brought the body of slaves into nominal communion with the Christian
Church. No sooner, however, did they appear in the Church than dis
crimination began to be practiced which the free Negroes of the North
refused to accept. They, therefore, withdrew into the African Metho
dist and Zion Methodist Churches. The Baptists even among the
slaves early had their separate churches, and these churches in the
North began to federate about 1836. In 1871 the Methodist Church,
South, set aside their colored members into the Colored Methodist
Episcopal Church, and the other Southern churches drove their mem
bers into the other colored churches. The remaining Northern denom
inations retained their Negro members, but organized them for the
most part into separate congregations.
Practically, then, the seven-eighths of the whole Negro population
is included in its own self-sustaining, self-governing church bodies..
Nearly all of the other eighth is economically autonomous to a
very large degree. Consequently a study of economic co-operation
among Negroes must begin with the Church group. The most compact
and powerful of the Negro churches is the African Methodist Episcopal
Church. Its membership has grown as follows:
Williams, Vol. II, pp. 586-7.
" v Tnsurrect
IA our i-pat"! o fl /*-
TM ira,t i M
Sc h o o Is"
A. M. E. Church
1787. . .
The property held is reported as follows:
Oonfer n s
5,34 1,889. 00
* Churches and Parsonages.
The property of 1903 was divided as follows:
Total churches, 5,321 $8,620,702.51
Total parsonages, 2,527 783,973 41
Total schools, 25 638,000.00
Grand total valuation of property $10,042,675.92
The total income has been as follows:
Av g eper
1822. . .
$ 1,000 00
$ 66 60
1 126 00
583 557 79
682 421 00
141 l l >
Adding in traveling expenses, we have for the last four-year period
Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans
Total support and traveling expenses per year $1,046,858.00, divided as follows!
Per year Quadrennium
$ 26,000.00 $ 104,00. UO
(General officers .
3,5521 ,960. 00
Grand totals. $ 1,046,858.00 $ 4,187,482.00
Total amounts of money raised for all purposes other than reported above isi
General Fund ("Dollar Money")
(Raised by a tax of $1.00 per member.)
Grand total $2,053,879,52
The dollar money, or general fund, is divided as follows:
Forty-six per cent to the financial secretary, Washington, D.C.
Ten per cent to the secretary of Church Extension, Philadelphia, Pa.
Eight per cent to the secretary of Education, Kittrell, N. C.
Thirty-six per cent retained by each Annual Conference and used for local
Home and Foreign Missionary Department
The African Methodists had but a few posts in slave territory outside of
Maryland and Delaware. William Paul Quinn, the pioneer of the West,
blazed a path from Pittsburg to St. Louis, including Louisville, Ky. Good,
substantial buildings were erected on slave territory at St. Louis, Louisville
and New Orleans, La., in the early 50 s.
In the wake of the army the banner of African Methodism was firmly
planted under the leadership of Chaplains Turner and Hunter in the East and
Southeast, followed by Carr and others in South Carolina, Bradwell and
Gaines in Georgia, Pierce and Long in Florida, Handy and John Turner in
Louisiana, Brook, Murray, Early, Page and Tyler in Kentucky and Tennessee,
Carter and Jenifer in Arkansas, Rivelo and Stringer in Mississippi, Gardner
Arnett s Budgett, 1900, pp. 142-4, 172-4.
The Church 59
and Bryant in Alabama, Wilhite and Grant in Texas, Ward on the Pacific
coast, Wilkerson in Kansas and the Rocky Mountains, Dove and Embry in
Missouri, Jameson in Virginia, Hunter and others in North Carolina. All
this will give some idea of the spirit, and the territory covered will show the
scope of their endeavor.*
This department has thus planted the church throughout this coun
try, besides establishing 180 missions and 12,000 members in Africa and
some work in the West Indies:
9 presiding e
?rs. 350 members.
1888-1892 . ...
Total business 1836-1903 $ 536,267.03 f
In a report to the General Conference of 1900 at Columbus, O., Rev. T. W.
Henderson then the manager, gave the following valuation of the property :
Recorder and Review $ 25,000.00
Building and grounds 17,500.00
Steam and power plant 1,800.00
Presses, folders, stitchers, etc . 4,2JO.OO
Type, plates and fixtures 6,000.00
Stock 011 hand, etc 6,400.00
Paper, ink, etc .- 500.00
Total $ 61,440.00
This valuation does not include the amounts due for merchandise, printing
and subscriptions to the Recorder and Review, which would be $5,659.24 more.
