae, 24
Styles or Stigmas more than one.
Styles 2 or 3: fruit: 2-wiuged or inflated: leaves opposite Sapindaceae, 30
Styles 3-cleft: stamens 5, opposite small petals Rhamnaceae. 29
Stigmas 3: leaves alternate, 3-foliolate or simple Anacardiaceae, 30
Stigmas 4 or 5: prostrate steins hardly woody Saxifragaceae, 3G
Stigma 5-lobed: small shrub: leaves opposite or whorled Ericaceae, 48
b. Herbs: leave* mostly or all radical.
Stamens 1 or 3: sepals 2: petals 2 to 5: stigmas 2 or 3 Portulacaceae, 26
Stamens 5, anthers united: lower petal spurred: style 1 Violaceae, 23
Stamens 5, opposite the petals. Sepals 2: style 3-cleft Portulacaceae, 26
Sepals colored, united: styles 5. . Plumbaginaceae, 49
Stamens, sepals and petals 5 each: styles 3 or 6: very glandular .Droseraceae, 38
Stamens 5 or 10, on the calyx: styles 2 or 3 Saxifragaceae, 36
Stamens 8 or 10, on the receptacle: stigma 5-lobed Ericaceae, 48
Stamens 10, styles 5: leaves 3 foliolate Oxalis in Geraniaceae, 28
Stamens 6 united in 3's: sepals 2: petals 4 in unequal pairs. . Fumariaceae, 20
Stamens 6: flowers nodding on a scape Vancouveria in Berberidaceae, 18
c. Herbs: leaves alternate.
Corolla regular (petals alike) or nearly so.
Stigma 1, often 2-lobed: stamens 6 (2 and 4) rarely 4 Cruciferae, 21
stamens 6, equal: ovary on a stipe Capparidacese, 23
stamens 4 to 7 and as many petals on the calyx Lythracese, 38
Stigma 2-lobed: stamens 4: petals 2: sepals 2, white Liliaceae, 73
Stigmas 5: sepals 5: petals 5: stamens 10 Geraniaceae, 28
Styles 2 or 3: sepals 5: petals 5: stamens 5 or 10: leaves / .,. ,,
Styles 2 to 5: sepals 5: petals 5: stamens 5: leaves sessile Innaceae, 28
Style 2-3 cleft: sepals 2: petals 5 (rarely 2 or 4) : fleshy leaves . Portulacaceae, 26
Corolla irregular (petals not all alike): style one.
Stamens 10, included by the cohering lower pair of petals. . .Leguminosae, 30
Stamens 5, anthers united: lower petal spurred Violacese, 23
Stamens 6, united in 3's: petals 4 Fumariaceae, 20
Stamens 6, unequal, distinct or 2 united Cruciferae, 21
Stamens 6 to 8, united: ovary 2-celled: leaves entire Polygalaceae, 24
d. Herbs: leaves opposite, simple except in the last.
Style 3-cleft: stamens 3 to 5: leaves a single pair Portulacaceae, 26
Style none, stigmas 3: stamens 10 to 12: petals 6: leaves in 3's . Papaveraceae, 19
Styles 3: flowers sessile; stamens 4 to 7: leaves revolute .. .Frankeniaceae. 24
Styles 3: flowers in axillary clusters: stamens 3 to 5 Ficoideae, 43
Styles or stigmas 2 to 5: capsule 1-celled: stamens 10 or 5 . Caryophyllaceae, 24
Styles 2: capsule 4-celled: stamens 5 Linaceae, 28
Styles 4 or 5: small white flowers in terminal clusters Saxifragaceae, 36
Style 1: stamens on the slightly cohering rotate petals Primulaceae, 49
Styles and other flower parts each 2 to 5 (stamens rarely ) ^, . 2 p
twice as many) f
Styles or stigmas 5: 5 akenes separating when ripe Geraniaceae, 28
2. Ovary and fruit inferior or mainly so.
Shrubs: sepals, petals and stamens each 4 or 5: leaves simple.
