Copyright
W. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt) Du Bois.

Economic co-operation among Negro Americans. Report of a social study made by Atlanta University under the patronage of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. together with the proceedings of the 12th Conference for the Study of the Negro Problems, held at Atlanta University, on Tuesday, May t online

. (page 9 of 22)
Online LibraryW. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt) Du BoisEconomic co-operation among Negro Americans. Report of a social study made by Atlanta University under the patronage of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. together with the proceedings of the 12th Conference for the Study of the Negro Problems, held at Atlanta University, on Tuesday, May t → online text (page 9 of 22)
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over last
year


Teacher (monthly)
Senior Quarterly
Advanced Quarterly
Intermediate Quarterly
Primary Quarterly
Lesson Leaflets, etc
Lesson Cards ( weekly )
Bible Picture Lesson Weekly
Baptist Sunday School Catechisms . .
Child Bible Question Books
National Baptist Kasy Lesson Primers


200,500
45,000
800,000
500,000
600,000
900,000
3,852,200
1)6,85(5
75,000
150,JHX)
286 300


182,200

795,666

430,800
56-1,724
896,000
3,439,800
86,424
60,000
185,000
250 000


18,300

"MOO"

69,200
35,276
4,000
312,400
10,432
15,000
15,900
36 300


National Baptist Concert Quarterly


1,500,000


1,100,000


400,000


Total ;


9,006,815


7,938,948


1,066,867



The Book and Tract Department

Besides the circulation of these 9,000,000 copies of Sunday school periodicals
annually among the 15,000 Negro Baptist Sunday schools, we send out 170,617 re
ligious circulars, 178,559 religious tracts and booklets, the $3,766.42 worth of books
and Bibles distributed free of charge by missionaries, the $5,937.88 worth of books
and Bibles distributed by us, through the sixty -six field men that this institu
tion is employing. Take a glance at the dividends arising from the sale of
thousands of song books, Bibles and other standard religious books that are
being sold and distributed by the thousands throughout the length and
breadth of this country, and some faint idea can be had of the magnitude of
the work that is being performed by this National Baptist Publishing Board,
starting ten years ago from nothing nothing but faith in God and the justice
of its cause, going forth as a great giant strengthened with new wine to battle
against the opposition that is hurled against the Bible, the Christian religion
aud the true Baptist doctrine.

Letters received and answered during the first ten years:



Year

1897.
1898.
1899.
1900.
1901.
1902.
1903
1904.
1905.
1906.



Letters

J 3,570

43,160

64,816

99,886

116,504

139,912

119,914

177,134

204,864

116,258



Total.



The Church



67



Money collected and expended for the National Baptist Publishing Board in
the last ten years and reported to the Convention :



YEAR


Business
Department


For
Missions


Total


1897...
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903


$ 4,864.29
16,869.23
27,330.97
40,388.96
51,426.67
58,666.36
67 945.46


$ 1,000.00
2,557.41
4,352.25
8,920.41
10,997.17
15,741.26
19 824 49


$ 5,864.29
19,426.64
31,683.22
49,309.37
62,423.84
74,407.62
87 769 95


1904
1905


80,319.68
87,196 04


27,520.43
as 227 76


107,840.11
12053380


1906


102,490.68


49,621.90


152,112.58


Total .


$ 537,498.34


$ 173,873.08


$ 711,871.42



Receipts and Disbursements

September 1, 1905, to August 31, 1906.

Receipts by Months
September 1, 1905, balance on hand

September, 1905 ...$

October, 1905

November, 1905

December, 1905

January, 1906

February, 1906

March, 1906

April, 1906

May, 1906

June, 1906. . .

July, 1906

August, 1906



Grand total from Business Department ......................

Brought forward from Missionary report on page 14 ...............

Grand total from receipts and balance on hand ............

Disbursements

1. For salary, wages, printing material and other incidental

expenses in this department from September 1, 1905, to
August 31, 1906 ................................................. $

2. For merchandise, special material, freight and other in

cidental expenses of this department from September 1,
1905, to August 31, 1906 ......................................

3. Stamps, postage, telegrams, telephone and other incidental

expenses from September 1, 1905, to August 31, 1906 .........

4. For editorial work, advertising, traveling and other inci

dental expenses of this department from September 1,
1905, to August 31, 1906 .........................................

5. On real estate notes, rents, legal advice, interest and other

incidental expenses of this department from September
1, 1905, to August 31, 1906 .........................................

6. Machinery, repairs, insurance and other incidentals from

September 1, 1905, to August 31, 1906 ...........................

