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W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt) Du Bois.

Economic co-operation among Negro Americans. Report of a social study made by Atlanta University under the patronage of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. together with the proceedings of the 12th Conference for the Study of the Negro Problems, held at Atlanta University, on Tuesday, May t online

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Online LibraryW. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt) Du BoisEconomic co-operation among Negro Americans. Report of a social study made by Atlanta University under the patronage of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. together with the proceedings of the 12th Conference for the Study of the Negro Problems, held at Atlanta University, on Tuesday, May t → online text (page 17 of 22)
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the loan." From this period began the speculative, indiscreet and culpable
transactions which ultimately caused the suspension of the bank, and disas
trous losses to a very large extent upon an innocent, trusting and necessitous
class of citizens. *

The bank failed in 1874, and no one was ever punished for the swindle.

The business of the Freedmen s Savings Bank, 1866-1872, was as fol
lows :t



* Report of the Senate Select Committee to investigate the Freedmen s Savings
and Trust Co., 1880.

f Senate Report, No. 440, Forty-sixth Congress, second session, p. 41, Appendix;
Ilace Traits and Tendencies of the American Negro, p. 290.



136



Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans



YEAHS


Total Ami.
of deposits


Deposit
each year


Bal. due

depositors


Gain
each Yr.


1866
1867 . . .
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872


$ 305,167
1,624,835
3,582,378
7,257,798
12,605,782
19,952,947
31 260 499


$ 305,167
1,319,686
1,957,525
3,675,420
5,347,983
7,347,165
11 281 313


$ 199,283
366,338
638,299
1,073,465

1,657,000
2,455,836
3 684 739


$ 199,283
167,054
271,960
435,166
588,541
798,829
1 ?27 927


1873
1874


55 000 000




4,200,000
3 018 670















Branches of the Freedman s Bank *



BRANCHES


Dates of
Organization


March, 1872


Atlanta, Ga
Augusta, Ga
Baltimore, Md


Jan. 14, 1870 . .
March 8, 1866..
March 12, 1866


$ 23,632 57
72,482 87
212,588 79


Beaufort, S. C
Charleston, S. C


Oct. 16, 1865 ....
Jan. 11, 1866


46,480 92
291,018 42


Chattanooga, Tenn
Columbus, Miss
Columbia, Tenn
Huntsville, Ala
Jacksonville, Fla
Lexington, Ky
Little Rock, Ark
Louisville, Ky
Lynchburg, Va
Macon,Ga
Memphis Tenn


May 10, 1869....
Aug. 1,1870....
,1871
Dec. 11, 1865 ...
March 10, 1866.
Oct. , 1870
Nov. 25, 1870. ..
Sept. 1, 1865....
June ,1871...
Oct. 14, 1868....
Dec. 30, 1865


328 41
14,432 38
16,879 55
45,946 89
83,623 82
37,279 27
22,469 83
127,404 38
12,741 78
89,721 43
134 884 77


Mobile, Ala
Montgomery, Ala
Natchez, Miss
Nashville, Tenn
New Berne, N. C


Jan. 1,1866
June 14, 1870 . .
March 29, 1870.
Oct. 28,1865....
Jan. 11, 1866


106,741 39
27,414 00
21,101 73
101,342 10
60,262 18


New Orleans, La
New York City
Norfolk, Va
Philadelphia, Pa


Jan. 7, 1866
July 21,18(56. ..
June 3, 1865 . . .
Jan 4, 1870


255,260 79
337,911 92
123,447 01
73 624 39


Raleigh, N. C
Richmond, Va


Jan. 9, 1869
Oct 18, 1885


19,459 82
180 984 3D


Savannah, Ga
Shreveport, La
St. Louis, Mo
Tallahassee, Fla
Vicksburg, Miss
Washington, D. C
Wilmington, N. C


Jan. 11, 1866...
Nov. 15, 1870. . .
June 27, 1868. . .
Aug. 22, 1866. . .
Dec. 3, 1865
Aug. 1, 1865 ....
Oct. 24, 1865 . .