This added to the actual valuation would make the amount $67,099.24. The
liabilities then were $11,263.60; assets over liabilities $55,835.64. \
The history of this department is thus given officially:
The first book of Discipline was published in 1817 by Richard Allen, in ad
vance of this action of General Conference, and contained the articles of re
ligion, government of the church, confession of faith, ritual, etc. A Hymn
Book, for the use of the church, was compiled and published. Aside from this
and the publishing of the Conference Minutes, but little was accomplished
* United Negro, pp. 305-6. T Arnett s Budgett, 1900, p. 139.
I United Negro, pp. 540-41.
60 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans
until the year 1841, when in the New York Conference a resolution was made
that a magazine be published monthly; but for the want of proper funds
oould only be published quarterly. This gave promise of some considerable
success for nearly eight years.
In 1848 the General Conference elected Rev. A. R. Green general book stew
ard and authorized him to purchase a newspaper called the "Mystery," edited
by Martin R. Delany, and to change its name to the "Christian Herald," also
to move the Book Concern from Philadelphia to Pittsburg; which he did and
continued the publication of the paper until the General Conference in 1852.
The name of the paper was then changed to the " Christian Recorder"
This paper was looked upon by the slaveholders of the South and pro-
slavery people of the North as a very dangerous document or sheet, and was
watched with a critical eye. It could not be circulated in the slave-holding
states by neither our ministers nor members. Hence its circulation was pro
scribed until the breaking out of the war in 1860, when through the aid of the
Christian Commission it did valuable service to the freed men throughout the
South. It followed the army, went into the hovels of the freedmen and also
the hospitals, placed in the hands of soldiers, speaking cheer and comfort to
the law-abiding and liberty-loving slave whose manacles were about to fall
The Review ami Recorder are still published.
The Department of Church Extension of the African Methodist Episcopal
Church was organized in 1892 by the Annual Conference at Philadelphia. The
revenue coming into this society consists principally of savings from funds
that were hitherto collected and spent without definite purpose. In 1872 the
General Conference adopted what is known as the Dollar Money law. It was
the intention that one dollar from or for each member of the church should
cover all the expenses of the general connection for missionary and educa
tional work, the support of bishops, general officers, superannuated preachers,
and help the Conferences to help the widows of deceased preachers, and assist
ing in making up the support of pastors on poor fields.
In one year we have secured through the efforts of our resident bishop
$50,MH) of church property in South Africa alone, while word from one of our
presiding elders in Liberia to the secretary of Church Extension is, " We are
pushing into the interior; stand by us."
The constitution provided the revenues without extra taxation on the gen
eral church, as follows :
Ten per cent of the Dollar Money ; fifty per cent of the Children s Day ; ad
mission fees and annual dues to the Women s Department of Church Exten
sion : special collections, gifts and bequests, etc.
We herewith submit the result of our savings for ten years, or the moneys
handled by this department.
Fifty per cent of Children s Day to April 23, 1902 ..$ 29,862.32
Ten per cent of Dollar Money to April 23, 1902 89,122.58
Loans returned to the Department 14,883.92
Interest returned to the Department 3,817.90
Grand total $ 145,728.61
We have disbursed In loans to churches 97,751.71
Have donated to needy churches 12,119.79
Total . $109,871.50
Arnett s Budgett, 1900, p. 138.
.: - .-.:. ::.. . ^. : - - _;.- :; -.
CP - M
- .. - ..... 7*
-.rrfcsr i :<::*: rr -ri^, *rb<.:.I* awl Dep^cmenif beipad Irr tM*
- , - - . . . .
f j^*;r .- j : .-:, ,- $
" -* -. -.