7. Coal, fuel, electricity, gas, ice, horse feed, water tax and

other incidentals from September 1, 1905, to August 31, 1906.
To balance on hand .................................................



$ 3,492 81



Total

Brought forward from Missionary disbursements
Grand total. . .



11,488 87
6,752 84
3,137 69

8,110 61
9,250 74
3,121 46

16,217 66

8,367 27
4,148 08



21,379 50



20,482 81



28,733 01



7,873 29

2,829 27 28,402 55



$ 102,490 68
49,621 90

$ 152,112 58



54,666 55

23,445 33
6,530 98

2,227 14

6,140 69
2,860 44

2,960 29
8,650 26



$ 102,45*0 68
49,621 90



$ 152,112 58



68



Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans





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NAMES OF PERIODIC,


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Ji: c

11
If


Lesson Leaflet, a 2-pi
folio, weekly


Child s Gem, 4-pa
weekly

Picture Lesson Cards?
page, weekly. .


Senior Quarterly,
pages

Advanced Quarterly
pages


Intermediate Quarte
82 pages


Primary Quarterly,
pages


Concert Quarterly,
pages


Bible Lesson Picture


o

OH

1
1

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Child s Bible Questio

Baptist Sunday Sen
Catechism


i



The Church 69

Home Mission Department, 1906

Number of missionaries, colporters, Sunday school and Bible

workers working in co-operation with our Board during year 66

Number of churches helped to organize 39

New Sunday schools organized 63

Missionary societies formed or organized 157

Number of Conventions, Associations and other State and Dis
trict meetings attended 780

Missionary and Bible Conferences held 990

Letters and postal cards written 17,617

Number of religious tracts, pamphlets and booklets distributed. . 178,559

Miles traveled to perform this labor 277,084

Money collected and -applied to missionary w r ork in communities

where collected $ 14,998 19

Value of tracts, pamphlets and booklets distributed 1,632 89

Value of Bibles and books that were donated by missionaries to

needy individuals and communities 1,380 88

Money collected by missionaries and colporters and applied to

their salaries 6,844 61

Money donated by Home Mission Board of the Southern Baptist

Convention on salaries of missionaries 8,603 83

Value of Bibles and books donated by the Publishing Board and

applied to missionary operations 3,766 42

Money collected by missionaries and applied to their traveling

expenses 5,937 58

Value of Bibles, books, booklets, etc., sent to missionaries and

colporters to be sold and applied to their salaries 4,200 00

Salaries of general female missionaries working under the Wo
man s Auxiliary Board in co-operation with our Board and
the Home Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention 600 00

Cash supplement on missionaries salaries 457 50

Salary of Field Secretary 1,200 00

Foreign Mission Department

The Baptists were the first Negro missionaries :

From Georgia, where he preached the gospel in 1777, during the Revolution,
George Lisle, a Negro Baptist, went to Jamaica in 1783. He preached the gos
pel to his own race of people at the race course and in his own hired house or
room. He gathered a church of four and supported himself by his own labor.
He spread the gospel among bond and free on neighboring plantations and to
distant parts of the island, personally and by his own converts, so that in
about seven years he had baptized 500 believers.

Rev. Lot Carey, who was a ,slave in Richmond, Va., purchased his freedom
in 1813, raised $700 for missions in Africa, and was the first missionary from
America to Africa. From the days of Lisle and Carey the Negro Baptists of
America have been prosecuting missionary work in the West India Islands
and in Africa. They have four general organizations of their own through
which they are doing missionary work in this and in other lands, besides
many Negro churches contribute to both Home and Foreign Missions through
the missionary organizations of their white Baptist brethren.*

The figures of Negro Baptist mission work for 1907 were:

Summary by Months



September
October


$ 1,853 50
634 10


November
December


8,014 77
553 37


January
February
March


634 74
1,589 78
436 79


April . .
May


4,197 69
1,671 73


June


736 26


julv


1,151 33


August


2,273 60






Total


$ 18,727 96



De Baptiste, 1896.