184,087 17
31,710 81
66,173 88
44,221 89
155,946 29
760,797 12
51,689 95


Total




$ 3,684,739 97



Amount of Interest Paid by the Company

From organi/ation to January 1, 1867 $ 1,985 47

For the year ending January 1, 1868 9,521 60

For two years ending November 1, 1868 24,544 08

For the year ending November 1, 1869 43,8% 98

For the year ending November 1, 1870 59,376 20

For the term ending March 1, 1971 20,84032

For two terms ending January 1, 1872 122,215 17



Total . i $ 262,379 82



* Report of the Senate Select Committee to investigate the Freedmen s Savings
Bank and Trust Co., 1880; Appendix, pp. 41-42.



Banks 137

At the time of the company s failure, in 1874, it consisted of 32 branches,
with 61,131 depositors, and the balance due these depositors at the time was
$3,013,699

The total payments to March, 1896, were $1,722,548, leaving a balance unpaid
of $1,291,121. The present cash balance in the hands of the government re
ceivers amounts to $30,476. *

Of all disgraceful swindles perpetrated on a struggling people, the
Freedman s Bank was among the worst and the Negro did well not to j
wait for justice, but went to banking himself as soon as his ignorance
and poverty allowed.

The Capital Savings Bank, Washington, D. C., 1888
Capital Stock, $150,000

In the year 1888 a statement was made on the floor of the United States
Senate by a prominent Senator that with all their boasted progress, the
colored race had not a single bank official to its credit. This remark was the
immediate spur to several gentlemen who believed that the stigma of racial

incapacity was unjust and who resolved to start a bank, if possible

On Wednesday morning, October 17, 1888, the doors of the Capital Savings
Bank were thrown open for business at 804 F street, N. W., Washington, D. C.
The amount of stock subscribed was $6,000, of which $1,000 paid up in cash.
The business of the bank was a success from the start. The capital was
steadily increased, from time to time, until now it is $50,000 paid up, and a con
siderable surplus. The bank is a voluntary association and owns the large
bank building at 609 F street, N. W., in the heart of the business section of the
National Capital, containing some twenty handsome office rooms heated by
steam. The Capital Savings Bank is now one of the recognized banking in
stitutions of the city. It stood the strain of the panic in 1893 without asking
quarter from anyone, paying every obligation on demand, t

This bank lived about sixteen years and did a large business. It
finally failed through bad management and some possible dishonesty.

The Mutual Bank and Trust Co. of Chattanooga, was opened in 1889.
and failed in the panic of 1893, after a career of four years.

Tbe Metropolitan Bank of Savannah, failed in 1908.

These are the only failures so far, but most of the banks are very
young.
The following is a list of Negro banks taken from Bankers directo-



* Race Traits and Tendencies of the American Negro, p. 290.

r Colored Washington: Efforts for Social Betterment, pp. 16, 18.



138

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Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans

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Banks

Bank statements and histories follow:



139



Bank of the G. U. O. of True Reformers

(Established 1889)
TOTAL RECEIPTS OF TRUE REFORMERS BANK



1890.
1891 .



...$ 9,811 28
. . . 55,937 70



1892..
1893. .



.$ 79,052 79
. 108,205 98



1894....
1905...



.$ 162,433 32
. 807,995 17



THE REPORT, August 2, 1902



From the Finance Department

From the Real Estate Department

From the Regalia Department

From the Reformer Department

From the Supply Department

From the Record Department

From the Old Folks Home

From the Richmond Mercantile Store

From the Washington Mercantile Store

From the Manchester Mercantile Store

From the Portsmouth Mercantile Store

From the Roanoke Mercantile Store

From Fountains

From Rose Buds

From individuals

From societies

From loans

From collections

From exchanges

From clubs

From Hotel Reformer . . .



Total

Cash balance forwarded from the last report

Total receipts, including balance forwarded

Total disbursements by depositors, discounts, mortgages, etc.

Cash balance to date

Amount of cash handled at last report

Amount of business done this year

Total amount of business done to date

Average monthly business done



Number of letters received this year

Number of letters sent out

Number of letters and packages referred to other Departments.

Number of depositors at the last report

Number of new depositors this year



Total number of depositors. . . .