-r- - -
.ti:c;i f L.-*
62 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans
Amount of Money for Education by A. M. E. Church
1847-1903, Union Seminary $ 20,000.00
1863-1908, Wllberforce University 440,164.77
1891-1903, Payne Seminary 44,800.00
Grand total for Wllberforce plant. . . . $ 504,964.77
1891-1903, connectlonal money $1,021,558.49
1900-1904, by endowment 48,000.00
1900-1904, by 8 per cent 40,000.00
Grand total connectlonal $1,109,558.49
Grand total for education 1,614,523.26
Some figures follow showing the total amounts raised for the church in cer
The receipts of the church in 1876 were as follows:
Amount of contingent money raised $ 2,976.85
Amount raised for the support of pastors 201,984.06
Amount raised for the support of presiding elders 23,896.66
Amount of Dollar Money for general purposes, etc 28,009.97
Amount raised to support Sunday Schools for the year 1876 . 17,415.33
Amount raised for the missionary society 3,782.72
Amount raised in one year for building churches 169,558.60
Total amount raised for all purposes $ 447,624.19
The receipts of four departments of the church, 1880-1884, were:
Financial department $ 179,854.30
Publication department 63,139.60
Missionary department 34,500.00
Sunday school department 2,341.61
Total $ 279,885.56
The total income of the church in this same period, 1880-1884, was :
General departments $ 279,885.56
Support of pastors 1,611,189.01
Presiding elders support 177,275.26
All other purposes 1,718,129.89
Grand total $3,786,429.72
The total income for the one year, 1884, was:
Contingent money $ 4,634.09
Presiding eldership 50,580.22
Pastors support 393,789.23
Church extension 144,669.91
Bishops traveling expenses ] ,002.51
Pastors traveling expenses 16,899.78
Presiding elders traveling expenses 6,059.09
Educational money 3,139.48
Haytian mission 942.90
Incidental expenses of the trustees 180,446.25
Church debts 33,962.93
Delegate money 2,159.01
Dollar Money 49,400.00
Sunday school money 27,400.00
Total $ 814,647.79
The income for 1900 is thus reckoned up by the church statistician
For the year $1,777,948.20
End month 148,162.35
End day 4,938.74
End hour 289.18
End minute 48.18
End second 80
For details see Schools infra.
Financial Support of Ministry, 1900
Presiding elders support, per annum $ 145,735.37
Ministers support, per annum.
Traveling expenses, per annum
Bishops support, per annum
General officers support, per annum
Grand total for ministerial support for one year.
The next largest Negro church is that of the
The growth in numbers of this sect is not accurately known. They
are primarily small disassociated groups of worshippers whose economic
activities were small, except in large cities, until the individual groups
united into associations. The first of these associations was formed in
Ohio in 1836, followed by another in Illinois in 1838. The growth of
these associated Baptists has been as follows:
Value of Property
1W2. . .
Contributions for salaries and expenses $ 688,856.14
Contributions for missions 38,051.04
Contributions for education 14,958.07
Contributions for miscellaneous 79,260.46
Total contributions reported $ 821,125.71
Total raised 1,816,442.72
Church expenses 3,090,190.71
Sunday school expenses 107,054.00
State missions 9,954.00
Foreign missions 8,725.00
Home missions and publications 81,658.40
The most remarkable department of the Baptist Church is the
National Baptist Publication Board
This organization is so unique that a careful history is necessary.
The proposition to establish a publishing house was adopted at the
Savannah Convention in 1893.
In 1894 at Montgomery, Ala., the question was again discussed, but many
obstacles were found in the way. Rev. R. H. Boyd of San Antonio, Texas,
64 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans
offered a set of resolutions, setting forth that this publishing committee, board,
or concern should proceed at once to the publication of Sunday School litera
ture, consisting of the International Lessons in either newspaper, magazine
or pamphlet form for the benefit of their own schools, which was adopted.
On the 15th of December, 1896, Rev. R. H. Boyd, secretary and manager,
opened his office in Nashville, Tenn., and secured copies of the electrotype
plates from the Sunday Schools of the Southern Baptist Convention and em
ployed the Brandon- Printing Company, the University Printing Press of
Nashville, Term., to publish for him ten thousand copies of the Advanced
Quarterly, ten thousand Intermediate Quarterlies, ten thousand Primary
Quarterlies and two thousand copies of the Teachers Monthly, thus launching
the long-talked of Negro Publishing Concern. At the next meeting of the
National Baptist Convention in Boston, Mass., Secretary Boyd reported having
sent out during the year 700,000 copies of the periodicals, together with song
books, Bibles and other religious literature. *
The Publishing Board is an incorporated publishing institution, incorpora
ted in 1898, under the special provision granted by the legislature of Tennessee,
with headquarters at Nashville, domiciled in the Publishing House, 523 Second
avenue, North, or on the corner of Second avenue and Locust street. This
Publishing Board owns or holds in trust for the National Baptist Convention
three lots with four brick buildings thereon. Besides this it rents or leases
two other brick buildings. These make up the domicile of the Publishing
Board, and is known as the National Baptist Publishing House.
All the work of the Publishing Board is operated under the supervision of a
general secretary, assisted by a local Board of management, consisting of nine
members. These nine members hold monthly meetings, the second Tuesday
in each month. In these meetings they hear and pass upon the reports, rec
ommendations, etc., of the general secretary, and up to this time make quar
terly reports to the Executive Committee of the Home Mission Board located
at Little Rock, Ark. In this way the Home Mission Board has been a kind of
clearing house through which this local committee of management, better
known and styled as Board of Directors of the National Baptist Publishing
Board, could clear itself and make its reports.