70



Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans



Baptist Property

South Africa

One hundred acres of land, Grand Cape Mound $ 60000

Home for Dr. Bouey , worth 300 00

Other buildings reported by him. 600 00

Chapel organ 75 00

Lot, foundation and church furnishings in Cape Town 1,325 00

Middledrift church building 500 00

Mission home for Rev. Buchanan 300 00

School houses reported by him : . 600 00

Two bells 50 00

Queenstowii school house, worth 2,000 00

One organ 4000

One bell 2500

Two typewriters . 65 00

Desks, carpenter tools and books 150 00

Boksburg, Transvaal, church building . 500 00

Central Africa

Ninety-three acres of land valued at 300 00

Substantial brick church house 1,200 00

Two four-room houses for missionaries 1,200 00

Organ 40 00

Holdings under Dr. Majola Agbebi reach quite 3,000 00

South America

Georgetown Bethel Baptist Church 1,800 00

Georgetown Nazareth Baptist Church, in course of erection, on which we

have paid about 200 00

Organs and bells worth 150 00

West Indies

Mission House in St. John s, Barbados 150 00



We give here only what is in the name of the Board.

Liabilities

To Edwards Bros., Liverpool, England 600 00

To Mayer & Tinsley, Kentucky 62 20

To Hay ti Fund 145 35

Messrs. E. 8. Darrell & Co., New York, for shipping goods to missionaries. . 11 47
African Lakes Corporation, Glasgow, Scotland, to draft drawn by L. N.

Cheeh 1,800 00



Total



$ 2,619 02



The cash account of a single Baptist church is of interest:



The Mt. Olive Baptist, Nashville, Tenn., 1902

Members contributing specified sums during the year:



$4 50

3 50

3 06

3 00

2 75

2 50

2 25

2 10

2 00

1 HO

1 75. . .



. 1
. 1
. 1
.106
. 16
. 28
. 19
. 1
. 32
. 2
. 31



{ 4 50

8 50

3 06

318 00

44 00

70 00

42 75

2 10
64 00

3 60
54 25



$1 56

50

35

30

25

15

10

1 05

1 00

Under $1.00.

Total . .



. 1
. 46
. 1
. 1
. 34
. 1
. 1
. 1
. 34
.184
.542



$ 1 56

69 CX)

1 35

1 30

42 50

1 15

I 10

1 05

34 00

68 00

830 77



Received from members

Received from regular Sunday collections.

Received from Sunday school

Received from Woman s Mission Society. .

Received from Young People s Society

Miscellaneous

Total . .



830 77
1,976 89

107 55
94 47
40 71
36 24

3,086 63



The Church 71

Paid pastor $ 1,029 62

Paid Landis Banking Company 280 00

Paid j ani tors 150 00

Paid Sunday School Department 106 55

Paid Missionary Department 94 47

Paid B. Y. P. U 40 71

Paid poor saints 50 55

Paid insurance 240 00

Paid Phillips & Buttorft* 100 00

Paid Ryan & Shea 79 00

Paid incidentals, repairs, coal, printing, conventions, missions,

traveling ministers, sick members and appliances 855 81



Total paid out $ 3,026 61

Balance on hand $ 60 02

The next largest church is that of the Zion Methodists. This church
started in New York, withdrawing gradually from the white church,
leaning for a time toward the African Methodists of Philadelphia, but
at last becoming fully independent and autonomous in 1822.

Zlon Methodists

The growth of the Zion Methodists has been as follows:





Ministers


Members


1821...
1864


375


1,500
13,340


1891
1896


2,473


425,000
409,441


1900
1902


2,602


551,591
575,271









Finance

Property Income

. 1821 $ 618,100.00 $11,966.02

1900 4,865,372.00

1905 5,094,000,00

The income of this church is not easy to estimate. Some of its own
estimates make the annual income over $2,000,000, but this is an exag
geration.

The known items are:

1896-1900 Four Years

Bishops $ 64,878.78

Education 11,421.53

General officers 5,077.07

Publication 5,114.37

Miscellaneous 6,168.14



Four years $ 92,159.91

One year 28,014,97

To this must be added the following estimates:

Pastors salaries $ 500,000.00

Building 400,000.00

Current expenses 153,700.00

General fund 23,014.97

Total $ 986,714.97

It seems safe to say that the church raises not less than a million
dolla.rs a year. Missions are maintained in Africa, the West Indies and
Canada, and a report on publishing says:



72



Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans



We publish and send out The Star of Zion to about 5,000 annual subscribers,
Rev. John W. Smith, editor. We publish and send out our own Sunday school
literature to about 4,000 Sunday schools. The literature published and sent
out from the Publication House each quarter consists of Teachers Journals,
Scholars Senior Quarterly, Scholars Intermediate Junior Quarterly, Picture
Lesson Cards for our little people, Historical Catechism and Commandment
Cards. We publish and send out the A. M. E. Zion Quarterly Review to about
1,000 subscribers. *

In 1866 the Methodist Church South erected its colored members into
a separate and independent church called the Colored Methodist Epis
copal Church:

The Colored Methodists

This church, started in 1866, has grown as follows:





Ministers


Members


1866




80,000


1872
1896
1906


635
1,400
2,000


67,889
200,000
214,987









Its property was reported in 1906 as $1,715,566. Its general church
income was $145,707 for the four years, 1898-1902. It probably raised at
least $350,000 a year in all.