STATEMENT, April 6, 1906



Resources



Liabilities



Loans and discounts $ 463,564 21

Stocks, bonds and mortgages. 5,00000

Furniture and fixtures 2,500 00

Checks and other cash items. . 2,555 32
Due from State Bank and pri
vate bankers 12,81124

Specie, nickels, cents 7,150 63

Paper currency 47,866 00



.$ 135,737 45

21,014 00

7,636 5S

7,427 32

. 21,254 13

77,131 37

8,127 44

57,237 92

11,982 50

14,946 75

12,872 49

5,577 24

47,659 85

5,666 71

259,653 74

62,228 78

. 18,391 14

1,409 44

(565 50

14,686 67

4,793 39

.$ 796,099 91

103,229 96

.$ 899,329 87

. 820,740 53



.$ 78,589 34



6,906,849 38
1, (516,840 44



.$8,613,189 82
. 134,736 70

11,831
8,979
2,066

10.631
744

11,375



Total



.$ 541,447 40



Capital stock paid in $ 100,000 00

Surplus fund 86,1*72 00

Undivided profits, less amount

paid for interest, expenses

and taxes 27,807 30

Time certificates of deposits . 224,083 21
Individual deposits subject to

check 102,584 89

Total $541,447 40



The bank has paid in dividends to the stockholders $160,350 to date.



140



Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans



REPORT, 1907



Receipts




Balance from last year


..$ 78,21676


(irand Fountain


..$ 8ft2.7278


Receipts for year


. . 1,008,996 40


Fountains


31.28476


Total


. .$ 1,087,213 16


Rose Buds .


2,5 24 54






Individuals


382,978 06

1 *-lP% 7OO *7Q


Disbursements


.. 1,000,811 83


Societies
Loans


. . liQ,rf "V* i o

51,172 52


Cash Bal. at last report.


. .$ 86,101 33


Interest
Collections
Supplies
Exchange


1,617 37
1,5U3 91
16 69
67 84


Capital stock paid in
New depositors
Amount paid in dividends .


100,000 00
1,803 00
18,884 00


Richmond Division


6 75


Amount cash handled at la


st


Clubs


9,171 45


report


. . 14,923,240 76






Business done this year


. . 2,009,808 22



Total



.$ 1,008,996 40



Total $16,933,048 98



Alabama Savings Bank

Report of the Alabama Penny Savings and Loan Co., Sept. 12, 1907



(Established 1890)



Resources

Loans and discounts

Overdrafts

Stocks and bond

Real estate

Furniture and fixtures . .
Cash available .



Total



Liabilities



210,349 14 Capital stock

1,497 56 Surplus

21000 Undivided profits

51,122 78 Due depositors on certificates.

2,967 72 Due depositors on demand. . . .

47,341 26 Dividends uncalled for

Notes payable



I



.$ 313,488 46



Total



25,000 00
6,000 (X)
4,984 03
49,611 24
213,385 35
674 50
13,833 34

.$ 313,488 46



Deposits



July 15,1902

July 15, 1903

July 15, 1905

July 15, 1906

July 15, 1907

Sept. 15, 1906, to Sept. 15, 1907, (9,112 depositors)



..$ 78,12421
. . 100,948 .H5
. . 107,046 (59
. . 165,177 73
. . 215,455 26
.$ 1,0 J9,224 00



The Alabama Savings Bank was organized August, 1890. One of the consid-
erations which led to the effort of building a bank was that it might serve as
a remedy for the squandering of property in our district. During my pastor
ate in Birmingham there was a family who had two children. Both of the
parents died, and the property left to the children was squandered. The
estate was estimated at $10,000. The administrator sold the boy, the elder of
the two, old horses and carriages in payment for his interest in the estate. To
make a bond of .$20,000, as was necessary in this case, was impossible for any
colored person to do. When I saw our helplessness in the effort to help orphan
children in saving the property earned by their parents, I conceived the idea
if we had a strong financial institution that could make bonds and save the
property left to the heirs for their benefit, it would greatly help the race

The next day after the opening, I took my seat as President and made the
first loan in the history of our bank. This loan was $10 for thirty days, interest
50 cents. The last loan I made in the fifteenth year of the bank s existence
was just before visiting the National Business League, in New York City,
August, 1905. It was for $14,000, time ten years, with satisfactory interest
arrangement. The borrower was the Knights of Pythias, of Alabama, for the
purpose of erecting their magnificent three-story brick building.*



* National Negro Business League, 1906, pp. 162-4.



Banks



141



The Wage Earners Loan and Investment Co.

