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W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt) Du Bois.

Economic co-operation among Negro Americans. Report of a social study made by Atlanta University under the patronage of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. together with the proceedings of the 12th Conference for the Study of the Negro Problems, held at Atlanta University, on Tuesday, May t online

. (page 22 of 22)
Online LibraryW. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt) Du BoisEconomic co-operation among Negro Americans. Report of a social study made by Atlanta University under the patronage of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. together with the proceedings of the 12th Conference for the Study of the Negro Problems, held at Atlanta University, on Tuesday, May t → online text (page 22 of 22)
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131

109


3275

27 25


3 03

1 58


35 7H

28 83


Seventh
Eighth


193
216


83
44


20 75
11 00


1 05
36


21 80
11 36


Ninth


72


13


3 25


03


3 2S



First...

Second

Third

Fourth

Fifth

Sixth

Seventh

Eighth

Ninth

Undistributed

Total . .



Profits Per Series



. $ 357.06

364.20

. 346.69

68.95

. 130.46

47.42

. 207.31

79.03

2.29

.05

.$1,600.46



Twin City Building and Loan Association, Winston-Salem, N. C. Persons
subscribe for so many shares, and pay weekly until the stock matures. We
work along building and loan lines. Amount of business done since October
10, 1903, $30,113.38.

The Twin City Building and Loan Association was organized October 10,
1903. Since this time it has built more than twenty homes for our people.

THIRD ANNUAL REPORT OF THE
Twin City Building and Loan Association



(For the Year Ending December 31,1906.)
Assets Receipts



Loans on mortgages

Loans on shares

Real estate acquired by pur
chase

Cash in bank

Furniture and fixtures

Interest due and upaid

Fines due and unpaid

Total ..



.$ 9,825.00 Cash on hand Dec. 31, 1905

813.33 Installments paid

Loans or shares paid. . . .

167.69 Interest received

236.14 Fines received

47.80 Entrance fees

95.84 Transfer fees

23.35 Borrowed money

Stock loan fees

.$11,208.65 Passbooks ,

Real estate



227.90

3,196.25

209.50

511.92

13.35

37.00

1.75

3,000.00
1.75
3.60
7.95



Total $ 7,211.06



Co-operative Business



177



Liabilities

Due shareholders, installments

paid $ 6,086.25

Due shareholders, earnings

credited 504.50

Due shareholders, matured

shares 700.00

Borrowed money 2,500.00

Interest on borrowed money 19.27
Balance to be paid on loans

made 865.00

Surplus 504.18

Dividends due and unpaid 70.00

Assessment... 9.45



Total $11,208.65



Disbursements

Loans on mortgages $ 4,585.<X>

Loans on shares 860.38

Paid on withdrawals, dues 1,278.95

Salaries paid 88.00

Advertising and printing 12.28

Interest paid 135.55

Rent paid 34.50

Taxes 27.97

Dividends on redeemed shares. . 20.00

Fuel, etc 14.70

Paid on real estate 167.69

Cash on hand Dec. 31, 1906



Total $ 7,211. OH



Central Trust Building and Loan A ssociation, Jacksonville, Fla. Lends on
30, 60 or 90 days time. Business : 1906, $12,500 ; 1907, $15,000 ; capital, $10,000.

Organized 1902 to operate a building and loan association for the protection
of our people.

The Cherry. Building and Loan Association, 1440 Lombard street, Philadel
phia, Pa. One hundred and fourteen members. Business: 1906, $8,591; 1907,
$11,866.

Organized by members of the First African Baptist Church principally.

1907
Receipts $ 14,584.02



Disbursements

Assets

Liabilities, 726^ shares. .



14,417.94
45,458.82
36,603.40



STOCK STATEMENT



Series


Shares


Loans


Amount paid
per share


Profit pei-
share


Total worth
per share


14


10


$1,000 00


$ 144 00


8 56 00


$ 200 00


15


6


120 00


144 00


56 00


200 00


16


4


460 00


138 00


52 90


190 90


17


19


50 00


132 00


48 40


180 80


18


3


50 00


126 00


44 10


170 10


19


23


2,265 00


120 00


4000


16000


20


2


44 00


114 00


86 10


150 10


21


5


124 00


108 00


32 40


140 40


22


7


800 00


102 00


28 90


180 90


23


26^


6,800 00


96 00


25 60


121 60


24


34


5,440 00


90 00


22 50


112 50


25


89


3,004 00


84 00


19 60


103 60


26


15K


1,<!06 00


78 00


16 90


94 90


27


33


819 00


72 00


14 40


86 40


28


27


3,200 00


66 00


12 10


78 10


29


30


724 18


60 00


10 00


70 00


30


\W>


1,470 00


54 00


8 10


62 10


31


29$


2,650 00


48 00


5 60


53 60


32


24


3,612 50


42 00


4 90


46 90


33


51


1,000 00


36 00


3 60


39 60


34

85


88


4,400 00
8,202 00


3000
24 00


2 50
1 60


32 50
25 60


86


41>!