The Methodists

(Colored Conferences)

1902



Churches.
Members.



2,357
245,954



Value of churches
Money raised



$ 4,566,953
717,400



In 1906 the membership had grown to 327,000.

Other Denominations
The following figures for other denominations are given by Vass:





Churches


Members


Value of
Property


Baptists-
Free Will


5
323
15
90
9
42
54
353
558
43
200
230
150
10
277
11
37
31


271
18,162
2(55
3,887
319
2,270
3,183
21,341
42,000
1,888
15,000
12,155
16,000
305
18,587
951
1,723
14,517


$ 13,300
135,427
930
54,440
525
187,600
35,445
850,000
195,000
22,200
192,750
246,125
185,825
15,150
176,795
2,000
18,401
237,400


Primitive


Old Two Seed
A U M. E


Congregational Methodist
U. A. M. E
M. E. Protestant


Presbyterians
Cum berland


Afro-American
Protestant Episcopal
Congregationalists


Christians
Lutherans


Disciples of Christ :
Evangelist Missionary
Reformed Episcopal


Catholics, Roman
Total


2,438


166,828


$ 2,519,313



United Negro, p. 532.



Schools



73



The total income of these churches is unknown, but maybe estimated
at not less than $200,000 a year.

We may make, therefore, the following table which is based for the
most part on reliable data, but partially on estimate :



DENOMINATION


Property


Income per Yr.


A. M. E
Baptist


$ 11,975,256
14,876,872


$ 1,777,948 20
3,425,523 11


Zion
O. M. E . . .


5,094,000
1,718,366


986,714 97
350,000 (X)


M. E
Others


4,566,951
2,519,813


717,400 00*

200,000 00*








Total


$ 40,245,258


$ 7,457,586 28



* Raised by the Negroes themselves.

One other religious organization should be mentioned the Young
Men s Christian Association. There are now three International Secre
taries for this work, 67 college associations and 34 city associations.
These associations hold property worth at least $250,000.

Section 10. Schools

Out of the churches sprang two different lines of economic co-opera
tion :

1. Schools.

2. Burial societies.

From the burial societies developed sickness and death insurance, on
the one hand, and cemeteries, homes and orphanages, on the other.
From the insurance societies came banks and co-operative business.
We will first notice the schools, for they stood back of the larger eco
nomic development by means of the burial society.

Church contributions to schools are estimated by Vass as follows:



DENOMINATION


Schools


Teachers


Pupils


Value
plants


Yearly
expenses


Baptist . .
A. M. E
A. M. E. Zion


88
24
10


440
160

70


8,947
6,685
2,500


$ 00,000
750,(XX)
200,(KX)


$ 157,324
125,IXX)
50,000


Total


122


670


18,182


$ 1,550,000


$ 332,824















The early interest of the Negroes in education and their willingness
to work and pay for it is attested to in many ways. In Philadelphia in
1796 we have the following minutes:

To the Teachers of the African School for Free Instruction of the Black
People : We, the Trustees of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, called
Bethel, . . . being convened on matters of importance relative to the edu
cation of the people of color, are desirous of a First Day school being held in
our meeting house in such manner, that it shall not interfere with the time of
our meeting or worship. There has been a school kept in said meeting house
last summer which was orderly attended by about sixty scholars, under the
care of Thomas Miller, deceased, arid having seen the good effects of the said



74 Economic Co-operation Among Negro Americans

school, are anxious to have a permanent school kept in the said house so long
as it may be convenient or agreeable. Signed by order of the Board of Trus
tees, Richard Allen, March, 1796.