1*68 W. Broad St., Savannah, Qa.

(Established 1900)
Assets at the End of each Fiscal Year



$ 102 00

. 1,144 00
. 2,462 08
. 11,637 37
. 14,587 53



1900 (commenced business) . . .

1901

1902 .

1908

1904

1905

190ft 85J49 51

1907 67,966 90

SEVENTH ANNUAL, STATEMENT, October 5, 1907
Resources Liabilities



Loans outstanding $ 57,041 14

Real estate and investments . . 5,717 00
Office furniture and fixtures. . . 892 71
Cash 4,816 05



Capital paid in $ 11,518 35

Reserve and undivided profits. 6,987 44

Deposits 49,489 51

Dividends unpaid 21 60



Total $ 67,966 90

Business done in 1906..
Total paid up capital. .
Real estate . . .



Total



.$ 143,743 65
10,000 00
6,000 00



$ 67,966 90



This company was organized in October, 1900, with a total paid in capital of
$102.

Mechanics Savings Bank

511 North Third Street, Richmond, Va.
(Established 1901)
STATEMENT, 1906



Resources

Loans and discount $

Overdraft

Stocks, bonds and mortgages

Furniture and fixtures

Real estate

Cash on hand:

Coin $ 488 90

Currency 861 00

Exchange 618 95

Total $ 1,96885

Due from American National Bank

Due from National bank and banks of New York. .

Due from National banks of Virginia

Other items . .



5,581 02
1,241 02
7,411 73
2.164 62
88,159 35



7,452 07
2,156 77
20,168 35 $ 31,747 04

1,868 08



Total resources



$ 138,161 86



Liabilities



Capital stock paid in.

Surplus

Time deposits

Demand deposits

Dividends unpaid

Certified checks

Total . .



24,174 32

6,250 00

80,167 21

27,207 40

21*00

149 93



$ 138,161 86

The financial report of the Cashier, Thomas H. Wyatt, showed that there
was $32,616.22 to the credit of the stockholders. The aggregate deposits for the
year 1907 were $481,243.65, and the gross receipts up to the close of the year, ex
clusive of furniture and fixtures, were $151,904.48. The Board of Directors had
declared a dividend of 10 per cent on all of its stock. One of the features, too,
in this report was the recommendation to erect a fine banking house for the
institution.



142 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans






Lincoln Savings Bank, Vicksburg, Miss.

(Established 1902)

Capital stock $ 10,(XK)

Surplus 1,150

Deposits 16,500



We are five years old. We have many white depositors, and white borrow
ers have to be kept off with a club, figuratively speaking. We shall be in the
clearing house which is now being organized in this city.

One Cent Savings Bank, Nashville, Tenn.

(Established 1903)
STATEMENT, 1906
Loans and discounts $ 17,516 96

Cash Resources

Due from banks and bankers 29,655 16

Checks and other cash items 502 62

Specie 835 46

Currency 261 M $ 80,754 24

Total resources $ 48,271 20

Liabilities

Capital stock paid in 9 2,140 00

Surplus and undivided profits, less expenses and taxes paid 1,312 41

Individual deposits . . 44,818 79

Total liabilities $ 48,271 20

I want to give you, in a few words, a comparative statement of our deposits
for a few months during our existence. In the month of January, 1904, our
deposits were $11,047.30; in January of the next year, $19,927.11; in January,
1906, they were $31,676, showing an average increase of nearly $10,000 for each
year. In April, 1904, our deposits amounted to $10,892 ; in April, 1905, to $16,358.09 ;
in April, 1906, to $23,870.32. In June, 1904, our deposits amounted to $14,819.82; in
June, 1905, to $26,759*.5, and in June, 1906, to $36,243.09. So you see, my friends, we
are gradually growing. Our paid up capital stock amounts to $7,125 ; our total
deposits on the 30th of June, 1906, amounted to $.55,312.36.*

Solvent Savings Bank and Trust Co., Memphis, Tenn,

FOURTH ANNUAL STATEMENT, DEC. 31, 1907

Resources

Loans and discounts $ 15,372 09

Furniture and fixtures 4,49223

Expenses paid, less Int. and Ex. collected . . 4,837 90

Cash Resources



Due from banks and bankers
Checks and other cash items
Specie
Currency


$ 6,509 (18
. 5,061 20
5,275 91
9,874 00 26,720 74


Total resources


$ 51,422 96


Liabilities
Capital stock paid in
Individual deposits subject to check
Certificates of deposit


$ 7,732 00
33,040 45
2,680 06


Certified and Cashier s checks
Savings deposits subject to check


70 00
7,900 45


Total liabilities


$ 51,422 tt



National Negro Business League, 1900, p. 172.