1,110 00


18 00


90


18 90


37


71


2,700 00


1200


40


12 40


38


33




6 00


10


6 10















WorMngmen s Loan and Building Association, 111 Seventh street, Augusta,
Ga. Corporation, 75 stockholders. Building homes for stockholders and
dealing generally in real estate. Receipts: 1905, $5,773.16; 1906, $4,809.47; 1907,
$4,547.15; dividend declared, 6 per cent per annum. We have a surplus of
$6,028.35 ; capital, $9,450 ; real estate, $7,152. Organized April 1, 1889.



178 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans

EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL STATEMENT, MAY 81, 1907



Resources
Loans $ 7,271 44 Capital stc


Liabilities
>ck
ble
profits


$ 9,450 00
402 85
6,028 35


Cash on hand 1,32976 Bills paval
Real estate 7,152 00 Undivided
Office fixtures -" 1 ^T 50




Total $ 15,880 70 Total . .


$15,880 70


Profit Account
Receipts
Disbursements

Profits...


..$1,435.36
860.51




. ..$ 574.85



The Pittsburg Home Building Co., 5638 Penn avenue, Pittsburg, Pa. Forty-
three stockholders. Real estate, buying, building and selling, and also rent
ing. Company s business is conducted by a Board of Directors of nine mem
bers. Rents collected for company, $3,575.62; rents collected for clients,
$2,672.81; capital, $25,000; owns 3 flats.

The colored citizens came together July 1, 1901, to buy and build better
houses for our people in the city of Pittsburg, as this city had very poor
accommodation for the citizens of this race. They only could get old houses
unimproved.

Other associations are operated at New Albany, Ind. ("prosperous,
with valuable property") ; Raleigh, N. C. ; Baltimore, Md. (five asso
ciations); Claremont, Va., and Philadelphia (nine, including those
mentioned).

The secret societies have many building associations:

Pythian Mutual Investment Association, Charleston, W. Va. Five hundred
and seventy stockholders. Branch establishments, Huntington, W. Va. Real
estate and investment. Business 1906-1907, $49,006.97 ; paid up capital, $21,259.42 ;
real estate owned, $38,368.19. Organized and incorporated January 9, 1902,
under the laws of the State of West Virginia. Business has been successfully
conducted, a 6 per cent dividend paid each year.

The Odd Fellows Hall Association, composed of the various branches of the
order and the individual members thereof, was organized December 30, 1889,
and subsequently duly incorporated under the laws of the District of Colum
bia.

The price of each share of stock was fixed at $10, and the number of shares
issued was not to exceed 5,000, nor the real or personal property to exceed
$50,000. Its income is $7,000 a year and its capital $35,000. It owns a hall.

The District of Columbia has a Masonic Hall Building Association with 300
members, which does a business of renting houses and halls. Shares at $10
each are sold. From September 1, 1906, to September 1, 1907, a business of
$11,875.37 was done. The property owned is valued at $35,000 and "consists of
a large hall, corner Fifth and Virginia avenue, S. E., 3 houses, 743, 745, 747 Fifth
street, and a hall at 1111 Nineteenth street N. W., Washington. The organiza
tion was founded in 1893. It was out of debt by November, 1905, and is still
out of debt.

There are many trade unions like the following:

The Colored Longshoremen of New Orleans will hold their annual election
on the 29th instant. They have one of the largest organizations in existence



Group Economy 179

in all the South. The active membership is upward of 1,400 in good standing.
They have their own drug store, and employ several physicians to attend
their sick. One of the physicians gets a salary of $1,400 per year, and another
gets $900, payable quarterly. The affairs of the association have been put in
first-class shape during the past two years. A great debt which accumulated
under previous administrations has been paid off, and today the longshoremen
of New Orleans are in better shape than ever.

The dues, fees, assessments and taxes of this association amount to upwards
of $25,000 per annum, and the expenditures for sick benefits, pensions, funerals,
drugs, rent, salaries of physicians, druggist and other officials, amount to
almost as much. A glance at the figures for one year s transaction alone, will
prove that the longshoremen association of New Orleans is probably handling
more finances than any other colored concern of the kind in this country. All
this business is conducted by Negro intelligence and brains.