Stamens opposite the small clawed petals: style 3-cleft ..Bh.amna.ceae, 29
Sepals petaloid: ovary globose: styles or stigmas 2 Saxifragaceae, 36
Sepals, petals and stamens 4 each: the flowers in cymes or in Icornaceae 44
heads with a white involucre i
Herbs. Sepals 5: petals 5: styles 2 to 5: leaves simple Saxifragaceae, 36
Flowers or flower clusters axillary
Flower parts in 2'sor 4's, small: aquatic: leaves whorleJ.Halorageae, 38
GAMOPETAL.E. ] 3
Flower parts in 4's (rarely in 2's or 6's): style 1 Onagraceae, 39
Flowers monoecious: climbing by tendrils Cucurbitaceae, 43
Flowers with 2 sepals and 5 petals: fleshy herbs Portulacaceae, 26
Flowers in umbels or heads not axillary
Flowers in umbels or heads: petals 5: stamens 5.
Styles 2: fruit dry Umbelliferse, 44
Styles 2 to 5: fruit juicy Araliaceae, 43
Flowers in a head with involucre of 4 white leaves Cornaceae, 44
A. OVARY INFERIOR (adherent to the calyx) or mainly so.
Stamens 8 or 10: corolla-lobes 4 or 5: shrubs Ericaceae, 48
Stamens 10, those alternate with small corolla-lobes sterile, inflexed Samoht*, 142
Stamens 5 (rarely 4) united into a tube.
Style 2-cleft: flowers in a flower-like head Compositae, 46
Style and stigma entire: flowers irregular Lobeliaceae, 47
Stamens 4 or 5, distinct, growing at the base of the corolla Campanulacees, 48
Stamens on the corolla-tube: leaves opposite or whorled.
Leaves connate; corolla 4-lobed; stiff, prickly herbs Dipsacw, 46
Leaves opposite, corolla mostly 5-lobed Caprifoliaceae, 45
Leaves whorled or sometimes opposite: corolla 4-lobed ...... .Rubiaceae, 45
Leaves unequal: prostrate: calyx corolla-like Abronia, 69
Stamens only 3: corolla 5-6 lobed; calyx-lobes minute or none. Herbs.
Leaves opposite; stamens distinct: erect herbs Valerianaceae, 46
Leaves palmately nerved, alternate: tendril-bearing vines. ..Cucurbitaceae, 43
Stamens apparently 1, really 3 united: flowers monoecious Cucurbitaceae, 43
B. OVARY SUPERIOR (free from the calyx) or nearly so.
1. Flowers regular or nearly so.
* Stamens many, united, and adherent to the petals Malvaceae, 27
** Stamens twice as many as the lobes of the corolla.
Corolla bell-shaped or inflated ovoid Ericaceae, 48
Corolla deeply 5-8 cleft, the base united with the filaments Styracaceae, 50
Corolla 5-cleft: pistils or styles 5; fleshy herbs ... . Crassulaceae, 38
* * * Stamens as many as the corolla-lobes.
a. Style 1, stigma 1: leafless, root-parasite. Pholisma, 140
b. Style 1, stigma 1: leaves entire (lobed in thejirst and last.)
Leaves mostly radical, reniform: stamens unequal Romanzoffia, 152
Leaves radical or crowned on roots tocks: flowers salverform. . . . Primulaceae, 49
Leaves all radical; flowers spicate, colorless, scarious Plantaginaceae, 67
corolla reflexed: anthers purple-black. Dodecatheon, 50
Leaves alternate. Spikes coiled: ovary in 4 parts Borraginaceae, 57
Flowers rotate to funnelform or tubular Solanaceae, 60
Tall shrub: 3 to 5 calyx-like bracts: flowers yellow. .Fremonlia, 100
Tall shrub: slightly irregular, nearly white or rose ) - ; cac gg 40
Small herb: minute axillary flowers, the parts in ) .. ,
> or riiniiiaceaB, "ly
fours ; '
Leaves opposite (at least below) entire: juice milky: ovaries 2; stigmas united.