Banks 143

Growth of Deposits

June 80, 1906 $ 7,586 04

December 81, 190 18,874 71

June 80, 1907 $3,207 47

December 81, 1907 48,620 96

The Surry Sessex and Southampton American Home and Missionary Bank
ing Association, Courtland, V a., 1903. Conducted by the Jenkins Benevolent
and Education Association :

Business 1906-7 $62,167 83

Total paid up capital 13,955 00

Real estate 20,000 00

In one mile of the town of Courtland, in the county of Southampton.
Bank of Mound Bayou, Mound Bayou, Miss.

(Established 1904)

STATEMENT, OCT. 12, 1906
Resources Liabilities

Loans and discounts $ 41,487 88 Individual deposits subject to

Building and fixtures 7,085 63 checks $ 42,68264

Expenses 77791 Capital paid in 8,40000

Overdrafts 81907 Undivided profits 1,01294

Cash and sight exchange 20,39064 Bills payable 18,46500

Total resources $ 70,510 58 Total liabilities $70,510 58

The Bank of Mound Bayou was organized January 8, 1904, with an author
ized capital of $10,000. We were chartered by Governor Vardaman, who, not
so much because of kindly feelings towards the members of our race, but
mainly because of the indomitable perseverance of the Mississippi Negro, has
been forced to sign more charters for Negro banks than any other man in the
world, living or dead. Located in a town and surrounded by a community
whose citizenry is composed almost exclusively of our people, our bank has
had a splendid opportunity to indicate the Negro s capacity to operate a finan
cial institution among themselves. Starting without any experience, no cor
respondents or financial connections, in a one-story frame building, 16x20, it
has today about $40,000 in resources and liabilities; correspondents and finan
cial connections in Clarksdale, Miss., Memphis, New Orleans and New York.
In sending some of our paper to New York this spring for discount to our
New York correspondent, the Cashier replied that he had placed the amount
to our credit at 5 per cent per annum and assured us that it was a pleasure to
serve us. We completed this year and are now domiciled in a two-story
pressed brick front building, with modern vault, time lock safe and com
mensurate fixtures. Located in a contiguous cotton territory about 30,000
acres, one- third of which is in cultivation, and a live hard wood timber indus
try, we have handled more money in a short while than many larger institu
tions in larger towns. The total clearings through our bank from September,
1905, to January, 1906, were more than $300,000.*

Union Savings and Loan Co., Savannah, Qa.

(Established 1905)

Stockholders 450

Business, 1905 $120,000

Total capital paid in 14,000

Real estate 8,250

Deposits 15,000

We began business November 8, 1905, with $1,000 paid in. We have purchased
* National Negro Business League, 1906, pp. 168-9.



144 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans

one of the most desirable localities in this beautiful city. In the heart of
Savannah, in front of the magnificent post office, just across the square from
the court house, and in the midst of the banking and business life of Savannah.
We shall erect a building here that will be a monument to the race.

We desire that our people everywhere should hold an interest in this great
and beautiful building. The ground and building complete will cost between
$22,000 and $25,000, every dollar of which will be owned by Negroes.

Mechanics Investment Co., Savannah, Ga. :

Authorized capital $ 25,000 00

Shares, each 1000

Afro-American Loan and Investment Co., Savannah, Ga. Established 1906.
Business done 1906-7, $20,000 ; total paid up capital, $10,000.

Metropolitan Mutual Benefit Association and Metropolitan Mercantile and
Realty Co., Savannah, Ga., (incorporated). We are doing a regular banking
business, paying 7 per cent on yearly deposits on $100 and upwards ; deposits
in the savings department, 5 per cent.

We are well equipped with a burglar proof vault, safety deposit boxes, steel
money chests and time lock. Deposit boxes are now for rent at reasonable
cost.

We handle yearly between $50,000 and $90,000. [Failed, 1908.]