Section 16. The Group Economy

We have studied the various forms of co-operation, but there is a
larger form which I have elsewhere called the Group Economy.

It consists of such a co-operative arrangement of industries and ser
vices within the Negro group that the group tends to become a closed
economic circle largely independent of the surrounding white world.
The recognition of this fact explains many of the anomalies which
puzzle the student of the Negro American.

You used to see numbers of colored barbers; you are tempted to think
they are all gone yet today there are more Negro barbers in the United
States than ever before, but also at the same time a larger number than
ever before cater solely to colored trade where they have a monopoly.
Because the Negro lawyer, physician, and teacher serve almost ex
clusively a colored clientage, their very existence is half forgotten.
The new Negro business men are not successors of the old ; there used
to be Negro business men in New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore
catering to white trade. The new Negro business man caters to colored
trade. So far has this gone that today in every city of the United
States with a considerable Negro population, the colored group is serv
ing itself with religious ministration, medical care, legal advice, and
education of children : to a growing degree with food, houses, books,
and newspapers. So extraordinary has been this development that it
forms a large and growing part in the economy in the case of fully one-
half of the Negroes of the United States and in the case of something
between 50,000 and 100,000 town and city Negroes, representing at least
300,000 persons the group economy approaches a complete system.

This study can best be closed by a picture of this group economy of
one city of 70,000 Negroes:

The Negro Group Economy of Philadelphia, 1907

Lawyers 14 Artists <>

Dentists 11 Chiropodists 4

Druggist 1 Occulists 2

Physicians 28 Electrical engineers 2



180



Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans



Teachers

Graduate nurses

Music teachers

Advertisers,

Antiques :

Bank

Barbers

Bands of music

Bicycles

Bootblack parlors

Boot and shoemakers .

Blacksmiths

Brass melter

Building and loan associations. .

Brokers

Carpenters

Steam carpet cleaning

Caterers

Caterers and confectioners

Cigar manufacturers

Cigar and tobacco dealers

Cleaning and dying

Coal and ice dealers

Cemeteries

Clothiers

Contractors

Confectioners

Crockery

Tailors

Dry Goods

Employment agencies

Express and hauling

Florists

Fruit and produce

Furniture

Gents furnishing

Grocers

Hair culture and manicure

Hotels

Ice

Ice cream parlors

Insurance agents

Insurance companies

Jewelry



58

18

22

2

2
1

104

8

3

21

12

2

1

. 9
4

. 8
3

. 80

. 2

. 7

33

5

. 24
. 4
. 2
. (5
. (5
. 2
. 20
. 4
. 35
. 47



Job printers 16

Junk dealers 15

Laundries 12

Livery stables 6

Loans 2

Manufacturers 10

Masseurs 5

Meat dealers 3

Metal signs 1

Milk dealers 5

Millinery 2

Moving pictures 2

Newsdealers 9

Newspapers 20

Orchestras 4

Painters 2

Paperhangers 4

Photographers 4

Poolrooms . 6

Provision stores 3

Real estate 18

Restaurants 83

Patent medicines 4

Saloons 2

Second-hand goods 2

Shoe dealer 1

Stationery 3

Stoves 2

Undertakers 11

Upholsterers 12

Whitewashing 8

Wholesale medicine 1

Corporations 32

Real estate owners 802

Clergymen (heads of churches with



28,000 members)

Secret societies (lodges) .

Political clubs

Other clubs

Charitable organizations.

Hospitals

Day nurseries

Social settlements



When one remembers that in every city and town in the United
States where Negroes live a similar co-operative economy is growing
up and developing, one gets in microcosm a picture of the co-operative
development beginning among Negro Americans.

Above and beyond this is the effort to mold Negro opinion by news
papers and organizations. The chief National Negro Conventions have
been:

1&30, Philadelphia (annually until about 1836).
1847, Troy, N. Y.
1852, Rochester, N. Y.
1856, Chatham, Canada.



Twelfth Atlanta Conference 181

1864, Syracuse, N. Y.

1879, Nashville, Tenn.

1890, Rochester, N. Y. The Afro-American Council. (Annually since).

1900, Boston, Mass. The Negro Business League. (Annually since).

1905, Niagara Falls, N. Y. The Niagara Movement. (Annually since).



Section 17. The Twelfth Atlanta Conference

The Twelfth Atlanta Conference met in Ware Memorial Chapel, May
28, 1907, President Horace Bumstead, presiding. The following was the
programme :

Programme

First Session, 10:00 a. m.

President Horace Bumstead, presiding.

Subject: " Business as a Career."

Address : Mr. R. P. Sims, Bluenelds, W. Va.

Second Session, 11:30 a. m.