The clerical work of the Publishing Board is operated in three divisions:
First The Corresponding Department. This part of the clerical work con
sists of the work of reading and answering all letters, sending out general in
formation to Sunday schools, churches and missionaries. In order to do this
work with any degree of success, it requires the greater part of the time of the
general secretary, his chief clerk and a corps of six stenographers. A great
deal of this correspondence arises from the fact that the Baptists throughout
the country have learned to make the National Baptist Publishing Board a
bureau of information ; hence they ask and expect answers to great and grave
questions and issues that arise among our denomination from time to time.
Second The Bookkeeping and Counting Department. This department
consists of a bookkeeper and from four to live assistants, according to the
accumulation of work. In this department an accurate account must be kept,
first, of the invoices of all material purchased, the time of the clerks and em
ployees who earn salaries here, receipts and disbursements of all moneys
coining into the institution for job work done for others, receipts from sales,
donations, gifts and bequests and other receipts or disbursements.
Third Shipping and Mailing Department. This department includes the
* United Negro, p. 528.
The Church 65
shipping by freight or express and by mail. This labor is performed under
the supervision of a chief mailing and shipping clerk with a corps of from
twelve to fifteen assistant clerks.
The Editorial Department
The editorial department consists of one editorial secretary and his stenog
rapher, five associate editors and thirty-six contributors. The editorial secre
tary has the general oversight of all matter which goes tomake up the various
periodicals that are published by the institution, lays out the work to be per
formed by his associate editors, names the subjects upon which the thirty-six
contributors are to prepare special articles.
The Printing or Manufacturing: Department of the Publishing: Board
The National Baptist Publishing Board is a threefold institution. It is a
publishing, printing and missionary institution; and, therefore, acts in a
threefold capacity. We consider that the first and greatest work of the Na
tional Baptist Publishing Board is its missionary, Sunday school and col-
porterage work. All other labors or efforts put forth by the Board are simply
the means to the end of doing missionary work.
The Printing or Manufacturing Department is divided into three divisions,
and is operated under the supervision of one general foreman assisted by three
The first is known as the Composing Department. In this department all
type is set, proof is read, pages are made up, stereotyping, and engraving is
done ; also all imposing or making up forms ready for the press room are
2. The Press Department. We have seven machines in this department;
some of these cost us in the neighborhood of $4,000 to $5,000.
3. The Bindery Department. Negro bookbinders were a nonentity nine
years ago when the Publishing Board began its operations in binding books.
We made inquiries from Maine to California, and from the Lakes to the Gulf,
but failed to find one all-round Negro bookbinder. The white bookbinding
establishments persistently refused to take Negro boys as bookbinding ap
prentices, and our schools of technology have failed to produce any. Hence
there was nothing left for us to do but to undertake the tedious and expensive
task of manufacturing bookbinders before we could manufacture books by
After ten years of patient, arduous and expensive toil, we boast of being
prepared to turn out of our bookbindery, with our bookbinding machinery
and bookbinding Negro artisans, well bound books that will take a place of
merit among the work of the best book publishers of the country. This de
partment turns out all grades of work from a common, wire-stitched, paper
covered pamphlet to a fine machine-sewed, morocco covered, gilt edged, gold
embossed volume of any size from a vest pocket book to a fifteen hundred
page folio book.
In giving these three divisions of the manufacturing department, it is nec
essary here to say that besides the above named skilled laborers, the Publish
ing Board is required to operate both a steam and electric plant, and must,
therefore, keep on hand a corps of firemen, engineers, machinists and elec
This institution has been able in the last ten years to husband and organize
all these skilled laborers, composed exclusively of Negro artisans, into a har
monious, well drilled working force.
Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans
The Publishing Department of the National Baptist Publishing Board
This institution is not only a manufacturing and printing plant, but is also
a publishing institution. It publishes millions of periodicals, tracts, pamph
lets, booklets and books from the pens of the ablest and best and most noted
Negro Baptist authors and editors the country has produced. It is scattering
them broadcast throughout the length and breadth of the American continent,
in the islands, and across the great waters, in the dark continent of Africa,
Asia and Europe.
We are supplying more than 15,000 Negro Baptist Sunday schools with their
literature, and nearly, if not quite, a million of young and old Negro Baptists
are reading from the pens and press of Negro Baptists.
To give some idea of the circulation of our religious literature we present
the following figures of our Sunday school periodicals:
NAMES OF PERIODICALS