We have four Negro banks in the city of Savannah ; the oldest one is the
Wage Earners Bank, established some six years ago ; the next one established
was the Metropolitan Savings Bank; the third was the Afro-American Sav
ings Bank, and the next bank which came into existence in Savannah was
the Union Savings Bank, which I represent. We organized on the 8th day of
last November with an authorized capital stock of $8,000; we have handled up
to last month $21,000, and now have a paid up capital stock of a little over
$5,000. I think thus far we have had remarkable success. *

Gideon Savings Bank, Norfolk, Va.

(Established 1905)

STATEMENT
Resources Liabilities

Loans and discounts 8 9,62288 Capital stock paid in $ 7,187 00

Banking house 4,19742 Individual deposits subject to

Furniture and fixtures ......... 2,25462 check 9,99121

Specie, nickles and cents 95624 Time certificates of deposit 1,71950

Paper currency 2,044 oo Bills payable 177 50

Total $ 19,075 21 Total $ 19,075 21

The Sons and Daughters of Peace, Newport News, Va.

(Established 1905)
STATEMENT OF AUG. 22, 1907



Loans and discounts
Overdrafts
Banking house
Furniture and fixtures
Exchanges for clearing house.
Due from National banks
State banks
Specie, nickels and cents
Paper currency


.$ 8,983 25
24 8ft-
. 4,000 00
779 00
60 87
. 1,300 44
. 5,437 08
255 83
340 00


Capital stock
Deposits subject to check
Certified checks
Other items liability


$ 8,600 00
.... 8,405 10
125 00
4,050 73










Total ...:


$21,180 83




$21,180 S3



Negro National Business League, 1906, p. ISX).



Banks



145



Our bank was opened July 4, 1905. The first day we did only $500 of business,
but we are glad to say that we averaged for the first year over $50,000, and still
better last year. This year we mean to do even more. The future for our
enterprise is indeed bright, and we believe our bank is destined to be one of
the financial strongholds of our people of this section. We are in a vicinity of
activity. And we are endeavoring to get the people to save systematically,
which means a business that can be depended upon. So far, we have suc
ceeded nicely and our patronage is steadily growing ; we have both small and
large accounts numbering possibly 400 or 500.

STATEMENT, AT THE CLOSE OF BUSINESS, DEC. 8, 1907
Resources Liabilities



Loans and discounts $ 8,545 49

Overdrafts 57 22

Banking house 4,000 00

Furniture and fixtures 779 00

Exchanges for clearing house . 67 86

Due from National banks 1,500 44

Due from State banks and pri
vate bankers 3,450 48

Specie, nickels and cents 470 85

Paper currency 1,217 00



Capital stock paid in $ 8,600 0(

Individual deposits subject to

check

Time certificates of deposit . .

Certified checks

All other items of liability,

viz ...



6,881 88
1,980 91
76 10



3,100 00



Total



..$ 20,088 84



Total.



$20,088 34

Last year our deposits were $60,000 with a thousand patrons more or less, and
this year we wish to do a great deal more ; for this reason we solicit your busi
ness.

We have recently purchased our banking house, and put in improvements
and we are prepared to give you every accommodation consistent to our busi
ness. Take a number of shares of our stock at once. If you cannot take as
many as you wish, take one or two at any rate. We lend money on easy terms.

Delta Penny Savings Bank, Indianola, Miss.

(Established 1904)
Capital Slock, $35,000



STATEMENT, OCT. 31, 1907



Resources

Loans and discounts, etc.

Overdrafts secured

Banking house

Furniture and fixtures . . .

Sight exchange

Cash on hand . .



Liabilities



62,119 08
952 65
5,000 00
2,755 50
27,711 10
6,107 20


Capital paid in
Surplus
Undivided profits
Demand deposits
Time deposits
Bills payable
Unpaid dividends
Cashier s checks



Total



$ 104,645 58



Total



..$ 10,90000

1,1X10 00


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 17 19 20 21 22

Online LibraryW. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt) Du BoisEconomic co-operation among Negro Americans. Report of a social study made by Atlanta University under the patronage of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. together with the proceedings of the 12th Conference for the Study of the Negro Problems, held at Atlanta University, on Tuesday, May t → online text (page 17 of 22)