Subject: "Health and Business."
Address : Dr. L. B. Palmer.

Third Session, 3:00 p. m.

Tenth Annual Mothers Meeting. (In charge of the Gate City Free Kinder
garten Association), Mrs. Hattie Landrum Green, presiding.
Subject : " Co-operation for the Children."

1. Kindergarten songs, games and exercises by 100 children of the four Kind
ergartens :

East Cain Street Miss Ola Perry.
Bradley Street Mrs. J. P. Williamson.
White s Alley Miss Ethel Evans.
Summerhill Mrs. John Rush.

2. Paper Mrs. John Rush.

tt. Paper Mrs. Irene Smallwood Bowen.

4. Reports of Contributions to the 1907-8 Kindergartens.

Fourth Session, 8:00 p. m.
President Horace Bumstead, presiding.
Subject: "Co-operative Business."

"The Meaning of Co-operation" Mr. W. E. B. Du Bois.
" Co-operation "Mr. N. O. Nelson, St. Louis, Mo.

"Co-operation and Immigration" Mr. George Crawford. New Haven, Conn.
Remarks: Rev. Byron Gunner, Columbia, S. C.

The Resolutions adopted are printed on page 4.



182



Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans



Index



Alabama, Migration from,

Alabama Penny Savings Bank,

Africa,

African Travellers, Testimony of r

African Migration,

African Methodist Episcopal Church r

African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church,

Agriculture in Africa,

American Colonization Society, The,

Ashanti,

Atlanta, Ga.,

Atlanta University Conference,

Baltimore, Md.,

Banks,

Bank Statements,

Baptists,

Baptist Schools,

Beneficial and Insurance Societies,

Beneficial Societies,

Benevolence,

Bibliography,

Black Diamond Development Co.,

Boston Schools,

Brown, John,

Building and Loan Associations,

Burean Building and Loan Association,

Canada,

Capital City Savings Bank,

Carey, Lott,

Carnegie Institution,

Cemeteries,

Chatham Convention,

Cherry Building and Loan Association,

Chesapeake Marine Railway and Dry Dock Co., The,

Church Schools,

Church, The Negro,

Cincinnati,

Co-operation in Transportation,

Co-operation Among Negroes,

Co-operation of Freedmen,

Co-operative Business,

Coleman Cotton Mills,

Colored Methodist Episcopal Church,

Conferences,

Conventions,

Cotton Mills,



50-51
140

12-18

13, ff.

45-48

57-63

71, 72, 81

15

45

16

94
5

92, 150-56, 179
J34-149
138-149

63-71,82-85

82-85

92

25
128-134

6-9
162

76

28-31
174-179
174

26 ff.,47, 48,97,98
149

45, 46, 69

5
131-134, 168-169

30
177
152-154

80-85

20

74-76
157, 164, i65

10

42^4
149-179
159, 160

72-81
5

180
159, 160



Index



183



Cost of Negro Schools,

Cuffe, John and Paul,

Davis Bend, Miss.,

Denominations, Other,

Development of Co-operation,

Development of Negro Churches,

Distributive Co-operation,

Douglass, Frederick,

Drug Stores,

Eaton, Col. John,

Economic Conditions of Africa,

Elks,

Emancipation,

Emigrant Aid Societies,

Farmers Improvement Society,

Free African Society,

Freedmen s Bank,

Freedmen s Bureau,

Freedmen, Schools for,

Fugitive Slaves,

Galilean Fishermen,

Gileadites, League of,

Group Economy, The,

Hall, Prince,

Hayti, Migration to,

Henson, Josiah,

Homes and Orphanages,

Hospitals,

Howard, General O. O.,

Income of Insurance Societies,

Income of Churches,

Insurance and Beneficial Societies,

Insurance Societies,

Insurance in Virginia,

Insurrections,

Iron in Africa,

Jamaica,

Kansas,

Knights of Pythias,

Kowaliga,

Land Buying,

Liberia,

Louisiana, Migration from,

Markets in Africa,

Maroons in Jamaica,

Masons,

Masons, Origin of,

Mechanics Savings Bank,

Migration of Negroes,

Money in Africa,

Mound Bayou,

Mound Bayou, Miss.,



91, 92

45

38

72

24 ff.

55
157, 158, 165-170

29
167, 168

33 ff.

13 ft
125, 126

25,26,32

23,54
172, 173

21 ff., 45
134-137

78,79

77-80

32
126-128

31
179, 180

22 ff.
48
28

128-130
130, 131

32 ff.
108

73

92-109

99, 100, 104, 109

20

25

13 ff.