Flowers white or pinkish in terminal cymose clusters Apocynacese, 50
Flowers in umbels: sepals and petals reflexed or rotate Asclepiadaceae, 51
Leaves oppposite, ovate to lanceolate, sessile; flowers rotate, axillary . Primulaceae, 49
Leaves clustered at the top of the stem, bracts below: corolla rotate . Primulaceae, 49
e. Style one or none, stigmas two.
Leaves opposite or whorled, sessile, entire Gentianaceae, 51
Leaves opposite, lobed : flowers small in spikes Verbenaceae, 67
Leaves alternate or radical, 3-foliolate: corolla bearded Menyanthes, 145
Leaves alternate. Flowers not axillary Hydropyllaceae, 54
Flowers in a head with acerose bracts Gilia, 145
Flowers funnelform: twining or creeping vines Convolvulus. 156
Leaves radical: flowers solitary on scapes Hesperochiron, 152
d. Style 1, stigmas 3 Polemoniaceae, 51
e. Style 2 deft Hydrophyllaceae. 54
/. Styles 2: leaves simple and alternate or none (i. e. Parasite).
Flowers solitary, axillary, white: leaves silky Cressa, 156
Flowers clustered on filiform, leafless orange or yellow twining stems Cuscuta, 156
Flowers 5 or 6 lines long: shrubs or wood-based herbs Hydropliyllaceae, 54
g. Styles 5: calyx not green, petals nearly distinct . , Plumbaginaceae, 49
* Stamens fewer than the lobes of the regular or slightly irregular corolla.
Stamens 4: flowers in slender spikes: leaves opposite, lobed Verbenaceae, 67
Stamens 3: style 3-cleft: sepals 2: leaves opposite, entire Montia, 97
Stamens 2 or 4: ovary 2-celled Scrophulariaceae, 60
Stamens 2 or 3: scarious corolla, 4-lobed Plantaginaceae, 67
2. Flowers irregular: style 1; stigma entire or 2-lobed.
Leaves or scales not opposite.
Corolla flattened, heart shaped: stamens 6, united in 3's Dicentra, 84
Corolla curved; leafless root- parasites: stamens 4 Orobanchaceae. 65
Corolla more or less 2-lipped: ovary 2-celled: stamens 2-5 . Scrophulariace, 60
Ovary inferior, stemlike Lobeliaceae, 47
Corolla 2-lipped, spurred: ovary 1-celled: stamens 2: aquatic. . Lentibulariaceae, 65
Leaves opposite or whorled: stamens 2 or 4.
Ovary 2-celled Scrophulariaceae, 60
Ovary 4-parted, forming 4 seed-like nutlets Labiatae, 65
Ovary 2-4 lobed: small flowers in spikes or heads Verbenacese, 67
DIVISION a-APETAL^E. , , i<
A. OVARY INFERIOR (calyx adherent) or apparently so.
Leaves cordate: calyx 3-lobed: ovury 6-celled Aristolochiacese, 68
Leaves palmately lobed: tendril-bearing vines Cucurbitaceae, 43
Leaves pinnate: calyx- tube 3-4 angled, prickly Rosaceae, 35
Leaves unequally pinnatifid: calyx-tube in fertile flowers 3-toothed Datisca, 43
Leaves glaucous: white flowers in clustered umbels Comandra.
Leaves small, crenate: capsule axillary, obcordate Chrysosplenium, 121
Leaves opposite. Calyx salverform: capsule 1-seeded Nyctaginaceae, 68
Calyx 4-lobed: stamens 4: flowers axillary Ludwigia, 125
Calyx (corolla) tubular to rotate Caprifoliaceae, 45
Leaves in whorls. Calyx 4-lobed or entire. Aquatic Halorageae, 38
B. OVARY SUPERIOR (free from the calyx).
a. Herbs: leaves alternate, radical or in a whorl.
Sepals petaloid, persistent; akene 1, 3-sided or flat , Polygonaceaa, 69
persistent: fleshy root parasite, waxy- white bracts Allotropa, 139
deciduous: carpels several or many Rammculaceae, 17
Sepals green: racemes close: capsules flat: 1-2 celled Crucifereae, 21