We, the overseers and teachers of the First Day school, being present, it was
then concluded that a night school be opened for the further utility of the
people of color, and a solemnity attending, it was unanimously agreed that an
orderly night school should commence in the next month, beginning at the
sixth hour on the first, or second day in the said month. And it is fully agreed
that no disorderly person be admitted into said school.*

In the city of Washington it was announced in 1818 that

"A School,"

Founded by an association of free people of color of the city of Washington?
called the Resolute Beneficial Society, situated near the Eastern Public
School and the dwelling of Mrs. Tenwick, is now open for the reception of
children of free people of color and others, that ladies or gentlemen may think
proper to send to be instructed in reading, writing, arithmetic, English gram
mar or other branches of education apposite to their capacities, by a steady,
active and experienced teacher, whose attention is wholly devoted to the pur
poses described. It is presumed that free colored families will embrace the
advantages thus presented to them, either by subscribing to the funds of the
society or by sending their children to the school. An improvement of the
intellect and morals of colored youth being the object of this institution, the
patronage of benevolent ladies and gentlemen, by donation or subscription, is
humbly solicited in aid of the fund, the demands thereon being heavy and the
means at present much too limited. For the satisfaction of the public, the
constitution and articles of association are printed and published, and to avoid
disagreeable occurrences no writings are to be done by the teacher for a slave,
neither directly nor indirectly, to serve the purpose of a slave on any account
whatever. Further particulars may be known by applying to any of the
undersigned officers.

"WILLIAM COSTIN, President.

"GEORGE HICKS, Vice-President.

"JAMES HARRIS, Secretary.

"GEORGE BELL, Treasurer.

"ARCHIBALD JOHNSON, Marshal.

"FRED LEWIS, Chairman of the Committee.

"ISAAC JOHNSON, ) Committee f

"SciPio BEENS, j ^

In Ohio a hard fight was made for schools. In earlier times a few
Negroes attended the public schools:

Whatever privileges they may have enjoyed in the schools were cut off in
1829 by a law passed that year that " the attendance of black or mulatto per
sons be specifically prohibited, but all taxes assessed upon the property of
colored persons for school purposes should be appropriated to their instruction
and for no other purpose." The prohibition was vigorously enforced, but the
second clause was practically a dead letter.

In Cincinnati,

As early as 1820 a few earnest colored men, desiring to give their children
the benefit of a school, raised by subscription a small sum of money, hired a

* Arnett s Budgett, 1904, p. 95.

i Williams, Vol. II, p. 182. Quoted from National Intelligencer (D. C.), Aug. 29, 1818.



Schools 75

teacher, rented a room and opened a school ; but with such uncertain and lim
ited funds it was possible to continue the school for only a few weeks, and it
was finally closed altogether. This experiment was continued from time to
time during the next ten years in Cincinnati. In September, 1832, a small
Sunday school was gathered, which in three years numbered 125 scholars. In
their zeal for improvement, a lyceum also was organized, where three times a
week practical talks were given on different literary and scientific subjects,
and often an attendance of 300 would gather for instruction. A circulating
library of 100 volumes was also collected, but owing to the inability of so
many to read and write, it was of little use save for its value as an inspiration.
In March, 1832 an effort was again made for a school. A suitable room was
rented from a colored man and a teacher secured. The clamor of the adults to
gain admittance became so great that night schools were opened for two even
ings a week, the number of teachers necessary being obtained from Lane
Theological Seminary from among the young men preparing for the ministry.
This school soon assumed such proportions that three additional schools were
demanded and organized, one exclusively for girls, where instruction in sew
ing was made especially prominent.

The schools in Cincinnati continued to flourish, and the Negro population in
the state increased till many other schools were established. Notwithstand
ing the discouraging circumstances which were met we find that in 1838 there
were colored schools and churches in the counties of Columbiana, Logan,
Clark, Guernsey, Jefferson, Highland, Brown, Dark, Shelby, Green, Miami,
Hamilton, Warren, Gallia, Ross and, Muskingum. At the capital of the state
there were two churches and two schools supported by the colored people.

In the northern section the first school of which I find any record was estab
lished in Cleveland in 1832, by John Malvin, who had formerly been a free col
ored preacher in Virginia, but had come to Cleveland in 1827, where he con
tinued his work, doing odd jobs to pay his expenses.

Malvin had learned to read when a boy in Virginia, and he at once tried to
interest the few colored families in Cleveland to provide some means for the
education of their children. A subscription guaranteeing $20 per month was
raised for a teacher s salary, and the school was opened in 1832. Three years
later, Malvin, who had proved himself an indefatigable worker, was instru
mental in securing a convention at Columbus of the colored people of the


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Online LibraryW. E. B. (William Edward Burghardt) Du BoisEconomic co-operation among Negro Americans. Report of a social study made by Atlanta University under the patronage of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. together with the proceedings of the 12th Conference for the Study of the Negro Problems, held at Atlanta University, on Tuesday, May t → online text (page 9 of 22)