19

49-54
121-124
162-174

43,44,170

45, 46, 47

49, 50

17

19
109

22 ff.
141

45-54

18

171, 172
143



184



Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans



Nashville Convention,

National Baptist Publishing Board,

Negro Church and Co-operation,

Negro Conventions,

Negro Exodus, 1879,

Negro Governors,

Negro Missionaries,

Negro Union of Newport, R. I.,

Negroes and Public Schools,

New York,

Newspap ers,

North Carolina, Migration from,

Obeah Worship,

Odd Fellows,

Ohio,

Orphanage,

Petersburg, Va.,

Philadelphia, Pa.,

Pioneer Building and Loan Association,

Private Schools,

Productive Co-operation,

Public Schools,

Real Estate and Credit,

Ross, Dr. A. M.,

Russwurm, J. B,,

Saint Luke s Order,

Schools,

Secret Societies,

Scope of this Study, The,

Shoe Stores,

Singleton Colony,

Sons and Daughters of Peace,

Spencer Red Brick Company,

Texas, Migration from,

Trade in Africa,

True Reformers,

True Reformers Bank,

Tubman, Harriet,

Twin City Building and Loan Association,

Types of Co-operation,

Underground Railroad, The

United Brothers of Friendship,

Virginia,

Voodooism,

Warsaw, Ga.,

West Indies,

Western Realty and Land Company,

Xenia, Ohio,

Zion Methodists,



52

63-68

54 ff.

54 ff.

49-54

19

69

45

79-80

96, 97, 179
167

51,52

18,24
115-121

74-76
128-130

98

95,96,179
175

85-91
157, 159

91,92
159, 170-179

80

46,47
108

73

93, 109-128

10-12
169

49
144
161

49,50

16 ff.
101-104
103, 134-137

28,29
176

54 ff.

26 ff.
124,125

98-100

24

95

18-20
174

92

71, 72, 81




IUNIVERSITV)

V OF A



The proper study of mankind is man"

STUDIES OF NEGRO PROBLEMS



The Atlanta University Publications



COPIES FOR SALE:

No. I, Mortality among Negroes in Cities; 51 pp., 1896. Out of

print.
Mortality among Negroes in Cities ; 24 pp., (2d ed., abridged,

1903). 175 copies, at25c.
No. 2, Social and Physical Condition of Negroes in Cities ; 86 pp.,

1897; 737 copies at 50 cents.
No. 3, Some Efforts of Negroes for Social Betterment; 66 pp.,

1898. Out of print.

No. 4, The Negro in Business; 78 pp., 1899. Out of print.
No. 5, The College-bred Negro; 115 pp., 1900. Out of print.

The College-bred Negro; 32 pp., (2d edition, abridged).

1,321 copies at 25 cents.
No. 6, The Negro Common School; 120 pp., 1901. 77 copies at

$2.00.

No. 7, The Negro Artisan; 200 pp., 1902. 644 copies at 75c.
No. 8, The Negro Church ; 2 1 2 pp., 1 903. 363 copies at $ 1 .00.
No. 9, Notes on Negro Crime ; 75pp., 1904. 1 , 1 26 copies at 50c.
No. 10, A Select Bibliography of the Negro American; 72 pp.,

1905. 1,281 copies at 25 cents.
No. 11, Health and Physique of the Negro American; 112 pp.,

^ 1 906. 343 copies at $ 1 .00.
No. 12, Economic Co-operation among Negro Americans, 184 pp.,

1907. 1,500 copies at $1.00.



We study the problem that others discuss



THIS BOOK IS DUB ^~ ~"i*

THE achievements of races are not only
what they have done during the short
span of two thousand years, when with
rapidly increasing numbers the total amount
of mental work accumulated at an ever in=
creasing rate. In this the European, the
Chinaman, the East Indian, have far out=
stripped other races. But back of this period
lies the time when mankind struggled with
the elements, when every small advance
that seems to us now insignificant was an
achievement of the highest order, as great
as the discovery of steam power or of elec
tricity, if not greater. It may well be, that
these early inventions were made hardly
consciously, certainly not by deliberate ef
fort, yet every one of them represents a
giant s stride forward in the development of
human culture. To these early advances
the Negro race has contributed its liberal
share. While much of the history of early
invention is shrouded in darkness, it seems
likely that at a time when the European
was still satisfied with rude stone tools, the
African had invented or adopted the art of
smelting iron. _ Franz Boas



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Online LibraryW. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt) Du BoisEconomic co-operation among Negro Americans. Report of a social study made by Atlanta University under the patronage of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. together with the proceedings of the 12th Conference for the Study of the Negro Problems, held at Atlanta University, on Tuesday, May t → online text (page 22 of 22)